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TN this book I present to the public some essays 
■*• on Pre-historic Archaeology, part of ^vhich have 
appeared in the "Natural History Eeview/^ viz., 
that on 

The Danish Shell-mounds, in October, 1861. 

The Swiss Lake-dwellings, in January, 1862. 

The Flint Implements of the Drift, in July, 1862. 

North American Archaeology, in January, 1863. 

Cave-men, in July, 1864. 
Messrs. Williams and' jjforgate suggested to me to 
republish these articles m $b separate form, and I was 
farther encouraged tovdo. s<^-by the fact that most of 
tbem had re-appeared, either in France or America. 
The conductors of the " Annales des Sciences Na- 
turelles " did me the honor to translate those on the 
Danish' Shell-mounds, and the Swiss Lake-dwellings. 
The latter also appeared in " Silliman's Journal;" and 
the article on American Archaeology, with the excep- 
tion of the last paragraph, was reprinted in the "Smith- 
sonian Eeport, for 1862." 


At first I only contemplated reprinting the papers 
as they stood, but having, at the request of the 
managers, delivered at the Boyal Institution a short 
course of lectures on the Antiquity of Man, it vras 
thought desirable to introduce the substance of these, 
so as to give the work a more complete character. 

My object has been to elucidate, as far as possible, 
the piinciples of pre-historic archeeology ; laying spe- 
cial stress upon the indications which it affords of the 
condition of man in primeval times. The tumuli, or 
burial moimds, the peat bogs of this and other coun- 
tries, the Kjokkenmoddings or shell -mounds of 
Denmark, the Lake-habitations of Switzerland, the 
bone-caves, and the river-drift gravels, are here our 
principal sources of information. 

In order to qualify myself, as far as possible, for 
the task which I have imdertaken, I have visited not 
only our three great museums in London, Dublin, 
and Edinburgh, but also many on the Continent ; as, 
for instance, those at Copenhagen, Stockholm, Lund, 
Flensburg, Aarhuus, Lausanne, Basle, Berne, Zurich, 
Tverdon, Paris, Abbeville, etc., besides many private 
collections of great interest, of which I may particu- 
larly specify those of M. Boucher de Perthes, Messrs. 
Christy, Evans, Bateman, Porel, Schwab, Troyon, Gil- 


lieron, TJhlmaTiTi, Desor, and lastly^ the one recently 
made by MM. Christy and Lartet in the bone-oayes of 
the Dordogne. 

Sometimes alone^ and sometimes in company with 
Messrs. Frestwioh and Eyans, I haye made numerous 
yisits to the yalley .of the Somme, and haye examined 
almost eyery grayel pit and section from Amiens down 
to the sea. In 1861, with Mr. Busk, and again in 
1863, I went to Denmark, in order to haye the ad- 
yantage of seeing the Kjokkenmoddings themselyes. 
Under the guidance of Professor Steenstrup I yisited 
seyeral of the most celebrated shell-mounds, particu- 
larly those at Hayelse, Bilidt, Meilgaard, and Fanne- 
rup. I also made myself familiar with so much of the 
Danish language as was necessary to enable me to read 
the yarious reports drawn up by the Kjokkenmodding 
committee, consisting of Professors Steenstrup, Wor- 
saae, and Forchhammer. Last year I went to the 
north of Scotland, to examine some similar shell- 
moimds discoyered by Dr. Gordon, of Birnie, on the 
shores of the Moray Firth, which appear, howeyer, to 
belong to a much later period than those of Denmark. 

In 1862 M. Morlot yery kindly deyoted himself to 
me for nearly a month, during which time we not only 
yisited the principal museums of Switzerland, but also 



several of the Lake-habitations themselves, and par- 
tioTilarly those at Morges, Thonon, Wauwyl, Moossee- 
dorf, and the Pont de Thiele. In addition to many 
minor excursions, I had, finally, last spring, the 
advantage of spending some time with Mr. Christy, 
among the celebrated bone-caves of the Dordogne. 
Thus by carefully examining the objects themselves, 
and the localities in which they have been found, I 
have endeavoured to obtain a more vivid and correct 
impression of the facts than books, or even museums, 
alone could have given. 

To the more strictly archaeological part of the 
work I have added a chapter on the Manners and 
Customs of Modem Savages, confining myself to 
those tribes which are still, or were, when first visited 
by travellers, ignorant of the use of metal, and which 
have been described by competent and trustworthy 
observers. This account, short and incomplete as it 
is, will be found, I think, to throw some light on the 
remains of savage life in ages long gone by. 

Fully satisfied that religion and science cannot in 
reality be at variance, I have striven in the present 
publication to follow out the rule laid down by the 
Bishop of London, in his excellent lecture delivered 
last year at Edinburgh. The man of science, says Dr. 


Tait, ought to go on, ^'honestly, patiently, diffidently, 
observing and storing up his observations, and carry- 
ing his reasonings unflinchingly to their legitimate 
conclusions, convinced that it would be treason to 
the majesty at once of science and of religion if he . 
sought to help either by swerving ever so little from 
the straight rule of truth." * 

Ethnology, in fact, is passing at present through 
a phase from which other Sciences have safely 
emerged, and the new views with reference to the 
Antiquity of Man, though still looked upon with 
distrust and apprehension, will, I doubt not, in a 
few years, be regarded with as little disquietude as 
are now those discoveries in astronomy and geology, 
which at one time excited even greater opposition. 

I have great pleasure in expressing my gratitude 
to many archaeological friends* for the liberal manner 
in which their museums have been thrown open 
to me, and for much valuable assistance in other 
ways. My sincere thanks are due to Professor 
Steenstrup for many of the figures by which the work 
is illustrated. Others, through the kindness of Sir 
W. E. Wilde, Mr. Franks, and Dr. Thumam, have 

* Lecture on Science and Revelation, delivered at Edinburgh. See The Timea, 
November 7th, 1864. 


been placed at my disposal by the Society of Anti- 
quaries, and the Boyal Irish Academy. To Professor 
Steenstrup, Dr. Keller, M. Morlot, and Professor 
Biitimeyer, I am indebted for much information on 
tiie subject of their respective investigations. Finally, 
Mr. Busk, Mr. Evans, and Professor Tyndall have 
had the great kindness to read many of my proofs, 
and I am indebted to them for various valuable 


Fehrua/ry, 1865. 




Division of Pre-historic archsaology into fonr periods — ^First discovery of metal 
— Copper — ^Tia — Iron — ^Allusions to bronze by ancient writers — Finds of the Iron 
age — ^Tiefenan — ^Nydam— Thorsbjerg — ^Finds of the Bronze age — Bronze and iron 
arms not fonnd together — Objecis characteristic of the Bronze age — ^Bronze 
celts — ^Modes of handling — ^Bronze swords — ^Bronze daggers, spear-heaidB, snown, 
fish-hooks, sickles-— Bronze knives — ^Bazor knives — ^Bronze bracelets — Bronze 
pins — Gold omaments-~Chttracter of ornamentation — ^Tumulns of Treenhoi — 
Dress in the Bronze age-— Dress of a chief in the Bronze age— Mode of burial. 



Similarity of bronze implements in different countries — ^Bronze implements 
not of Boman origin — B^ferred by some archasologists to the Phoenicians — Phoe- 
nician voyages — ^Himilco — ^Pytheas — ^Thule supposed by Nilsson to be Norway — 
Phoenician colonies and commerce — Bronze composed .of copper and tin — ^Tin 
obtained from Cornwall — ^Amber from German Ocean — Baal worship in Northern 
Europe — Question still doubtful — ^Bronze age civilisation — Bronze age archi- 
tecture — Stonehenge — Abury — ^Silbury HiU more ancient than the Boman road 
— Stone circles — Stone circles, etc., in India — ^Stone circles in Palestine and 



The great abundance of stone implements — Stone used after discovery of metal 
—Material preferred for stone implements — Fracture of flint— FKnt flakes- 
Stone hatchets — Scrapers— The small axes of the Shell-mounds — Chisels — Spear- 
heads — ^Daggers — Slingstones — ^Arrow-heads — ^Manufacture of flint implements 
— ^Bone implements— Danish coastfinds-'Flintfinds. 



Pre-historio tanmli— Taxnali mentioned in ancient history — Beaemblance 
between the chambered tomnli and the dwellings of some Arctic nations— Objects 
buried with the dead not always intended for actual use — Tabulated interments 
— ^Models of implements sometimes buried — ^Barrows of different periods — 
Difficuliy of determining the period to which a barrow belongs — Statistics — 
Treatment of the corpse— Description of a Danish tumulus — Of a barrow at 
West Kennetr— Stone implements and pottery from the tumuli at West Kennet — 
Tumuli of modem savages — Sepulchral pottery — ^Bones of animals found in 
tumuli—- Sepulchral feasts— Sacrifice»—Pre-hi8toric races of men. 



Lake-habitations mentioned by Herodotus — Crannoges of Ireland — Pile- 
dwellings in various parts of Europe— Pile-dwellings still used in various coun- 
tries — ^Pile-dwellings found in most of the Swiss lakes — Structure of the huts — 
Attempt to make a censu»— Construction of the platforms — ^Description of the 
renuuns at Wauwyl — ^Weapons and implements of the lake-dwellers— Axes — 
Knives— Arrow-headEH-Spindle-whorla— Flint flakes, etc.-^Material used for 
stone implements — ^Bone implements— Pottery— ManufJEUstares of the Stone period 
—Comparison of the piles belonging to the Stone and Bronze ages— The fauna of 
the Swiss lake-dwellings— Stag— Boar— Bull— Goat— Sheep— Dog— Table of the 
animal remains — Birds— Absence of the rat, mouse, and cat — Comparison of 
bones belonging to wUd and domesticated races — Baces of oxen — ^Absence of 
extinct species— The aurochs and elk, ibex and bear — General character of the 
fbuna— The flora of the Pfahlbauten— Scarcity of human bones— Lake-habita- 
tions of the Bronze age — Objects of bronze— Use of pile-buildings as magazines 
—Sacred lakes— Inhabitants of the Pfahlbauten— Character of the objects found 
in different lake-villages — Statistics — Comparison of the different lake-villages 
—Abandonment of the lake-villages — Chronology. 



Shell-mounds at flrst supposed to be raised beaches— Description of the shell- 
mounds— Distribution of the shell-mounds— Shell-mounds in Scotland— Shell- 
mounds in other countries— Flora of the shell-mounds— Fauna of the shell- 
mounds— Fish— Birds — Mammals — ^Absence of certain bones — Mutilation of 
certain bonee— Shell-mound builders not mere summer visitors— Flint imple- 


xnenis from the shell-moand^— Mode of life indicated by the shell-monnda— The 
FaegianEH-The relation of the Bhell-mounds to the tomnli—The opinions of 
Steenstrap and Wonaae — The flint implements of the shell-moonds — The 
scarcity of well-made flint implements in the shell-mounds— Antiquity of the 



Bibliography — ^Implements— The use of copper — ^Traces of ancient copper mines 
— ^Potteiy — Ornaments — ^Earthworks — ^Defensive enclosures — Sacred and Mis- 
cellaneons enclosures — ^Earthworks in the Scioto valley — ^Earthworks at Gircle- 
ville — Altaian— Modem earthworks — Sepulchral mounds— ^Ancient modes of 
burial— Sacrificial mounds — ^The contents of the sacrificial mounds — ^The Crrave 
Creek mound — ^Temple mounds — ^Animal mounds — General appearance — In- 
scriptions — Wampum — ^The mound-builders — Gigantic earthworks — ^Traces of 
ancient a^culture — ^Antiquity of the ancient remains — Condition of the bones — 
American Forests — ^Indication of four periods — ^Man and the mastodon— Dr. 
Douler's calculation. 



Cave-bear— CaTe-lion— Mammoth and woolly-haired rhiwogeros Irish elk— 
Reindeer — ^Aurochs — Urus— Value of cave-evidence — Caves in the Dordogne — 
Absence of domestic animals — ^Flint implements — ^Absence of polished imple- 
ments — ^Bude drawings and sculptures — ^Habits of the cave-dwellers — ^The Belgian 
caves — ^Kent's Hole — ^Brixham Cave — Sicilian caves — Gibraltar Cave — Aurignac 
— ^Wokey Hole — Cave-men. 



M. Boucher de Perthes — ^Messrs. Prestwich and Evans — Specimen discovered 
in the last century— Mr. Frere's discoveiy in 1800 — Similar discoveries in other 
countries — Scepticism of geologists — ^The questions at issue — ^Evidence derivable 
from the fliints themselves — ^The forgeries — ^Peculiarities of the drift implements 
— ^Drift implements never polished — ^Absence of human bones — Causes of the 
scarcity of human bones — Contemporaneity of the mammalian remains— ^The 
Somme valley — St. Acheul — Organic remains — ^Mineralogical contents of the 
river-drift gravels — Objections to the proposed theory — Fauna of the river-drift 
gravels — Climate of the river-drift period — ^Modes of accounting for the change 
of climate — ^Absence of marine remains — ^Inapplicability of cataclysms— Altera- 
tion of the river level owing to the excavation of the valley— Lo^— Fauna 
of the low level gravels— PeaWBecapitulation— Lapse of time. 




Varieties of man represented on ancient Egyi^tian scalptares — ^The vegetation 
of Denmark— The cone of the Tinidre— The valley of the ThiMe— The valley of 
the Nile — ^Mr. Homer's Egyptian researches— The age of the Mississippi delta — 
Geological changes in the Qoatemary period— The Wealden valley — ^Time — ^The 
Engis skull— The Neanderthal skull— Markdngs on bones from the Pliocene beds 
of St. Prest — ^Miocene man. 



Modem savages — ^No evidence <^ degradation — HoHemtois: Dress; houses; 
imi^ements ; methods of killing game ; metallorgy ; character — Veddahs of Ceylon 
— Andaman Idander9— Australians : Food ; clolidng ; ornaments ; rafts ; imple- 
ments ; hammers ; knives ; spears ; throwing-stiek ; boomerang ; fire ; polygamy; 
superstition ; burial ; numbers — Tasnumians — Feeffeeans : Food ; weapons ; 
houses; religion; canoes; pottery; games; agriculture; women; clotiies; 
tattoo ; burial ; superstition ; cannibalism ; murder — TA« Maories : Food ; dress ; 
ornaments ; houses ; fortifications ; weapons ; canoes ; burial ; music ; character ; 
religion; cannibalism — TakiHans : Implements; fish-hooks; nets; baskets; 
mats; doth; dress; ornaments; houses; canoes; music; furniture; weapons; 
food; fire; cookery; ava; a chief's dinner; solitary meals; surgery; burial ; 
burial-places; religion; character — The Ttrngans, 


MODERN SAVAGES — Continued. 

TJie Esquimaux: Dwellings; cookery; food; fire; implements; weapons; bows 
and arrows ; spears ; harpoons ; modes of hunting and fishing ; sledges ; boats ; 
the kajak and umiak ; dress ; ornaments ; music ; games ; religion ; burial ; 
character — JV^orth American Indians : Dress ; ornaments ; the practice of head- 
moulding; religion; marriage; character; cruelty; infanticide; implements; 
weapons; canoes; fire; dwellings; -agriculture; food; burial — The Paraguay 
Indians: Weapons; huts; habits; religion; infiEmticide — Patagonians: Huts; 
dress ; weapons ; food ; burial ; religion— J^««^um3 ; Appearance ; food and habits ; 
cannibalism ; absence of religion ; ignorance of pottery ; dress ; fire. 



The skilfulness of savages— Arrows — Harpoons — Needles — Art — Statues — 
DiffereneoB in the Stone age— 'Different lines of civilisation — ^Difierences in wea- 
pons—Isolation of savages— Independent inventions— Differences in habits-* 


Different naes of the dog"— Fire — ^Different methodB of burial — GuriooB c 
Differences in prevalent sounds — ^Different ideas of virtue — ^Deification of white 
men by savages — Social position of women — Savages and children — Moral in- 
feriority of savages — ^Intellectual inferiority of savages — ^Deficiencies in numera- 
tion—Absence of religion among many savage tribes— Belief in witchcraft- 
General inferiority of Savages. 



The primitive condition of man — ^IJnity of the human race — ^Natural selection 
applied to man — ^The influence of mind — ^Increase of happiness indicated by 
increase of numbers — Sufferings of savages — Self-inflicted sufferings — The 
blessings of civilisation— The diminution of suffering— The diminution of f 
The advantages of science— The future. 


1. Copper P oelt from Waierford. It is inches lon^f, Sf wide at the broader 

end, and 1| at the smaller, which is about l-16th thick. 
Cat. of Boyal Irish Academy, page 868. 

2. Winged celt, or FaaJstave, from Ireland. The stops are but slightly 


Cat. of Boyal Irish Academy, page 878. 
8. Socketed celt from Ireland, one-third of the actual size. 

Cat. of Boyal Irish Academy, page 886. 
4-6. The three principal types of celts, and the manner in which they are 
supposed to hare been handled. 

Cat. of Boyal Irish Academy, page 867. 

7. Copper P celt from Ireland, one-half of the actual size. 

Cat. of Boyal Irish Academy, page 368. 

8. Half of a celt mould from Ireland. It is of mica slate, 6i inches long, 4 

wide, and presents upon the surface the apertures by which it was adjusted 
to the other half. 

Cat. of Boyal Irish Academy, page 91. 

9. Decorated celt from Ireland. It is 8} inches long, 4 wide at the blade end, 

and half an inch thick. 

Cat. of Boyal Irish Academy, page 866. 

10. Simple celt from Denmark, one-third of the actual size. 

Nordiske Oldsager i det Kong. Mus. i Kjobenhavn. No. 178. 

11. Ornamented celt frt)m Denmark, one-third of the actual size. 

Nordiske Oldsager i det Kong. Mus. i Kjdbenhavn. No. 179. 

12. Socketed celt from Denmark, one-third of the actual size. 

Nordiske Oldsager i det Kong. Mus. i Kjdbenhavn. No. 195. 

13. Iron sword from a cemeteiy at Brighthampton in Oxfordshire, one-eighth of 

the-aotual size. 

Archseologia, vol. zzzviii., pi. 2, fig. 1. 

14. Sword from Ireland. It is 23^ inches long. If wide in the centre of the 

blade, which is margined by a grooved feather edge. 
Cat. of Boyal Irish Academy, page 444. 

15. Sword from Sweden, one-fourth of the actual size. 

Nilsson's Skandinaviska Nordens Ur-invanare, pi. 1, fig. 7. 

16. Sword from Switzerland, one-fifth of the actual size. 

In the museum of Col. Schwab. Mitt. Ant. Qea. in Zurich, Bd. zii. H. 3. 

17. Sword from Concise on the Lake of Neufchatel, one-^fourth of actual size. 

In the museum of Col. Schwab. Mitt. Ant. Ges. in Zurich, Bd. ziii. H. 8. 

18. Sword from Scandinavia. 

Atlas for Nordisk Oldkyndighed, pi. iv., fig. 42. 

19. Sword from Denmark, found in the Treenhoi tumulus. 

Afb. af. DoDske Oldsager og Mindesmserker, H. 6. 


20. Sword from Denmark, one-sixth of the aotoal sise. 

Nordiske Oldsager i det Kong. Mtis. i EjObenhavn. No. 121. 

21. Sword firom Denmark, one-sixth of the aotoid size. 

Nordiske Oldsager i det Kong. Mns. i Ejdbenham. No. 123. 

22. Hilt of sword from Denmark, one fourth of the actoal size. 

Nordiske Oldsager i det Kong. Mas. i Kjdbehavn. No. 128. 

23. Hilt of sword from Denmark, one-fourth of the actnal size. 

Nordiske Oldsager i det Kong. Mns. i Kjobenhavn. No. 127. 

24. Bronze dagger blade from Ireland. It is lOf inches long, by 2| wide. The 

four rivets by which it was fastened to the handle are still in situ. 
Gat. of Bpyal Irish Academy, page 448. 

25. Bronze dagger from Ireland, two-thirds of the actual size. 

Gat. Boyal Irish Academy, i>age 468. 

26. Bronze dagger blade from Ireland, one-third of the actoal size. 

Gat. of Boyal Irish Academy, page 463. 

27. Bronze spear-head from Ireland. It is 11^ inches long by 1^ broad. 

Gat. of Boyal Irish Academy, page 499. 

28. Bronze spear-head from Ireland. It is 13{ inches long by 2^ broad. 

Gat. of Boyal Irish Academy, page 496. 

29. Bronze knife from Denmark, one-half of the actual size. 

Nordiske Oldsager i det Kong. Mns. i Kjdbenham. No. 167. 

30. Bronze knife from Denmark, one -third of the actual size. 

Nordiske Oldsager i det Kong. Mas. i Kjobenhavn. No. 169. 
81. Bronze knife from Denmark, one-third of the actual size. 

Nordiske Oldsager i det Kong. Mas. i Sg&benhavn. No. 166. 

32. Bronze knife from the Lake-village at Estavayer, on the Lake of Neuf- 

chatel, one-half of the actual size. 

Keller. Mit. der Antiq. Ges. in Zurich, Bd. xiii. Abth. 2, H. 3, pi. v. 
fig. 19. 

33. Bronze knife from the Lake-village at Estavayer, on the Lake of Neuf- 

chatel, one-half of the actual size. 

Keller. Mit der Antiq. Ges. in Zurich, Bd. xiii. Abth. 2, H. 3, pi. v. 
fig. 20. 

34. Bazor-knife from Denmark, one half of the actual size. 

Nordiske Oldsager i det Kong. Mus. i Kjobenhavn. No. 173* 

35. Bazor-knife from Denmark, one-half of the actual size. 

Nordiske Oldsager i det Kong. Mus. i Kjdbenhavn. No. 172. 

36. Bazor-knife from Denmark, one-half of the actual size. 

Nordiske Oldsager i det Kong. Mus. i Kjobenhavn. No. 171. 

37. Bazor-knife from Denmark, one-half of the actual size. 

Nordiske Oldsager i det Kong. Mus. i Kj5benhavn. No. 175. 

38. Small bronze knife in a leather case, from Denmark, two-thirds of the actual 


Nordiske Oldsager i det Kong. Mas. i Kjdbenhavn. No. 164. 

39. Bronze knife, actual size. 

Nordiske Oldsager i det Kong. Mus. i Kjdbenhavn. No. 170. 

40. Bronze bracelet from Gortaillod on the Lake of Neufchatel, one-third of the 

actual size. 

Troyon's Habitations Lacustres, pi. xi., fig. 28. 

41. Bronze bracelet from Gortaillod on the Lake of Neufchatel, one-third of the 

actual size. 

Troyon, Lc. pi. xi., fig. 18. 


42r46. Bronze hair-pins from the Swiss Lakes, one-half of fhe aotaal iiie. 
Keller, l.e, Zweiter Bericht, pi. 8. 

46. Bronse awl from the Swiss Lakes, actual siie. 

Keller, Le. Zweiter Bericht, pi. 8. 

47. Bronze needle, actual size. 

Keller, l.e, Zweiter Bericht, pi. 8. 

48. Bronze stud, one-half of the actual size. 

Keller, l.e, Zweiter Bericht, pL. 8. 

49. Gold torque, consisting of a simple flat strip or band of gold, loosely twisted, 

and having exxMuided extremities which loop into one another. It measures 
5} inches across, and was found near Clonmaonoise, in Ireland. 
Cat. of Boyal Irish Academy, page 74. 

50. Gold fibula, one -half of the actual sise. The hoop is rery slender, the cups 

deep and conical. 

Gat. of Royal Irish Academy, i>age 56. 

51. Smooth, massive cyHndrical gold ring, with omamflnted ends, one-half of the 

actual size. 

Cat. of Boyal Irish Academy, page 62. 

62. Gold fibula, one-third of the actual size. The external surfaces of the cups 

are decorated with circular indentations surrounding a central indented 
spot. There is also an elegant pattern where the handle joins the cups. It 
is 8| inches long, and weighs 38 ounces, being the heaviest now known to 

Cat. of Boyal Irish Academy, page 60. 

63. Woollen cap, one-third of the actual size. Found with the bronze sword, 

fig. 19, in a Danish tumulus. 

Af b. af. Danske Oldsager og Mindesmffirker. Madsen, H. 6. 
54. Another woollen cap, one-third of the actual size. Found with the preceding. 

56. A small comb, one-third of the actual size. Found with the preceding. 
66. A woollen cape, one-third of the actual size. Found with the preceding. 

57. A woollen shirt, one-third of the actual size. Found with the preceding. 

58. A woollen shawl, one-third of the actual size. Found with the preceding. 

59. A pair of leggings, one-third of the actual size. Found with the preceding. 

60. Staigue Fort, in the County of Kerry. 

From a model in the collection of the Boyal Irish Academy. 

61. Flint core or nucleus from which flakes have been struck. Jutland. One- 

half of the actual size. 
In my own collection. 
62-4. Three views of a flint flake from a Kjdkkenm5dding at Fannemp in Jutland, 
one-half of the actual size, a represents the bulb of percussion, which is 
also shown by the shading in fig. 68. « 

In my own collection. 
65. Arrow-shaped flake from Ireland. It is worked up at the butt end, as if 
intended for a handle. 

Cat. of Boyal Irish Academy, page 72. 
66-68. Flakes from a Danish shell-mound, actual size. 
In my own collection. 

69. Minute fliat flake from Denmark, actual size. 

In my own collection. 

70. Sections of flakes, a is that of a simple triangular flake ; h is that of a large 

flat flake split off the angle from which the smaller flake a had been 
previously taken. Consequently the eection ia four-sided. 



71. Stone oeli or hatchet. It !■ formed of felatone, is 51 inchee long and 2 broad. 

Cat. of Boyal Irish Academy, page 41. 

72. Stone celt or hatchet, actual sue. Foond in the BiTer Shannon. One of 

Uie nnallest yet found in Ireland. 

Cat. of Boyal Irish Academy, page 46. 

73. Stone oelt with a wooden handle. Foond in the conniy of Monaghan. 

Cat. of Boyal Irish Academy, page 46. 

74. Skin scraper from Bonideilles in the soath of France, actoal sise. Found 

by me. 
76. Ditto, nnder side. 
76-78. Skin scraper used by the modem Esquimaux of the Polar basin within 

Behring's Straits, actual sise. It was fastened into a handle of fossil ivory. 
In the collection of Mr. H. Christy. 

79. Flint adze from the shell-monnd at Meilgaard in Jutland, actual sise. 

Upper surface. 

In my own collection* 

80. Ditto, under sur&ce. 

81. Ditto, side view. 

82. Modem New Zealand adse, actoal siae. Upper sui&oe. 

In the British Museum, 

83. Ditto, under sur&ce. 

84. Ditto, side riew. 

The New Zealand adze is partially polished ; this is not the case with 
the Danish adze, because flint naturally breaks with a smooth 
surfiftce. The projection a, in fig. 81 is accidental and owing to 
some flaw in the flint. They generally have the under side as 
flat as in fig. 83. 

85. Hollow chisel from Denmark. 

86. Spear-head from Denmark. 

87. Flint dagger, one-half of the actual size. This beautiful specimen was found 

in a large tumulus with a second imperfect dagger, a rude flint core, an 
imperfect, crescent-shaped knife, one or two flakes, two amber beads, and 
some bits of pottery. Denmark. 
In my own collection. 

88. A second form of flint dagger. Also from Denmark. 

89. Oval toolstone. 

Cat. of Boyal Irish Academy, page 94. 

90. Triangular flint arrow-head, actual size. 

Cat. of Boyal Irish Academy, page 19. 

91. Indented flint arrow-head, actual size. 

Cat. of Boyal Irish Academy, page 20. 

92. Barbed flint arrow-head, actual size. 

Cat. of Boyal Iri^ Academy, page 22. 

93. Leaf-shaped flint arrow-head, actual size. Showing the gradual passage 

into the spear-head. 

Cat. of Boyal Irish Academy, page 22. 

94. Bone pin or awl from Scotland, actual size. 
96. Bone harpoon, actual size. 

Af b. af. Danske Old og Mindesmserker, 5 Heft. 
96. A tumulus of the Stone age at Bdddinge in Denmark. It contains two 

Nordiske Oldsager i det Kong. Mus. i Ej&benhavn. Fl. 4. 


97. Gronnd plan of ditto. 

98. Section of ditto. 

99. Cromlech. Denmark. 

Nordiflke Oldsager i det Kong. 'Mub. i Ejdbenliavn. PI. 1. 

100. Tomnlns. 

Kordiake Oldsager i det Kong. Mns. i Ejdbenham. PI. 2. 

101. Gh!X)mid plan of a sepnlohral chamber in a large tomalns on the Island of 


Ann. for Nordiake Old Ejndighed, 1858, p. 204. 

102. Brachycephalio skull from the above tomnlns, one-qnarter of the natoral 


103. Ditto, side view. 

I am indebted for these two drawings to the kindness of my friend 
Mr. Bnsk. 

104. Interior of the sepulchral chamber in the long barrow near West Kennet in 


ArchsBologia, vol. zxzviii., p, 405. 

105. Flint scraper from the above tomnlns, two-thirds of the actual size. 

Archseologia, vol. xrxviii., p. 405. 

106. Flint scraper from the above tomnlns, two-thirds of the actual sise. 

ArcluBologia, vol. zzzviii., p. 405. 
107> Flint flake from the above tumulus, two-thirds of the actual size. 
ArchsBologia, vol. xrxviii., p. 405. 

108. Flint implement from the above tumulus, two-thirds of the actual size. 

ArchsBologia, vol. zzzviii., p. 405. 

109. Fragment of pottery from the above tumulus, two-thirds of the actual size. 

ArchsBologia, vol. zzzviii., p. 405. 

110. Fragment of pottery from the above tumulus, actual size. 

ArduBologia, vol. zzzviii., p. 405. 
111-118. Fragments of pottery from the above tumulus, two-thirds of the actual 

ArchsBolog^a, vol. zzzviii., p. 406. 
114. Fragment of potteiy, actual size. 

Archseologia, vol. zzzviii., p. 405. 
116. Urn from Flazdale barrow. The original is 14 inches in height. 

Bateman's Ten Years' Diggings in Celtic and Sazon Ghravehills, p. 280. 
116, 117. Vases from Arbor Low in Derbyshire. 

Bateman's Ten Years' Diggings in Celtic and Sazon Gravehills, p. 288. 

118. Drinking cup from Green Low. 

Bateman's Ten Years' Diggings in Celtic and Sazon Gravehills, p. 286. 

119. Crannoge in Ardakillin Lough, near Stokestown, County of Boscommon. 

It is constructed of stones and oak-piling. The top line shows the former 
highest water level, the second that of the ordinary winter flood, the third 
the summer level. 

Cat. of BoyaJ Irish Academy, p. 226. 

120. Swiss aze of serpentine, actual size. From Wangen on the Lake of 


In my own oolleotion. 

121. Spindle-whorl, actual size. From Wangen on the Lake of Constance. 

In my own collection^ 

122. Bone chisel P, actual size. From Wangen on the Lake of Constance. 

In my own collection. 


123. Piece of tissae, actoal size. From Bobenhaasen. 

In my own collection. 

124. Bronze pin, actaaJ size. 

Found in a shell-mouid near Elgin, and now in the rnvMom at Uiat 

125. Flint awl from Denmark, actual axe. 

After Worsaae. 

126. Lance -head P from Denmark, actual size. 

After Worsaae. 

127. Lance head P from Denmark, actual size. 

After Worsaae. 

128. Lance-head P from Denmark, actual size. 

After Worsaae. 

129. Bude flint axe from Denmark, actual size. 

After Worsaae. 

130. Flat stone implement of uncertain use, actual size. 

From the Cave at La Madehune. 

131. Stone implement, resembling in some respects those characteristio of the 

drift gravels, actual size. 
From Moustier. 

132. Ditto seen from the other side. 

133. Ditto, side view. 

134. Poniard of reindeer horn. 

From the Cave at Laugerie Basse. 

135. Bude flint spear-head from the drift gravel at Home, one-half actual size. 

After Frere. Archseologia, 1800, pi. xiv. 

136. Ditto, side view. 
137* Another specimen. 

After Frere. Archssologia, 1800, pi. xv. 

138. Ditto, side view. 

139. Section across the Valley of the Somme at Abbeville, after Prestwich ; the 

length is reduced to one-third. 

140. Section at St. Acheul near Amiens. 

a. Brick earth with a few angular flints. 

b. Bed angular gravel. 

e. Marly sand, with land and freshwater shells. 

d. Grey subangular gravel, in which the flint implements are found. 

e. Coffin. 
/. Tomb. 

141. Section taken in a pit close to the Joinville station. 

h. Bed angular gravel, containing a very large sandstone block. 
d. Grey subangular gravel. 

142. Diagram to illustrate deposit of loess and gravel. 

a'. Loess corresponding to and contemporaneous with the gravel a. 
h'. Logss. 
c'. Lo6ss. 

1. Level of valley at period a. 

2. Level of valley at period b, 

3. Level of valley at present. 

143. The Engis skull, viewed from above. 

144. Ditto, viewed from the front. 

Huxley's Man*s Place'in Nature, p. 126. 


146. The Neandertihal eikiill, seen from fhe aide, one-half of the natoral eise. 

146. Ditto, seen from the side, natural size. 

147. Ditto, seen from above, natural size. 

Huxley's Man's Place in Nature, page 139. 
The outlines from camera lucida drawings by Mr. Busk ; the details from 
the cast and from Dr. Fuhlrott's photographs, a glabella ; b occipital 
protuberance ; d lambdoidal suture. 

148. Australian boomerang, one-sixth of the actual size. 

149. Australian club, one-fifth of the actual size. 

160. New Zealand patoo patoo, one-fourth of the actual size. 

161. Stone axe with wooden handle, one-fourth of the actual size. 

162. South Sea fish-hook, one-half of the actual size. 

163. Esquimaux arrow-head, actual size. 

164. Esquimaux spear-head, actual size. 

166. Esquimaux bone harpoon, one -third of the actual size. 
166. Fuegian harpoon, one-half of the actual size. 


The three great tamnli at Upsala, popularly sapposed to be those of Odin, Thor, 
and Freya. (Frowtiapiece.) 

Diagram of Abuiy. (To face page 63.^ 

Plate I. (To face page 60,) 

Fig. 1. A flint axe from a tomnlns, one-third of the actual size. 

2. Another form of stone aze, with a hole for a handle, one-third of the 

actual size. 
8. A flint saw, one-half of the actual size. 

4. A flint sword, one-sixth of the actual size. 

5. A flint chisel, one-half of the actoal size. 

6. One of the "cores" from which the flint flalces are splintered, one-half of 

the actual size. 

7. One of the flakes, one-half of the actual size. 

8. 9. Bude axes from the Kj5kkenmadding at Havelse, one-half of the 

actual size. 

10. Flint axe from drift at Moulin Quignon, near Abbeville, one-half of the 

actual size. 

11. Flint axe from Abbeville, showing that the part stained white is parallel 

to the present sur&ces, and that the weathering has taken place since 
the fliint was worked into its present shape, one-half of the actual size. 

12. Sling-stone from the Kjtikkenmodding at Havelse, one -half of the 

actual size. 

Plate II. (To face page 268.; 

A flint implement found near Abbeville, slightly reduced. 

The artist haa been so careful to present a faithfril image of this 
specimen, that he has even copied exactly my rough memorandum 
as to the place and date of its discovery. 






rE! first appearance of man in Europe dates back to a 
period so remote, that neither history, nor even tra- 
dition, can throw any light on his origin, or mode of life. 
Under these circumstances, some have assumed the past to 
be hidden Jfrom the present by a veil, which time would 
probably thicken, but could never remove. Thus, the me- 
morials of antiquity have been valued as monuments of 
ancient skill and perseverance, but it has not been supposed 
that they could be regarded as pages of ancient history; 
they have been recognized as interesting vignettes, not as 
historical pictures. Some writers have assured us that, in 
the words of Palgrave, "We must give it up, that speech- 
less past ; whether fact or chronology, doctrine or mythology ; 
whether in Europe, Asia, AMca or America; at Thebes or 
Palenque, on Lycian shore or Salisbury Plain : lost is lost ; 
gone is gone for ever.'* While if others, more hopefully, 
have endeavoured to reconstruct the story of the past, they 
have too often allowed imagination to usurp the place of 
research, and written rather in the spirit of the novelist, 
than in that of the philosopher. 
But of late years a new branch of knowledge has arisen ; 



a new Science has, so to say, been bom among us, whicb deals 
witb times and events far more ancient than any of those 
which have yet fallen within the province of the archaeologist. 
The geologist reckons not by days or by years; the whole 
six thousand years, which were until lately looked on as the 
sum of the world's age, are to him but as a unit of measure- 
ment in the long succession of past ages. Our knowledge of 
geology is, of course, very incomplete ; on some points we 
shall no doubt see reason to change our opinion, but, on the 
whole, the conclusions to which it points are as definite as 
those of zoology, chemistry, or any of the kindred sciences. 
Nor does there appear to be any reason why the methods of 
examination, which have proved so successful in geology, 
should not also be used to throw Kght on the history of man 
in pre-historic times. Archaeology forms, in fact, the link 
between geology and history. It is true that in the case of 
other animals we can, from their bones and teeth, form a defi- 
nite idea of their habits and mode of life, while in the present 
state of our knowledge the skeleton of a savage could not 
always be distinguished from that of a philosopher. But on 
the other hand, while extinct animals leave only teeth and 
bones behind them, the men of past ages are to be studied 
principally by their works ; houses for the living, tombs for 
the dead, fortifications for defence, temples for worship, imr 
plements for use, ornaments for decoration. 

From the careful study of the remains which have come 
down to us, it would appear that Pre-historic Archaeology 
may be divided into four great epochs. 

Firstly, that of the Drift ; when man shared the possession 
of Europe with the Mammoth, the Cave bear, the WooUy- 
haired rhinoceros, and other extinct animals. This we may 
call the " Palaeolithic '' period. 

Secondly, The later or polished Stone age; a period 
characterized by beautiful weapons and instruments made 


of flint and other kinds of stone, in which, however, we 
find no trace of the knowledge of any metal, excepting gold, 
which seems to have heen sometimes used for ornaments. 
This we may call the " Neolithic " period. 

Thirdly, The Bronze age, in which bronze was used for 
arms and cutting instruments of all kinds. 

Fourthly, The Iron age, in which that metal had super- 
seded bronze for arms, axes, kniyes^ etc. ; bronze, however, 
still being in common use for ornaments, and frequently 
also for the handles of swords and other arms, but never 
for the blades. Stone weapons, however, of many kinds 
were still in use during the age of Bronze, and even during 
that of Iron. So that the mere presence of a few stone im- 
plements is not in itself sufficient evidence, that any given 
"find " belongs to the Stone age. 

In order to prevent misapprehension, it may be well to 
state, at once, that, for the present, I only apply this classifi- 
cation to Europe, though, in all probability, it might be 
extended also to the neighbouring parts of Asia and Africa. 
As regards other civilized countries, China and Japan for 
instance, we, as yet, know nothing of their pre-historic 
archaeology. It is evident, also, that some nations, such as 
the Fuegians, Andamaners, etc., are even now only in an 
age of Stone. 

But even in this limited sense, the above classification has 
not met with general acceptance ; there are still some archaeo- 
logists who believe that the arms and implements of stone, 
bronze, and iron were used contemporaneously. 

Leaving the consideration of the Stone age for future 
chapters, I shall endeavour in the present one to show that, 
as regards Europe, the bronze arms and implements charac- 
terise a particular period, and belong to a time anterior to 
the discovery, or at least to the common use, of iron. In 
support of this we may appeal, firstly, to the testimony of 


the most ancient writers ; and secondly, to the evidence of 
the objects themselves. 

In fact, the weapons of bronze, and especiallj the swords 
and celts, are, not only in form, but also in ornamentation 
very similar all over Europe, and very different from those of 
iron'. And, though there are many cases, in which quan- 
tities of arms have been found together, there is scarcely an 
instance on record, in which any of these " finds *' has com- 
prised objects of the two classes. 

For instance, at Nidau in the Lake of Bienne, Col. Schwab 
has obtained more than two thousand objects of metal from 
the site of an ancient Lake- village ; these were almost all of 
bronze, only three fragments of iron having been met with, 
and even these being probably modem. On the contrary, at 
Tiefenau, near Berne, where a large number of iron arms 
were discovered, including no less than a himdred swords, 
not a single weapon of bronze was foimd. 

It is probable that gold was the metal which first attracted 
the attention of man ; it is found in many rivers, and by 
its bright* color would certainly attract even the rudest 
savages, who are known to be very fond of personal deco- 
ration. Silver does not appear to have been discovered 
until long after gold, and was apparently preceded by both 
copper and tin, as it is rarely, if ever,* found in tumuli of 
the Bronze age ; but, however this may be, copper seems to 
have been the metal which first became of real importance to 
man : no doubt owing to the fact that its ores are abundant 
in many coimtries, and can be smelted without difficulty; 
and that, while iron is hardly ever found except in the form 
of ore, copper often occurs in a native condition, and can 
be beaten at once into shape. Thus, for instance, the North 
American Indians obtained pure copper from the mines near 

* Horae ferales, p. 60. 


Lake Superior and elsewhere, and hammered it at once into 
axes, bracelets, and other objects. 

Tin also early attracted notice, probably on account of the 
great heayiness of its ores. When metals were very scarce, it 
would nattirally sometimes happen that, in order to make up 
the necessary quantity, some tin would be added to copper, 
or vice verad. It would then be found that the properties of 
the alloy were quite different from those of either metal, and 
a very few experiments would determine the most advan- 
tageous proportions, which are about nine parts of copper to 
one part of tin. No implements or weapons of tin, have yet 
been found in Europe, and those of copper are extremely 
rare, whence it has been inferred that the advantage of com- 
bining the two metals was known elsewhere, before the use of 
either was introduced into Europe. Many of the so-called 
"copper axes," etc., contain a small proportion of tin ; and 
the few exceptions indicate probably a mere temporary want, 
rather than a total ignorance of this metal. 

The ores of iron, though more abimdant, are much less 
striking than those of copper or tin. Moreover, though they 
are perhaps more easily reduced, the metal, when obtained, is 
much less tractable than bronze. This valuable alloy can 
very easily be cast, and, in fact, all the weapons and imple- 
ments made of it in olden times, were cast in moulds of sand 
or stone. The art of casting iron, on the other hand, was 
unknown until a comparatively late period. 

In the writings of the early poets, iron is frequently charac- 
terised by the epithet ttoXv^/lm/to?, and its adjective, aiZrjpeo^, 
is used metaphorically to imply the greatest stubbornness. 

While, however, these facts tend very much to remove the 
d priori improbability that a compound and comparatively 
expensive material like bronze, should have been in general 
use before such a common metal as iron, we must, of course, 
seek elsewhere for evidence of the fact. 


Hesiod, who Is supposed to have lived about 900 B.C., and 
who is the earliest European author whose works have come 
down to us, distinctly states that iron was discovered after 
copper and tin. Speaking of those who were ancient, even 
in his day, he says that they used bronze, and not iron. 

Talk S'^ X'^'^^'^^ M^ rhrx^cL* yahxeov Be re oucot, 
X^^^ B* elfjjd^ovTo ; fiikas t^ov^ Icr/ce (rC^po^, 

His poems, as well as those of Homer, show that nearly three 
thousand years ago, the value of iron wa« known and appre- 
ciated. It is true that, as we read in Dr. Smith's Dictionary 
of Greek and Soman Antiquities, bronze " is represented in 
the Iliad and Odyssey as the. common material of arms, in- 
struments, and vessels of various sorts; the latter (iron) is 
mentioned much more rarely." While, however, the above 
statement is strictly correct, we must remember that among 
the Greekfir the word iron (cr/Siypo?) was used, even in the 
time of Homer, as synonymous with a sword, and that steel 
also appears to have been known to them under the name of 
aZdfia<;j and perhaps also of /cvavo^, as early as the time of 
Hesiod. "We may, therefore, consider that the Trojan war 
took place during the period of transition from the Bronze to 
the Iron age. 

Lucretius distinctly mentions the three ages. He says 

Arma antiqua, manus, ungues, dentesque fuerunt 
Et lapides, et item sylvarum fragmina rami, 
Posterius ferri vis est, ©risque reperta, 
Sed prior seris erat, quam ferri cognitus usus.* 

Coming down to more modem times, Eccardf in 1750, 
and Goguet in 1758,J mention the three later ages in plain 
tenns,§ and the same idea runs through Borlase's History of 

* v. 1282. Arts et des Sciences. See Ch. iy. and 

f Eccard. De origine et moribus the preface. 

Germanorum. § See Ehind in Arch. Ins. Jour. Y. 

X Goguet. De 1* origine des Lois, de xiii. 


Cornwall. Sir Bichard Colt Hoare also expresses the opinion 
tliat instruments of iron " denote a much later period " than 
those of bronze ; but M. Thomson, the founder of the great 
museum at Copenhagen, was the first to apply these observa- 
tions as the basis of a scientific chronology. 

The date of the introduction of iron into the North of 
Europe cannot at present be satisfactorily ascertained ; never- 
theless it is most likely that the use of this metal spread 
rapidly through Europe. Not only does it seem d priori 
probable that such an important discovery would do so, but 
it is evident that the same commercial organisation which 
had already carried the tin of Cornwall all over our con- 
tinent, would equally facilitate the transmission of iron, as 
soon as that even more useM metal was discovered and 
rendered available. However this may be, when the armies 
of Home brought the civilisation of the South into contact 
with that of the North, they found the value of iron already 
well known to their new enemies; the excellence of whose 
weapons indicated very considerable progress in the art of 
metallurgy. Nor is there any reason to suppose that arms 
of bronze were at that time stiU in use in the North, for, 
had this been so, it would certainly have been mentioned by 
the Boman writers; while the description given by Tacitus 
of the Caledonian weapons shows that bronze swords were 
no longer used in Scotland, at the time he wrote. Moreover, 
there are several cases in which large quantities of arms be- 
longing to the Boman period have been found together, and 
in which the arms and implements are all of iron. This argu- 
ment is in its very nature cumulative, and cannot therefore be 
fiilly developed here, but, out of many, I will mention a few 
cases in illustration. 

Some years ago, an old battle-field was discovered at 
Tiefenau, near Berne, and described by M. Jahn. On it 
were found a great number of objects made of iron ; such as 


fragments of chariots, bits for horses, wheels, pieces of coats 
of mail, and arms of yarions sorts, including no less than a 
htmdred two-handed swords. All of these were made of 
iron, but with them were several fibulaa of bronze, and some 
coins, of which about thirty were of bronze, struck at Mar- 
seilles, and presenting a head of Apollo on one side and a 
bull on the other, both good specimens of Greek art. The 
rest were silver pieces, also struck at Marseilles. These coins, 
and the absence of any trace of Boman influence, sufficiently 
indicate the antiquity of these interesting remains. 

Some very interesting " finds " of articles belonging to the 
Iron age have been made in the peat bogs of Slesvick, and 
described by M. Engelhardt, Curator of the Museum at 
Flensborg. One of these, in the Moss of Nydam, comprises 
clothes, sandals, brooches, tweezers, beads, helmets, shields, 
shield bosses, breastplates, coats of mail, buckles, swordbelts, 
sword sheaths, 80 swords, 500 spears^ 30 axes, 40 awls, 160 
arrows, 80 knives, various articles of horse gear, wooden 
rakes, mallets, vessels, wheels, pottery, coins, etc. "Without 
a single exception, all the weapons and cutting implements 
are made of iron, though bronze was freely used for brooches 
and other similar articles.* 

In the summer of 1862, M. Engelhardt found in the same 
field a ship, or rather a large flat-bottomed boat, seventy 
feet in length, three feet deep in the middle, and eight or 
nine feet wide. The sides are of oak boards, overlapping one 
another, and fastened together by iron bolts. On the inner 
side of each board are several projections, which are not made 
from separate pieces, but were left when the boards were cut out 
of the solid timber. Each of these projections has two small 
holes, through which ropes, made of the inner bark of trees, 

* See Lubbock in Nat. His. Bey. Oct. Runio characters. I had the pleasure of 
1863, and Stephens in Gent. Mag. Dec. visiting this interesting spot with M. 
1863. On one of the arrows were some Engelhardt in 1862. 


were passed, in order to fasten the sides of the boat to the ribs. 
The rowlocks are formed by a projecting horn of wood, under 
which is an orifice, so that a rope, fastened to the horn and 
passing through the orifice, leaves a space through which the 
oar played. There appear to have been about fifty pairs of 
oars, of which sixteen have already been discovered. The 
bottom of the boat was covered by matting. I visited the 
spot about a week after the boat had been discovered, but 
was unable to see much of it, as it had been taken to pieces, 
and the boards, etc., were covered over with straw and peat, 
that they might dry slowly. In this manner, M. Engelhardt 
hopes that iihey will perhaps, at least m part, retain their 
original shape. The freight of the boat consisted of iron 
axes, including a socketed celt with its handle, swords, 
lances, 'knives, brooches, whetstones, wooden vessels, and, 
oddly enough, two birch brooms, with many smaller articles. 
Only those, however, have yet been found which remained 
actually in the boat; and, as in sinking it turned partly 
over on its side, no doubt many more articles will reward 
the further explorations which M. Engelhardt proposes to 
make. It is evident, that this ancient boat was sunk on 
purpose, because there is a square hole about six inches 
in diameter hewn out of the bottom; and it is probable, 
that in some time of panic or danger the objects contained 
in it wete thus hidden by their owner, who was never able 
to recover them. Even in recent times of disturbance, as, 
for instance, in the beginning of this century, and in 1848, 
many arms, ornaments, household utensils, etc., were so effec- 
tually hidden in the lakes and peat mosses, that they could 
never be foimd again. Much interest is added to this vessel 
and its contents, by the fact, that we can fix almost their 
exact date. The boat lies, as I have already mentioned, 
within a few yards of the spot where the previous discoveries 
at Kydam were made, and as all the arms and ornaments 


exactly oorrespond, there can be little doubt that they belong 
to the same period. Now the preyions collection included 
nearly fijfty Soman coins, ranging in date finom a.d. 67 to 
217, and we cannot therefore be £eu* wrong in referring these 
remains to the third century. 

A very similar discovery has been made at Thorsbjerg in 
the same neighbourhood, but in this case, owing to some 
chemical difference in the peat, the iron has been ahnost 
entirely remoyed. It may naturally be asked why then this 
should be quoted as an instance of the Iron age ? And the 
answer seems quite satis£Eu;tory. All the swords, lance- 
heads and axe-blades have disappeared, while the handles of 
bronze or wood are perfectly preserved, and as the orna- 
ments and other objects of bronze are well preserved, it is 
evident that the swords, etc., were not of that metal ; and it 
is therefore reasonable to conclude that they were of iron, 
more especially as the whole character of the objects resem- 
bles that of those found at Nydam, and the coins, which are 
about as numerous as those from the latter place, range from 
60 A.D. to 197 ; so that these two great " finds " may be re- 
garded as ahnost contemporaneous. 

Not only are bronze weapons altogether absent from these 
deposits, but their forms and the character of the ornamen- 
tation are very different from those of the Bronze age; 
resembling in some respects Boman arms, in others they 
are quite peculiar, and evidently representative of northern 

From these and similar discoveries, it appears evident 
that the use of bronze weapons had been discontinued 
in the North before, probably long befoi:e, the commence- 
ment of our era. From the ease with which it could be 
worked, this metal was still used for brooches and orna- 
ments ; but in the manufacture of swords, lances, axes and 
similar implements, it had been entirely superseded by iron. 


There are many cases on record of iron swords with bronze 
handles or scabbards, but scarcely any instances of the 

Conversely, as bronze weapons are entirely absent from the 
great " finds " of the Iron age, so iron weapons are equally 
wanting in those instances where, as for instance at Nidau, 
on the Lake of Bienne, and Estavayer, on that of Neufchatel, 
large quantities of bronze tools and weapons have been found 

To sum up this argument, though the discoveries of bronze 
and iron weapons have been very numerous, yet there is 
hardly a single case in which swords, axes, daggers, or other 
weapons of these two different metals, have been found to- 
gether ; nor are bronze weapons ever found associated with 
coins, pottery, or other relics of Koman origin. The value of 
this evidence will better be appreciated after reading the fol- 
lowing extract from Mr. Wright's Essays on Archaeology :* 

" All the sites of ruined Eoman towns with which I am 
acquainted present to the excavator a numerous collection of 
objects, ranging through a period which ends abruptly with 
what we call the close of the Boman period, and attended 
with circumstances which cannot leave any doubt that this 
was the period of destruction. Otherwise, surely we should 
find some objects which would remind us of the subsequent 
periods. I will only mention one class of articles which are 
generally foimd in considerable numbers, the coins. We in- 
variably find these presenting a more or less complete series 
of Boman coins, ending at latest with the Emperors who 
reigned in the first half of the fifth century. This is not 
the case with Eoman towns which have continued to exist 
after that period, for then, on the contrary, we find relics 
which speak of the subsequent inhabitants, early' Saxon and 
Mediaeval. I will only, for want of space, give one example, 
* Essays on ArchsDology, p. 105. 


that of Bicliborough in Kent. The town of RutupisQ seems 
to have capitulated with the Saxon inTaders, and to have 
continued until its inhabitants, in consequence of the retreat 
of the sea, gradually abandoned it to establish themselyes at 
Sandwich. Now the coins found at Bichborough do not end 
with those of the Roman emperors, but we find, first, a great 
quantity of those singular little coins which are generally 
known by the name of minimi, and which, presenting very 
bad imitations of the Roman coinage, are considered as be- 
longing to the age immediately following the Roman period, 
and preceding that of the Saxon coinage.'' 

We may assume, then, on the authority of Mr. Wright 
himself, that if all these bron2e arms were really of Roman 
origin, many of them would have been found firom time to time 
in conjunction with other Roman remains. Yet Mr. Wright 
himself has only been able to give me one doubtful instance 
of this kind.* 

I may also add that the Romans used "ferrom" either to 
mean ''iron," or a sword, showing that their swords were 
made of that metal; and that bronze weapons are particu- 
larly numerous in some coimtries to which the Roman armies 
nerer penetrated ; such, for instance, as Ireland and Denmark. 

Nor does there appear to be any subsequent period, to 
which we can refer the weapons of bronze. Great numbers 
of Saxon interments have been examined both in this country 
and on the Continent, and we know that the swords, lances, 
knives, and other weapons of that time, were all of iron. 
Besides this, if the bronze implements and weapons had be- 
longed to post-Roman times, we should certainly, I think, 
have foimd some of them in the ruined towns, and with the 
pottery and coins of that period. Moreover, the similarity 

* In Stnarf 8 Caledonia Romana, 2nd near the Roman station of Ardoch. 
ed. pi. T., is a figure of a leaf-shaped The particulars of its discovery, how- 
sword, said to have been found in or eyer, are not given. 



to each other of the weapoHS found in very distant parts of 
Europe, implies more extended intercourse between different 
coimtries, than any that existed in those centuries. "Dn the 
whole, then, the evidence appears to show that the use of 
bronze weapons is characteristic of a particular phase in the 
history of European civilisation, and one which was anterior 
to the discovery, or, at l6ast, to the general use, of iron for 
cutting purposes. The commonest and, perhaps, most cha- 
racteristic objects belonging to the Bronze age, are the 
so-called "celts" (figs. 1 to 12) which were probably used 

Fio. I. 

Fio. 2. 

Fio. 3. 

Copper Celt from Watcrford. 
Fio. 4. 

Winged Celt from Ireland. Socketed Celt from Ireland. 
Fio. 5. Fio. 6, 

The three different types of Celts and the manner in which they are supposed to have been 




Fro. 7. 

Fio. 8. 

for chisels, hoes, war-axes, and a variety of other pur- 
poses. Similar imple- 
ments, but made of iron 
instead of bronze, are 
even now employed in 
Siberia and some parts 
of Africa.* More than 
two thousand are known 
to exist in the different 
Irish collectionlB, of which 
the great Museimi belong- 
ing to the Royal Irish 
Academy at Dublin con- 

Fio. 11. Fia. 12. 

Copper? Celt from 

Celt-mould fh>m Ireland. 

Fio. 10. 

Fio. 9. 

Decorated Celt from Ireland. Danish Celts. 

tained in the year 1860 no less than six hundred and eighty- 
* Horee ferales, p. 77. 


eight,* no two of which were cast in the same mould. 
They vary in size from an inch to a foot in length and 
may be divided into three principal classes (figs. 4-6) accord- 
ing to the manner in which they were handled ; though we 
must remember that there were many intermediate forms. 
The first class (figs. 1, 4, 7, 9, 10, and 11) is the simplest in 
form, and is considered by some antiquaries, as, for instance, 
by Sir W. R. Wilde,t to be the oldest, partly because they are 
"evidently formed on the type of the old stone celts," (conf. 
figs. 7 and 72) partly because some of them (nearly thirty 
for instance in the Dublin Museum) are of red, almost un- 
alloyed, copper, and are "ahnost the only antique implements 
of any kind formed out of" this metal, and partly because 
the copper ones at least are always unomamented. On the 
other hand, the simplicity of form exhibited by the copper 
axes, which may be observed in those from other coimtries 
as well as from Ireland, is perhaps to be accoimted for by 
the great difficulty of casting copper, so that the founders, 
when dealing with that metal, would naturally confine them- 
selves to the simpler forms. There can be little doubt that 
these simple celts were handled in the manner indicated 

(fig- 4). 

Evidently, however, the blade would at every blow tend 
to split the handle* in which it was placed. To remedy this 
defect, a stop or ridge was raised across the celt, and the 
metal and wood were made to fit into one another (figs. 2 
and 5).. This second form of celt is known as a Paalstab, or 
Paalstave, and has often a small loop on one side (the sup- 
posed use of which is indicated in the figure), as well as a 
wing on each side. 

A stiU farther improvement consisted (figs. 3, 6, 12) in 
reversing the position of the metal and the handle, making 

* In the MnBeum at Edinburgh are more than 100, at Copenhagen 350. 
t Cat. p. 361. 



the axe hollow at one end, and so passing the handle into it. 
The celts are generally plain, but sometimes ornamented with 

Fig. 17. 

Fio. 18. 


Bbonzs Swobd6. 



ridges, dots, or lines, as in figs. 3, 6, 8, 11, and 12. That they 
were made in the countries where they are found, is proved 
by the presence of moulds (fig. 8). It is difficult to under- 
stand why the celt-makers neyer cast their axes as we do 

Fio.19. Fio. 90. Fio. 21. Fio. 22. Fio. 28. 

Sword-handles from Denmark. 

ours, with a transverse hole, 
through which the handle 
might pass. No bronze im- 
plement of this description 
has, however, so far as I 
know, been yet found in 
Great Britain, though a few 
have occurred in Denmark, 
where they are of great 
beauty and highly deco- 

The swords of the Bronze 
age (figs. 14-23),* are always more 
or less leaf- like in shape, double- 
edged, sharp-pointed, and intended 
for stabbing and thrusting, rather 
than for cutting. This is evident, 
not only from the general shape, but also from the condition 

Swords from Denmark. 

* In fig. 13 an ancient iron sword is represented, in order to show the difference 


• ^oUBKS. 


V ^1 have any handgnardB : the 

,.. -; tigs. 17-23) ; this is generally 

^..xi ill Denmark : somedmes (figs. 

» .u^eutly intended to be plated with 

>oiut)time6 the sword e]q)ands at its 

no. 35. 

Fio. 36. 

V, >N 

\\M\ UronMo Daggers. 

^u,{ \^ lU^tt^ntnl U) a handle by from two to four 
^\\\vhU of tiii* ^'l*^*'* ^^® generally shorter than 
S vi^j k^\\y\ ttuUKHl wo find every intermediate form 
* \\w «n»o wm^nl and (ho dagger (figs. 24, 26, 26) ; of 



Fio. 27. Fro. 28. 

the two classes together, the Dublin Museum contains 
nearly 300. The handles of the bronze sword& are very 
short, and could not have been held comfortably by hands as 
large as ours, a characteristic much relied on by those who 
attribute the introduction of bronze into Europe to a people 
of Asiatic origin. 

The ne^t classes of bronze objects are the 
heads of 9pear& (figs. 27, 28), javettm, and 
arrows; two hundred and seventy-fiix of 
which are in the Dublin Museum ; in length 
they vary from two feet and a half to an 
inch, and their shapes are also very various : ' 
but it is unnecessary to describe them in 
detail, because they are repeated in simi- 
lar weapons* of aQ ages,, countries and ma- 
terials. Bronze arrows, however, are not 
very common in Northern Europe, proba- 
bly because flint was so much cheaper,, and 
almost as effective. 

More thaai a hundred bronze fish-hooka 
have been foimd at Nidau in the Lake of 
Bienne, but elsewhere they appear to be 
rare; the Museum at Dublin contains only one. Sickles 
are more numerous; at Copenhagen there are twenty-five, 
at Dublin eleven; in the Lake- village at Merges eleven 
have been found, at Nidau eighteen; they are generally 
about six ii^iches in length, flat on one side, and raised 
on the other ; they were always intended to be held in the 
right hand. 

Bronze knives (figs. 29-33) are frequently found in the 
Danish tumuli, and among the remains of the Swiss lake- 
habitations; twenty, for instance, at Morges, twenty-six at 
Estavayer, and about a hundred at Nidau : in Ireland they 
appear to be very rare ; the Dublin Museum does not contain 

Spear-faeads from 



one. They were generally fitted into liandles of bone, horn, 
or wood, and the blade is almoet always more or less curved, 

Fm.83. Fia.SS. 

Bronze Knives from Denmark, 

Bronze Knives from 

while those of iron knives, on the contrary, were gene- 
rally straight. 

The small bronze razor-knives (figs. 34-37), indeed, have 
straight edges, but they are quite of a different character 
from the iron knives: from the ornaments engraved on 
them, I am disposed to regard them as belonging to a late 
period in the age of Bronze, if not in some cases to the 
beginning of that of Iron. Indeed, the Flensborg Museum 



contains a razor-knife said to have been found together with 
objects of the latter metaL 

Fie. S5. 


Fio. 87. 

Rasor-kniYes from Denmark. 
Fio. 88. 

Fio. 39. 

Small Knivea from Demnark. 

The personal ornaments of the Bronze ^ge consist princi- 



pally of bracelets (figs. 40, 41), pins (fig. 42), and rings. 
The bracelets are either simple spirals, or rings open at one 
side, and decorated by those combinations of straight and 
curved lines, so characteristic of the Bronze age. 

f IG. 41. 

Eio. 40. 

Braceleto— SwiteerlanoL 

Very many bronze pins have been obtained from the Swiss 
lake-habitations : for instance, 57 from Merges, 239 from Es- 
tavayer, and 600 from NidaiL They are also very frequently 



Fio. 42.— Bronze Hair-pinB— Switzerland. 

found in graves, where they were used, as pointed out by Sir 
R. C. Hoare, to secure the linen cloth which enveloped the 
bones. Although brooches of bronze are very common, they 
have generally been found in conjunction with iron, and we may 



almost say that they were unknown during the Bronze age^ 
their place being filled by simple pins. Many of the latter 
articles found in the Swiss lakes appear, however, to hare 
been hair-pins. Some of them are nearly a foot in length, and 
two found near Berne even as much as 2ft. 9in. Many of the 
pins have large hollow spherical heads, as in fig. 42, a, b ; the 
others vary so much that it is impossible to give any 
general description of them. There can be little doubt 
that these pins really belong to the fio. 43. fio. 44. fio. 45. fio. 46. 
Bronze age ; but the fact, that similar 
ones continued in use long after the 
introduction of iron, appears to be 
equally well estabKshed. One of these 
later bronze pins is represented in fig. 
124. Some other small objects of 
bronze, including two needles, from the 
Lake of Neufchatel, are represented 
in figs. 43-48. Bronze hammers are 
very rare ; it is probable that stones 
were used for this purpose. Gouges 
are more common. Small saws have 
been discovered in Germany and Den- 
mark, but not, as yet, in Great Britain. 


Fm. 47. 

Fio. 4S. 


Snudl objects in Bronze. Switzerland. 

Studs or buttons, though not very abundant, are found both 
in Switzerland and Scandinavia.* 

I have also figured a group (figs. 49-52) of Irish gold 

* Further infonnatioii as to the objects of bronze from Switzerland will be 
found in the chapter on the Swiss Lake-habitations. 



oniaineiits. We haye, howeyer, as yet no eyidence as to 
their origin, and it is more than probable that they belong 
to a much later period. 


Gold Torqae— Ireland. Found near donmaenoifle. 

Fi«. 51. 
Fio. 60. ^^ 

Gold Omamento— Ireland. 


Fio. 52. 

Gold OnnmeBt— IrelaiicL 

The ornamentation on the objects of bronze is of peculiar, 
and at the same time nniform, character ; it consists of simple 
geometrical patterns, and is formed by combinations of spirals, 
circles, and zigzag lines ; representations of animals and plants 
being very rarely attempted. Even the few exceptions to 
this rule are perhaps more apparent than real. Thus, two 
such only are figured in the Catalogue of the Copenhagen 
Museimi; one is a rude figure of a swan (fig. 29), the 
other of a man (fig. 31). The second of these forms the 
handle of a knife, which appears to be straight in the blade,, 
a type characteristic of the Iron age, but rarely found in that 
of Bronze. As regards one of them> therefore,^ there is an 
independent reason for referring it to the period of transition,. 
or at least to the close of the Bronze age. There is, indeed^ 
one type of pattern, usually found on the razor-knives, but 
sometimes also on others, intended probably for a rude repre- 
sentation of a ship (figs. 34-37). Even, however, if we admit 
that this is the case, and if we accept these objects as belonging 
to the Bronze age, they will only show how Kttle advance had 
yet been made in the art of representing natural objects. 

We should hardly, perhaps, have expected to know much 
of the manner in which the people of the Bronze age were 
dressed. Considering how perishable are the materials out 
of which clothes are necessarily formed, it is wonderftJ 
that any fragments of them should have remained to the 
present day. There can be little doubt that the skins of 


animals were extensively used for tliis purpose, as indeed 
they have been in all ages of man's history ; many traces of 
linen tissue also have been found in English tumuli of the 
Bronze age, and in the Swiss Lakes. Fig. 123 represents a 
piece of fabric from Bobenhausen in Switzerland ; it belongs, 
however, in all probability to the Stone age. Even a single 
fragment such as this, throws, of course, much light on the 
manufactures, if we may call them so, of the period to which it 
belongs ; but fortunately we need not content ourselves with 
any such partial knowledge as this, as we possess the whole 
dress of a chief belonging to the Bronze age. 

On a farm occupied by a M. Dahls, near Bribe in Jutland, 
are four tumuli, which are known as Great Kongehoi, 
Little Kongehoi, Guldhoi, and Treenhoi. This last was 
examined in 1861 by MM. Worsaae and Herbst. It is about 
fifty ells in diameter and six in height, being composed of a 
loose sandy earth. In it, near the centre, were found three 
wooden coffins, two of full size, and one evidently intended 
for a child. The coffin with which we are now particularly 
concerned, was about 9ft. Sin. long and 2ft. 2in. broad on the 
outside; its internal measurements were T^ft. long and 1ft. Sin. 
broad. It was covered by a moveable lid of corresponding 
size. The contents were peculiar, and very interesting. 
While, as might naturally be expected, we find, in most 
ancient graves, only the bones and teeth, all the soft parts 
having long ago decayed away, — ^in some cases, and this was 
one of them, almost exactly the reverse has happened. 
Owing to the presence of water, and perhaps to the fact 
that it was strongly impregnated with iron, the soft parts of 
the body had been turned into a dark, greasy, substance; 
and the bones, with the exception of a few fragments, were 
changed into a kind of blue powder. 

Singularly enough, the brain seems to have been the part 
which had imdergone least change* On opening the coffin, 



it was found lying at one end, where no doubt the head had 
origuiallj been placed, covered by a thick hemispherical 
woollen cap, about six inches in height (fig. 53)* The outer 
side of this cap was thickly covered by short loose threads, 


Fio. 53. 

Woollen Cap*. 

Fto. M. 

Woollen aoak. 

Fig. 55. 


every one of them ending in a small knot, which gave the cap 
a very singular appearance. The body of the corpse had 
been wrapped in a coarse woollen cloak (fig. 56), which was 



almost semicircular, and hollowed out round the neck. It 
was about 3fk. Sin. long, and broad in proportion. On its 
inner side were left hanging a great number of short wooll^i 
threads, which giye it somewhat the appearance of plush. 

On the right side of the corpse, was a box, made with a lid 
of the same diameter. It was 7 Jin. in diameter, B^in. high> 
and was fastened together by pieces of osier or bark. In 
this box was a similar smaller one» without a lid, and in this, 
again, were three articles, namely, a cap 7in. high, of simply 
woven woollen stuff (fig. 64) ; a small comb Sin. long, 2|iB. 
high (fig. 55) 'y and a small simple razor-knife. 

After the cloak and the bork^box had been taken away. 

Fio. 57. 

Fio. 58. 

Woollen Shirt. 

Woollen Shawl. 

two woollen shawls came to view, one of them covering the 
feet, the other lying higher up. They were of a square 
shape, rather less than 5ft. long, 3ft. 9in. broad, and with a 
long fringe (fig. 58). At the place where the body had lain, 
was a shirt (fig. 57) also of woollen material, cut out a little 



Fig. 50. 

for the neck, and with a long projecting tongue at one of the 
iq)per angles.* It was fastened at the waist by a long woollen 
band, which went twice round the body, and hung down in 
front. On the leffc side of the corpse was a bronze sword 
(fig. 19), in a wooden sheath. It is 2ft. Sin. in length, and 
has a solid simple handle. 

At the feet were two pieces of woollen 
stuff, about 14Jin. long and 3Jin. wide 
(fig, 59), the use of which does not seem 
quite clear, though they may be sup- 
posed to have been the remains of leg- 
gings. At the end of the coffin were 
found traces of leather, doubtless the 
remains of boots. In the cap, where the 
head had been, was some black hair, and 
the form of the brain was still recog- 
nisable. Finally, this ancient warrior 
had been wrapped round in an ox's hide, 
and so committed to the grave. 

The other two coffins were not examined by competent 
persons, and the valuable information which they might have 
afforded was thus lost to us. The more indestructible things 
were, however, preserved ; they consisted of a sword, a brooch, 
a knife, a double-pointed awl, a pair of tweezers, a large 
double button or stud, all of bronze ; a small double button 
of tin, and a javelin head of flint. 

The baby's coffin produced only an amber bead, and a small 
bronze bracelet, consisting of a simple ring of metal. 

There can, therefore, be no doubt that this very interesting 
tumulus belonged to the Bronze age, and I am inclined to 
place it somewhat late in that period, partly on accoimt of 
the knife and razor-knife, both of which belong to forms 
which I have already given my reasons for referring to the 
close of the Bronze age, and to the beginning of that of Iron. 



Bronze brooches are also very rarely found in the Bronze 
age, and are common in that of Iron. The sword, again 
belongs to a form which is regarded by Professor Nilsson as 
being of late introduction. 

Finally, the mode of sepulture, though other similar cases 
are on record, is, to say the least, very unusual ; in the age of 
Iron, indeed, the corpse is generally extended, but in that of 
Bronze the dead were, with few exceptions, bumed,^ or buried 
in a contracted attitude. In Denmark, cremation appears to 
have been ahnost uniyersal ; in England I hare taken out 
the statistics of 100 eases of tombs containing objects of 
bronze, 37 recorded by Mr. Bateman and 63 by Sir R. C. 
Hoare ; and the following table shows the manner in which 
the corpse had been treated. 

Contracted. Burnt. Extended. Uncertain. 

Bateman 15 10 5 7 

Hoare 4 49 2 8 

19 59 7 15 

We may consider, therefore, that during this period the 
corpse was sometimes, though rarely, extended on its back, 
that more frequently it was buried in a sitting or crouching 
position, and in a small chamber formed by large stones, but 
that the most usual practice was to bum the dead, and collect 
the ashes and fragments of bones in, or imder, an um. 

The ancient fimeral customs, however, will be more fiillr 
considered in a subsequent chapter. 




rCRE are four principal theories as to the Bronze age. 
According to some archsDologists, the discovery, or 
introduction, of bronze was unattended by any other great 
or sudden change in the condition of the people ; but was 
the result, and is the evidence of a gradual and peaceable 
development. Some attribute the bronze arms and imple- 
ments, found in Northern Europe, to the Roman armies, some 
to the Phoenician merchants; while others, again, consider 
that the men of the Stone age were replaced by a new and 
more civilized people of Indo-European race, coming from 
the East ; who, bringing with them a knowledge of bronze, 
overran Europe, and dispossessed — ^in some places entirely 
destroying — ^the original, or rather the earlier inhabitants. 

It is not, indeed, necessary to suppose that the introduction 
of bronze should have been effected everywhere in the same 
manner ; so far, for instance, as Switzerland and Ireland are 
concerned. Dr. KeUer* and Sir W. R. Wilde f may be quite 
right in considering that the so-called "primitive" popula- 
tion did not belong to a different race from that subse- 
quently characterised by the use of bronze. 

Still, though it is evident that the knowledge of bronze 
must necessarily have been preceded by the separate use of 
copper and of tin; yet no single implement of the latter metal 

♦ Mittheil. der Antiquar. Gesellsch. in Zurich, Bd. liv. H. 6. 
t Wilde, 1. c. p. 360. 


hiM N;en hitherto found in Europe, while those of copper are 
MKtremely rare. Hungary and Irehmd, indeed, haye been sap- 
fiOM^^d to form partial exceptions to this role. The geographical 
{KiMitirm of the former country is probably a sufficient explana- 
tion; and as far as Ireland is concerned, it may perhaps be 
worth while to examine how far that country really forms an 
exception. In the great Museum at Dublin there are 725 celts 
and celt-like chisels, 282 swords and daggers, and 276 lances, 
javelins, and arrow-heads; yet out of these 1283 weapons 
only 30 colts and one sword-blade are said to be of pure 
copper.* I say " are said to be," because they have not been 
analysed, but are supposed to be copper only from the "phy- 
sical properties and ostensible colour of the metal :" indeed 
one of these very celts, which was analysed by Mr. Mallet, 
was found to contain a small percentage of tin. It is pos- 
sible that for some of the purposes to which celts were 
applied, copper may have been nearly as usefiil as bronze, 
and at any rate it might sometimes have happened that from 
a dofioionoy of tin, some implements would be made of 
copper only. 

Taking these facts into consideration, Ireland certainly 
docs not oppoar to present any strong evidence of an age of 
(H>p|)or, while no one has ever pretended to find either there, 
or any whore else in Europe, a trace of any separate use 
t>f tin ♦ 

Sir W. ll» Wildo himself admits it to be "remarkable that 
m fow antique copper implements have been found, although 
a kuowUxlgi> of that metal must have been the preliminary 
(^tagi^ in the miinufaoturo of bronze.'* He thinks, however, 
that " tho ciroumatanco may be accounted for, either by sup- 
)HMiug thttt but u abort time elapsed between the knowledge 

^ 0«M> <^T^ «vf t)i«fiip «» with i^ood t ItinasMMtimeBiisedfarpiiipofles 
riMMUi <KsiM\lt(vml by l)\r« >VilUtt ta \m of onMMBlatioBi Iwt that does not of 
«n ^iii<^ri<siui »iH>Mm<Ni. eottnt aftMl the proseat aisinneiit 


of smdltiiig and casting copper ore, and. the introduction of 
tin, and subsequent manufacture and use of bronze; or from 
the probabiKty of nearly all such articles having been re- 
cast and converted into bronze, subsequent to the introduc- 
tion of tin, which renders them harder, sharper, and more 

There is, however, another circumstance which strongly 
militates against this theory of a gradual and independent 
development of metallurgical knowledge in different coun- 
tries, and that is the fact which has been broadly stated ly 
Mr. Wright, and which I may, perhaps, repeat here, that 
whenever we find the bronze swords or celts, "whether in 
Ireland in the far west, in Scotland, in distant Scandinavia, 
in Germany, or still fiirther east in the Sclavonic coimtries, 
they are the same — ^not similar in character, but identical." 
The great resemblance of stone implements found in dif- 
ferent parts of the world may be satisfactorily accounted 
for by the similarity of the material, and the simplicity of 
the forms. But this argument cannot be applied to the 
bronze arms and implements. Not only are several varieties 
of celts found throughout Europe, but some of the sw;ord8, 
knives, daggers, etc., are so similar, that they seem as if they 
must have been cast by the same maker. Compare, for 
instance, figs. 1, 3^ and 9, which represent Irish celts, with 
10, 12, and 11, which are copied from Danish specimens ; the 
three swords, figs. 14, 15, and 16, which come respectively 
from Ireland, Sweden, and Switzerland, and the two, figs. 
17 and 18, of which the first is Swiss, the second Scandi- 
navian. It would have been easy to multiply examples of 
this similarity, and it is not going too far to say that these 
resemblances cannot be the result of accident. On the other 
hand, it must be admitted that each country has certain 

♦ WUde, ^. <?. p. 557^ . 


minor peculiarities. Neither the forms nor the amaments 
are exactly similar. In Benmaik and Mecklenbaif;hy spiral 
omamoits are most common; &rther sonth, these are 
repLioed by ring ornaments and lines. The Danish swords 
gmerally have solid, and richly decorated handles^ as in 
figs. 17-23, while those found in Gbeat Britain (fig. 14) 
terminate in a plate which was rireted to pieces of wood 
or bone. Again, the British lance-heads frequently hare 
loops at the side of the shaft-hole, as in fig. 27, which is 
never the case with Danish specimens. 

The discoYcry of moulds in Ireland, Scotland, England, 
Switzerland, Denmark, and elsewhere, shows that the art of 
casting in bronze was known and practised in many countries. 
Under these circumstances^ it appears most probable that the 
knowledge of metal is one of those great discoTeries which 
Europe owes to the East, and that the use of copper was not 
introduced into our Continent, until it had been observed that 
by the addition of a small quantity of tin it was rendered 
harder and more valuable. 

I have already, in the first chapter, given the reasons 
which render it evident to me that the bronze weapons are 
not of Roman origin. These may be summed up as follows : 

Firstly. They have never been found in company with 
Roman pottery, or other remains of the Roman period. 

Secondly. The ornamentation is not Roman in its character. 

Thirdly. The bronze swords do not resemble in form those 
used by Roman soldiers. 

Fourthly. The Latin word "ferrum" was used as synony- 
mous with a sword, showing that the Romans always used 

Fifthly. Bronze implements are very abundant in some 
countries, as for instance in Denmark and Irdand, which 
were never invaded by Roman armies. 

Moreover, the bronze used by the Romans contained, 


generally, a large proportion of lead, which is nerer the 
case in that of the Bronze age. 

My friend Mr. Wright* mentions, three cases in which 
bronze swords are supposed to have been found together 
with Boman remains. The first instance has been already 
alluded to (p. 12). As regards the other two, he has, unfor- 
tunately, mislaid the references, and I haye therefore been 
imable to yerify the statements. Eyen granting that there 
is no mistake about these cases, and that the facts are as he 
supposes, they would proye nothing. Bronze swords are ex- 
cellent and beautiful weapons, and would certainly haye been 
preseryed as curiosities, sometimes eyen employed, long after 
they had been replaced in general use by iron. Mr. Wright 
lays much stress on the fact, that the bronze weapons haye 
generally been found near Roman stations, and Eoman roads. 
As regards England, this is no doubt true, but we must 
remember that the whole of this country is intersected by 
Roman roads, many of which, moreoyer, were old lines of 
communication, long before Caesar first landed on our cioasts. 
He appears, howeyer, to forget that bronze weapons are yery 
common in Ireland and Denmark, where there are no Roman 
roads at all. 

But Mr. Wright sees nothing in Great Britain which 
can be referred to ante-Boman times. The arms and im- 
plements of bronze he refers, as we haye seen, to the Romans 
themselyes, those of stone to the Britons, their contempo- 
raries. Thus, haying noticed that flint implements are more 
common near Bridlington than near Leeds, 

" If these stone implements,"* he says, "belong to a period 
anterior to the Romans, and before the metals were extracted 
from the ground, why are they not found as frequently in 
the neighbourhood of Leeds as in that of Bridlington f 

* Lecture on the Early History of Leeds, p. 19. f iWt?. p. 12. 


The reason seems to me to be obvious. Bridlington is in 
a chalk country^ and flint is therefore abimdant, while near 
Iieeds none occurs in situ. But if we are to refer not only 
the bronze implements, but also those of stone, to the Boman 
period, what implements, we may ask, does Mr. Wright sup- 
pose were used by the ancient Britons before the arrival of 
OaesarP It would be more reasonable to deny the existence 
of ancient Britons at once, than thus to deprive them, as 
it were, of all means of obtaining subsistence ; nor can we 
forget that these so-called barbarians manufiEtctured chariots, 
coined money, and offered a otot unsuccessful opposition, even 
to the forces of Bome, and the genius of Caesar. 

Their weapons, however, were made of iron, not of bronze ; 
and, on the whole, it may, I think, be concluded that the use 
of this alloy was neither discovered in Northern Europe, nor 
introduced by the Bomans ; we may pass on, therefore, to 
consider the views of those who attribute the Bronze age 
civilisation to the influence of Phcenician commerce. This 
theory has recently been maintained, with great ability, by 
Professor Nilsson;* Sir George ComewaU Lewis f on the 
other hand, while admitting that Cornwall was the great 
source of tin in ancient times, has endeavoured to prove that 
this . jnetal found its way " to the nations in the east of the 
Mediterranean by the overland route across Gaul, and that 
the Phoenician ships brought it from the mouth of the 
Bhone, without sailing as far as Britain/' 

He regards, therefore, the accounts of ancient voyages as 
being in many cases either mythical, or at least exaggerated, 
but he does not make sufficient allowance for the fact that 
our knowledge of them is often derived from unfriendly 
critics or poetical allusions ; nor need we go farther than Sir 

• SkandinaViska Nordens Ur-inva- nomy of the Ancients. By the Bight 
nare. Af. S. Nilsson, Stockholm, 1862. Hon. Sir George ComewaU Lewis, 1862. 
t. An Historical Survey of th^ Astro-. , ...... 

^HZ PH<ENIC1AN8* 37 

Coniewall Lewis' own work to show how authors may, buffer 
by this mode of treatment.* 

Take, for instance, the case of Himilco, who was sent 
during the prosperous times of Carthage to examine the 
north-western coasts of Europe. His writings have imfor- 
tunately perished, and our knowledge of them, deriyed from 
the "Ora maritima," a geographical poem by Avienus, is 
thus summed up by Sir Comewall Lewis : " The report of 
Himilco, that the voyage from Gades to the Tin Islands (t.^. to 
Cornwall) occupied at least four months; and that navigation 
in these remote waters was impeded by the motionless air, by 
the abundance of seaweed, and by the monsters of the deep^- 
fabks which the ancient marixlers recounted of unexplored 
seas — ^would not be very attractive for the traderi* of the 
Carthaginian colonies." This argument does not seeiii to 
be quite satisfactory, because, if Himilco really did make this 
voyage, then such voyages were possible ; and, on the other 
hand, if he did not do so, and if his statements were such 
mere fables, we may safely assimie that the shrewd merchants 
of Carthage would detect the imposition, and would extract 
the truth, if not from Himilco himself, at any rate from 
some of those by whom he was accompanied. 

But let that pass ; we will examine the four *' fables '* 
specially referred to by Sir G. C. Lewis. It is unnecessary 
to say anything about the "motionless air;" it would be 
doing an injustice to Sir ComewaU Lewis to suppose that 
he regarded this as a serious objection. It may be an 
invention, but it is not an improbability. Neither is the 
time occupied by an exploring expedition any test of 
that which would be required for a commercial voyage. 
Nor will I lay any stress on the statement that Hinilco's 

* In ihe long chapter which he de- Hieroglyphics, the name of Dr. Toung 
yotes to the Egyptian Chronology and ig not once mentioned. 

38 rHosiaciAM totagcs. himiloo. 

vemdiB were ''impeded" hy the moiuten of the deep. What 
Arienus really aaid was, as Sir Ck)mewall Lewis admits in 
another pnaenge, that while hecalmed and lying in a help- 
leM ttate, the ships were ''sarroanded hy marine monst^s."* 
It might ffurly he argued that whales were in all prohahility 
more numerous on oar coasts in ancient times than they are 
now ; the great mammalia of the sea, as well as those of the 
land^ have giren way before the orerwhefaning power of man. 
But it is unnecessary to urge this hypothesis; the great 
monsters of the deep haye in all ages appealed strongly to 
the imagination of mankind, and no poet would £bu1 to allude 
to them in describing ike dangers which beset those " who 
go down to the sea in ships, and occupy their business in 
great waters*" 

The third point alluded to by Sir Gomewall Lewis^ so £Eir 
horn throwing any doubt on the yeracity of Himilco, appears 
rather to be an argument in his £Eiyor. His ships, he says, 
or at least Ayienus says for him, were '' surrounded by sea- 
weed." Where was he when this took place? All that 
we can say in answer to this question is, that he sailed 
through the Pillars of Hercules into the Atlantic Ocean, 
and we know, that a few days' sail in this direction would 
haye brought him to the '' Mare di Sargasso," a sea which 
has actually taken its name from the quantity of sea- 
weed growing in it. Sir C. Lewis says, "the notion of 
teaaaote seas being impassable by ships, either from their 
shoals, or from the obstacles to nayigation produced by the 
semi-fluid and muddy properties of the water, frequ^itly 
recurs among the ancients;" and it is true, no doubt, that 
statements of this kind are made by many ancient writers, 
as for instance by Herodotus, Plato, Scylax, and eyen Aris- 
totle; but not one of these writers alludes to "seaweed" as 
an impediment to nayigation, and it can hardly be acci- 
* See Appendix. 

PYTHEAa. 0\f 

dental, that the only voyager by whom this is referred to, was 
one who sailed on a course which, if persevered in for a few 
days, would have brought him to that which is even now 
known as the Sea of Seaweed.* 

Pytheas is another ancient writer, whose character has 
suffered very much in the hands of Sir C. Lewis, who, rely- 
ing on the authority of Polybius and Strabo, does not hesi- 
tate to stigmatise him as a mendacious impostor. Polybius 
doubts the journeys of Pytheas, because Pytheas was a 
poor man; but the great travellers and explorers of the 
present day do not generally belong to our wealthy &mi- 
lies. Strabo seems to have been prejudiced against Pytheas 
because he professed to have visited countries, which ought, 
according to Strabo's theory, to have been uninhabitable. 
Moreover, we should remember that the first travellers in the 
North must have seen, and on their return would describe, 
many things which would appear impossible or incomprehen- 
sible to dwellers on the sunny shores of the Mediterranean. 
Sir 0. Lewis refers specially to four incredible assertions made 
by Pytheas. First, he is said to have related that ''if any per- 
son placed iron in a rude state at the mouth of the volcano in 
the island of Lipari, together with some money, he found on 
the morrow a sword or any other article which he wanted, 
in its place.'* This, however, merely shows that the myth of 
Yaland, Wielant, "Weland, or in our popular dialect, Wayland 
Smith, was current in the Lipari islands at the time of Pytheas. f 
This mythf moreover, is but a very slightly modified account 
of what actually has taken place when an ignorant people, 
living by the side of a more civilized race, and attributing 
their superiority to magical arts, has been anxious to benefit 

* May ]i«t tilt beli«f in tke ^ Adtn- of tht etlier eaviei whidi are uraally 

til " be at probably owing to tbe ** galf- aaiig^ for it ? 
weed," wUdi would so naturally cng- f On this interesting subjeot, aea 

gest the idea of sunken land, as to any Wright AieheoL toL xzzii. p. Sid. 


by their necromaiicjr/ and yet afraid to conie in contact with 
the magicians themselves. Thus ''the Yeddahs of Ceylon,, 
wh^i they wanted arrows, nsed to bring some flesh in the 
night, and hang it up in a smith's shop, also a leaf cut in 
the form they will have their arrows made and hang by it ; 
which if the smith do make according to their pattern, they 
will requite and bring him more flesh."* If our knowledge 
of this peculiar mode of barter had been derived frtim the 
Yeddahs, it would undoubtedly have taken the form of the, 
old European myth. The metallurgists of old, to preserve 
their monopoly, would evidently have a great interest in 
keeping up this superstition. 

Sir ComewaU Lewis, in the second place, accuses Pytheas 
of having described the sea round the Lipari islands as being 
in a boiling state. But we do not know what his exact words 
were, and cannot fairly judge him, for it makes a great 
difference whether he was repeating a statement made to 
him, or making one on his own authority. Moreover, we 
must remember that there have been submarine eruptions 
in the Mediterranean, and that the Lipari islands lie be- 
tween Mount Etna and Vesuvius, in the very centre of an 
active volcanic area. These two mountains, which for the 
last two thousand years have been more or less frequently 
in eruption, seem to have enjoyed a long period of rest, 
during which the Lipari islands served as a vent. It seems 
to me therefore highly probable that this statement made 

* Knox's Historical Belation of tbe Tendroit sous le oom de Troxu cles 

Island Ceylon. London, 1681. Quoted Sottais. Ik pretendent que jadis ees 

in tbe Ethnological Society's Trans., grottes servaient d'habitatipn k une 

vol. ii. p. 285, N.S. See also Sir J. £. esp^ humaine d'une tr^ petite taiUe, 

Tennent's Ceylon, toI. i., p. 593. The Sottais, nains, pygmees, qui y Tivaient 

Belgian form of the myth as related by de leur Industrie, et restauraient tout ce 

Schmerling (Ossements fossiles, vol. i., qu*on deposait pres des ouvertures, k 

p. 43) still more closely resembles the condition que Von y qfout&t des invres. 

account given by Enox. Speaking of En tres peu de temps ces effets etaient 

the oaves near Liege, he says : " Ces repares, et remis a la mSme plsce/' 
ouvertures sont connues des habitans de 


by Pythias was a perfectly trutliful record of an actual 

A third difficulty is the assertion, that round the island of 
Thule, Pytheas saw a substance which was neither earth, 
air, nor water, but a substance resembling medusaB or jelly 
fishes (irvevfAovt doKcura-i^ ioitca^), which could neither be 
passed on foot nor in ships. This- passage, which has com- 
pletely puzzled southern commentators,.^ is regarded by Pro- 
fessor Nilsson as a striking evidence of Pytheas' veracity. 
When the sea in the north freezes,, this does not happen 
as in a pond or lake,, but small separate plates of ice are 
formed, and as soon as this process commences, the fisher- 
men hurry to the shore, lest they should be caught in the 
ice, which for some time is too thick to permit the passage 
of a boat, yet too weak to> support the weight of a man. A 
very similar description is given by Captain Lyon. "We 
came," he says " amongst young ice,, in that state called 
sludge, which resembles in appearance and consistency a far 
better thing — lemon ice. From this we came to small round 
plates, of about a foot in diameter, which, have the appear- 
ance of the scales of gigantic fishes."* Richardson also 
I)articularly mentions- the "circular plates of ice, six or 
eight inches in diameter, "t These discs of ice tossed about 
by the waves suggested to Professor Nilsson himself, when 
he first saw them,, the idea of a crowd of medusae, and if we 
imagine a southerner who had never before witnessed such 
a phenomenon, and who on his return home wished to 
describe it to his feUow-countrymen, it would have been 
difficult to find an apter or more ingenious simile. It is, at 
any rate, not more far-fetched or less appropriate than that 
used by Herodotus, when, in order to describe a heavy snow- 
storm, he compared it to a fall of feathers. 

^'Fourthly," says Sir C. Lewis, " Pytheas affirmed that in 
. * Lyon's Journal, p. 84. . f Arctic Expedition, vol. ii. p. 97. 



returning from his great northern voyage, in whioh lie first 
obtained accounts of the remote island of Thule, he had 
sailed along the entire coast of the Ocean between G^deira 
and the Tanais; that is from Cadiz round Spain, Gaul, 
Gtermany, and Scythia, to the river Don, which was con- 
sidered by the ancients as the boundary of Europe and Asia. 
This statement furnishes an additional proof of the mendacity 
of Pytheas, because it is founded on the belief, received in 
his time, that Europe did not project far to the North, and 
that the Ocean swept along its shores to the north of Scythia 
and India." Pytheas, however, did not, in reality, lay him- 
self open to any such accusation ; the passage on which Sir 
0. Lewis relies only affirms that after his return from the 
north {iTTOpekOwv ivOhhe) he travelled along the whole coast 
of Europe from Cadiz to the Don. This, which evidently 
refers to a second journey, is a very different statement, and 
one which I see no reason to doubt. 

According to Geminus, Pytheas went so far north that 
the nights were only two or three hours long, and he adds 
that the Barbarians took him to see the place where the sun 
slept. These two statements seem to point to Donnas as 
the northernmost point of his voyage. Here the shortest 
night is two hours long, but behind the town is a mountain, 
the top of which is the southernmost point from which the 
midnight sim can be seen. The inhabitants took Professor 
Nilsson here in the year 1816, to show him the place where 
the Sim rested, just as they seem to have conducted Pytheas 
to the same spot, for the same purpose, more than 2000 years 
before. On this subject I will only add that Pytheas was no 
mere traveller, but a distinguished astronomer, who, with 
the help of the gnomon only, seems to have estimated the 
latitude of Marseilles at 43° 17' 8'', a calculation which only 
differs by a few seconds from the result given by modem 
astronomers — namely, 43° IT 52". 



I have dwelt at some length on this part of my subject, for 
while we are all anxious to pay due honour to our modem 
travellers, to Livingstone and Galton, to Speke and Grant, 
we ought not to forget those who led the way. The memory 
of great men is a precious legacy, which we cannot afford 
lightly to surrender, and not the least valuable part of 
Professor Nilsson's work on the Bronze age is the chapter, 
in which he has rescued the memory of Pytheas from the 
cloud by which it has been so long and so imjustly obscured. 

But even if Sir Comewall Lewis could have established 
his case, and destroyed our faith in these particular expe- 
ditions, still there remain overwhelming proofs of an im- 
portant and extended commerce in even more ancient times 
than those of Pytheas or Himilco. The evidence of this 
has been well put together by Dr. Smith,* of Camborne, 
to whose work I would refer those who may wish for more 
detailed information ; for the present I must content myself 
with referring to a few well-known facts, which, however, will 
be sufficient for my present purpose. 

We know, then, that Marseilles was foimded by the Phocean 
Greeks B.C. 600 ; Carthage is supposed to have been built by 
the Phoenicians about 800 B.C. ; and IJtica, according to 
Strabo and Pliny, about 300 years earlier stiQ; while, ac- 
cording to Velleius Paterculus and Pomponius Mela, the city 
of Gbdes (Cadiz) was founded by the Tyrians not long after 
the fall of Troy. Before such facts as these, all d priori 
improbability of Pytheas' voyage to Norway falls to the 
ground. The distance between Cadiz and Phoenicia is more 
than 2000 miles, and is greater than that between Cadiz and 
Norway. Even, therefore, if Pytheas effected all that has 
been claimed for him, he will not have made a longer voyage 
than hundreds of his coimtrymen had done, a thousand years 

• The Cassiterides, by George Smith, LL.D. 


The above-giyen dates must not, of course, be considered 
as exact ; but there is no reason to doubt their general ac- 
curacy. Not only do the writings of Hesiod and Qomer, 
which certainly are not of a later date than 800 B.C., 
and probably somewhat earlier, show, that the nations on 
the eastern shores of the Mediterranean were at that time 
highly civilised, and had a considerable commerce, but we 
have very valuable evidence of the same fact in the Biblical 
narrative. Indeed, brass is mentioned in the fourth chapter 
of Genesis, which would be, according to the chronology 
of the established version, 3875 B.C. ; but there is so much 
doubt about these dates, that I do not feel disposed to rely 
on this isolated i)a8sage. The high civilisation of Egypt in 
the time of Joseph is, however, apparent to every reader of the 
book of Exodus. Again,, when Solomon prepared to build 
the temple in. Jerusalem, he sent unto the king of Tyre for 
cedar-trees out of Lebanon, "for thou knowest," he said, 
*' that there is mot among us any that can skill to hew timber 
like imto the Sidonians " (1 Kings v. 6) ; and again we read, 
(/. c. vii. 13, 14) that "King Solomon sent and fetched Hiram 
out of Tyre. He was a widow's son of the tribe of Naphtali, 
and his father was a man of Tyre, a worker in brass : and he 
was fiUed with wisdom, and understanding, anid cunning to 
work aU works in brass." It is evident that the word which 
here, and in so many other passages, is translated "brass," 
should rather be " bronze." This latter, which was the com- 
mon metal of antiquity, is never mentioned in our version, 
while on the other hand, the alloy which we now term brass, 
and which is composed of copper and zinc, was not known 
in aixcient times. 

Now this bronze, which from the wholly independent 
statements of Homer and of the Book of Kings, we find 
to have been so abimdant in the East three thousand yeard 
ago, was composed of copper and tin, in the proportions of 


about nine parts of the former to one of the latter ; and the 
question therefore arises^ whence were these metak obtained? 
Copper is found in so many countries^ that we cannot^ as 
yet, form any definite opinion as to the source, or sources^ from 
which it wafl derived by the Phoenicians. Nevertheless, we 
have every reason to hope, and expect, that we shall even- 
tually be able to do so, because the slight impurities by which 
it is accompanied, are different in different places, and Dr. 
Fellenberg has published more than a hundred analyses 
,of ancient bronzes, which have already thrown some light 
on this part of the subject. As regards tin, the case is 
very different; although ores of this metal are found in 
other countries, as for instance in Saxony, and near 
Nerchinsk, in Siberia, still abnost all the tin now used is 
derived either from Cornwall, or from the island of Banca, 
which lies between Sumatra and Borneo. It has been 
supposed that tin was at one time abimdant in Spain, 
but as Dr. Smith observes,* "the most remarkable fea- 
ture in tin mining seems to be the enduring character of 
the mines. Wherever tin has been produced in any con- 
siderable quantities, within the range of authentic history, 
there it is still abundantly found. In Banca, we are told, 
the supply is inexhaustible ; and Cornwall can now supply as 
large a quantity annually as it ever could." The result 
of enquiries made of the Government Engineers, at the 
College of Mines in Madrid, is as follows : " I cannot learn 
that Spain ever produced any quantity of this metal. The 
.Government do not work any mines of tin. The quantity 
being produced at present is very small, chiefly by streamers ; 
or rather labourers, while out of their regular employment, 
search some of the rivers near the granite hills in Galicia 
and in Zamora. I cannot learn that there is any tin mining 
in the country." 

- . ♦«/.«?. 45. 


Unless^ then^ the ancients had some source of tin with 
which we are imacquainted^ it seems to be well established, 
and is indeed admitted even by Sir Comewall Lewis, that the 
Phoenician tin was mainly, if not altogether, derived from 
Cornwall, and, consequently, that even at this early period 
a considerable commerce had been organised, and very dis- 
tant countries brought into connexion with one another. Sir 
C. Lewis, however, considers that the tin was "carried across 
Gaul to Massilia, and imported thence into Greece and Italy/' 
Doubtless, much of it did in late times come by this route, 
but the Phoanicians were in the plenitude of their power 
1200 years B.C., while Massilia was not built until 600 B.C. 
Moreover, Strabo expressly says that in early times the 
Phoenicians carried on the tin trade from Cadiz, which we 
must remember was nearer to Cornwall than to Tyre or 

We are, therefore, surely quite justified in concluding that 
between B.a 1500 and B.C. 1200, the Phoenicians sailed into 
the Atlantic, and discovered the mineral fields of Spain and 
Britain; and, when we consider how well our South Coast 
must have been known to them, it is, I think, more than 
probable that they pushed their explorations still farther, in 
search of other shores as wealthy as ours. Indeed, we must 
remember that amber, so much valued in ancient times, 
could not have been obtained from any nearer source than 
the coast of the German Ocean. 

M. Morlot thinks that he has foimd traces of the Phoeni- 
cians even in America, while Professor Kilsson has attempted, 
as already mentioned, to show that they had settlements far 
up on the northern shores of Norway. M. Morlot relies on 
some antiquities, and particularly on certain glass beads, 
found in American tumuli; these, however, in the opinion 
of Mr. Franks, may be mediaeval, and of Venetian origin. 
Professor Nilsson's arguments may be reduced to seven. 


namely, the small size of the sword-handles, bracelets, etc. ; 
the character of the ornaments on the bronze implements, 
and the engravings in Bronze age tumuli; the worship of 
Baal ; certain peculiar methods of reaping and fishing ; and 
the use of war chariots. 

The implements and ornaments of bronze certainly appear 
to have belonged to a race with smaller hands than those of 
the present European nation ; the ornaments on them are 
also peculiar, and have, in Professor Nilsson's opinion, a 
symbolic meaning. Although the great stones, in tumuli 
of the Bronze age, are very seldom ornamented, or even 
hewn into shape, still there are some few exceptions; one 
of these is the remarkable monument, near Kivik in Chris- 
tianstad. From the general character of the engravings 
Professor Nilsson has no hesitation in referring this tumulus 
to the Bronze age, and on two of the stones are represen- 
tations of human figures, which may fairly be said to have 
a Phoenician, or Egyptian appearance. 

On another of the stones, an obelisk is represented, which 
Professor Nilsson regards as symbolical of the Sun-God; and 
it is certainly remarkable that in an ancient ruin in Malta, 
characterised by other decorations of the Bronze age types, 
a somewhat similar obelisk was discovered: we know also, 
that in many countries Baal, the God of the Phoenicians, was 
worshipped under the form of a conical stone. 

Nor is this, by any means, the only case in which Professor 
Nilsson finds traces of Baal worship in Scandinavia. Indeed, 
the festival of Baal, or Balder, was, he tells us, celebrated on 
Midsummer's night in Scania, and far up into Norway, almost 
to the Loffoden Islands, until within the last fifty years. A 
wood fire was made upon a hill or mountain, and the people 
of the neighbourhood gathered together in order, like Baal's 
prophets of old, to dance round it, shouting and singing. 
This Midsummer's-night-fire has even retained in some 


parts the ancient name of " Baldersbal/' or Baldersfire. 
Leopold von Bucli long ago suggested^ that this custom 
could not have originated in a country where at Midsummer 
the sun is never lost sight of, and where, consequently, the 
smoke only, not the fire, is visible. A similar custom also 
prevailed until lately in some parts of our islands. Baal 
has given his name to many Scandinavian localities, as, for 
instance, the Baltic, the Great and Little Belt, Belteberga, 
Baleshaugen, Balestranden, etc. 

The ornamentation characteristic of the Bronze age, is, in 
the opinion of Professor Nilsson, decidedly Semitic, rather 
than Lido-European. He lays considerable stress on two 
curious vase-carriages, one found in Sweden and the other 
in Mecklenburg, which certainly appear to have been very 
like the " vases" made for Solomon's temple, and described 
in the first Book of Kings. Finally, he believes that the 
use of war chariots, the practice of reaping close to the 
ear, and a certain method of fishing, are all evidences of 
Ph(Bnician intercourse. 

Professor Nilsson is so great an authority, as an archaeo- 
logist his labors have contributed so much to place the 
science on a sound basis, that his opinions are deserving of 
the most carefiil consideration. Nor can they fairly be 
judged by the very short abstract which has been given 
above, as many of his arguments must be followed in detail 
before they can be properly appreciated. That the Phoe- 
nicians have left their traces in Norway is, however, in my 
opinion, all that can fairly be deduced from the facts on 
which he relies, even if we attribute to them all the signi- 
ficance claimed for them by him. Farther evidence is re- 
quired, before it would be safe to connect them with the 
Bronze age. As regards the smallness of the handsy we 
must remember that Hindoos share this peculiarity with 
Egyptians ; this character is therefore as reconcileable with 


an Indo-European, as with, a Phcenician origin of the Bronze 
age civilisation. 

Moreover, there are two strong objections to the theory so 
ably advocated by Professor Nilsson. The first is the cha- 
racter of the ornamentation on the bronze weapons and im- 
plements. This almost always consists of geometrical figures, 
and we rarely, if ever, find upon them representations of 
animals or plants; while on the ornamented shields, etc., de- 
scribed by Homer, as well as in the decoration of Solomon's 
temple, animals and plants were abundantly represented* 
Secondly, the Phoenicians, so far as we know them, were 
well acquainted with the use of iron ; in Homer we find the 
warriors already armed with iron weapons, and the tools 
used in preparing the materials for Solomon's temple, were 
of this metal. It is very remarkable, tiiat scarcely any 
traces of ancient commerce hrive been found in Cornwall, 
and it is much to be regretted that our museums possess 
so few specimens of Phoenician art. When these wants shall 
have been supplied, as we may hope that ere long they will 
be, there is no doubt that much light will be thrown on the 

The form of the head also would be very instructive ; but, 
owing to the unfortunate habit of burning the dead which 
prevailed at that period, we have, as yet, very few skulls 
which can safely be referred to the Bronze age, and, on the 
whole, we must admit that, for the present, the ievidence is 
not sufficient to justify us in expressing any very definite 
opinion as to the source of the Bronze age civilisation. 

It is evident that a people who had acquired so fair a 
proficiency in metallurgy and manufactures, who showed so 
much taste in adorning the living, and so much reverence 
in their disposition of the dead, must have had some ideas 
of architecture and religion, although we have not, hitherto, 
found any evidence either of a coinage or an alphabet.. As 




yet, however, their arcliitectiire is almost iinknown to us. 
Doubtless, among the numerous camps, fortifications, stone 
circles, etc., which still remain, there are some which belong 
to this period, but the difficulty is to fix upon them. The 
only remains of dwellings, which we can with any confidence 

•Fio. 60. 

Stai^e Fort— Kerry. 

refer to the Bronze age, are some of the Lake- villages, which 
will be described in a future chapter. A large proportion 
of the ancient fortifications, as, for instance, Staigue Fort 
(fig. 60), belong, almost without, a doubt, to a much later 

My own impression is, that both Abury and Stonehenge, — 
the two greatest monuments of their kind, not only in Eng- 
land, but even in Europe, belong to this period. The Aw- 
torical account, if I may use such an expression, of Stone- 
henge is, that it was erected by Aurelius Ambrosius, in 
memory of the British chieftains, treacherously murdered 
by Hengist and the Saxons, about the year 460. Giraldus 
Cambrensis, writing at the close of the twelfth century, 
says, "That there was in Ireland, in ancient times, a 
pile of stones worthy of admiration, called the Giants' 
Dance, because Giants, from the remotest parts of Africa, 
brought them into Ireland ; and in the plains of Kildare, not 
far from the castle of Naas, as well by force of art, as 
strength, miraculously set them up; and similar stones, 
erected in a like manner, are to be seen there at this day. 


It is wonderftil how so many and such hirge stones could 
have been collected in one place, and by what artifice they 
could have been erected ; and other stones, not less in size, 
placed upon such large and lofty stones, which appear, as it 
were, to be so suspended in the air, as if by the design of the 
workmen, rather than by the support of the upright stones* 
These stones (according to the Britiah history) Aurelius 
Ambrosiiis, king of the Britons, procured Merlin, by super- 
natural means, to bring from Ireland into Britain. And 
that he might have some famous monument of so great a 
treason to future ages, in the some order and art as they 
stood formerly, set them up where the flower of the British 
cation fell by the cut-throat practice of the Saxons, and 
where, imder the pretence of peace, the iU-secured youth of 
the kingdom, by murderous designs, were slain/'* 

This account is clearly mythical. Moreover, the very name 
of Stonehenge, seems to me a very strong argument against 
those who attribute to it so recent an origin. It is generally 
considered to mean the Hanging-stones, as indeed was long 
ago suggested by Wace, an Anglo-Norman poet, who says, 

Stanhengues ont nom en Englois 
Pieres pandues en Francois, f 

but it is surely more natural to derive the last syllable fix)m 
the Anglo-Saxon word "ing," a field; as we have Keston, 
originally Xyst-staning, the field of stone cof&ns. What 
more natural, than that a new race, finding this magnificent 
ruin, standing in solitary grandeur on Salisbury Plain, and 
able to learn nothing of its origin, should call it simply 
the place, of stones ? what more unnatural, than that they 
should do so, if they knew the name of him, in whose honor 
it was erected ? The plan, also, of Stonehenge seems to be a 
sufficient reason for not referring it to post-Boman times. It 

• GiralduB. Topogr. of Ireland, 
t Wright's Wanderings of an Antiquary, p. 301. 


has, indeed, been urged that if Stonehenge had existed, in the 
time of CaBsar, we should find it mentioned by ancient writers. 
HecatBBUfl^ however^ does allude to a magnificent circular 
temple, in the island of the Hyperboreans, over against Gel- 
tica, and many >arcli£eol(^gists have confidently assmned that 
this refers to Stonehenge. But why. should we expect to 
find it described, if it was, as we suppose, even at that time 
a ruin, more perfect no doubt than at this day, but still a 
ruin P The Caledonian Wall was a most important fortifi- 
cation, constructed by the Romans themselves, and yet, as 
Dr. Wilson tells us,* only one of the Roman historians makes 
the least allusion to its erection. 

It is evident, that Stonehenge was at one time a spot of 
great sanctity. A glance at the ordnance map will show, 
that tumuli cluster in great nimibers round, and within sight 
of it ; within a radius of three miles, there are about three 
himdred burial mounds, while the rest of the country is 
comparatively free from them. If, then, we could determine 
the date of these tumuli, we should be justified, I think, 
in referring the Great Temple itself to the same period. 
Now, of these barrows. Sir Bichard Colt Hoare examined 
a great number, 151 of which had not been previously 
opened. Of these, the great majority contained inter- 
meiits by cremation, in the manner usual during the Bronze 
age. Only two contained any iron weapons, and these were 
both secondary interments ; that is to say, the owners of the 
iron weapons were not the original occupiers of the timiuli. 
Of the other burial mounds, no less than 39 contained objects 
of bronze, and one of them, in which were found, a spear- 
head, and pin of bronze, was still more connected with the. 
temple by the presence of fragments, not only of Sareen 
stones, but also of the blue stones which form the inner, circle 
at Stonehenge; and which, according to Sir R. C. Hoare, 
' • Pre-historic Aim; of Scot, toI. ii. p. 319, 


abury; 63 

do not naturally occur in Wiltshire. Under these circum- 
stances^ we may surely refer Stonehenge to the Bronze agej 

Abury is much less known than Stonehenge, and yet, 
though a ruder, it must have been originally even a grander 
temple. According to Aubrey, Abury "did as much ex- 
ceed Stonehenge as a cathedral does a parish church.'' 
When perfect, it consisted of a circular ditch and em- 
bankment, containing an area of 28^ acres ; insidie the ditch 
was a circle of great stones, and within this, again, two smaller 
circles, formed by a double row of similar stones, standing side 
by side. From the outer embankment, started two long 
winding avenues of stones, one of which went in the direc- 
tion of Beckhampton, and the other in that of Kennet, where 
it ended in another double circle. Stukely supposed that the 
idea of the whole was that of a snake transmitted through a 
circle ; the Xennet circle representing the head, the Beck- 
hampton avenue the tail. Midway between the two avenues; 
stood Silbury Hill, the largest artificial mound in Great 
Britain, measuring no less than 170 feet in height. 
From its position, it appears to form part of the general 
plan, and though it has been twice examined, no primary 
interment has been found in it. On the whole, this appears 
to have been the finest megalithio ruin in Europe ; but, un4 
fortimately for us, the pretty little village of Abury, like 
some beautiM parasite, has grown up at the expense, and iii 
the midst, of the ancient temple, and out of 650 great stones, 
not above 20 are still standing. 

In a very interesting article,* Mr. Fergusson has attempted to 
prove, that both Stonehenge and Abury belong to post-Roman 
times. Some of his arguments I have already replied to, in dis- 
cussing the age of Stonehenge. There is one, however, which 
relates specially to Silbury Hill. " The Homan road,^' he 
says, "from Bath to Marlborough, either passes under the hill, 
* Quarterly Review, July, 1860, p. 209. 


or makes a sudden bend to get round it in a manner that no 
Roman road, in Britain at least, was ever known to do. .... 
No onB standing on Oldborough Down, and casting his eye 
along its straight unbending line, can avoid seeing that it 
runs straight at the centre of Bilbury Hill. It is true, it may 
have diverged just before hitting it, but nothing can be more 
nnlikely. It would have been just as easy for the Eoman 
engineer to have carried its arrow-like course a hundred 
yards to the right. This, indeed, would have been a prefer- 
able line, looked at from a Roman point of view, — straight 
for Marlborough, to which it was tending, and fitting better 
to a fragment of ihe roady found beyond the village of 
Kennet. But all this was disregarded, if the hill existed at 
that time, and the road runs straight at its heart, as if on 
purpose to make a sharp turn to avoid it, — a thing as ab« 
horrent to a Roman road-maker, as a vacuum is said to be to 
nature. From a careful examination of all the circumstances 
of the case, the conclusion seems inevitable, that Silbury Hill 
stands on the Roman road, and consequently must have been 
erected subsequently to the time of the Romans leaving the 

Startled by this argument, and yet satisfied that there must 
be some error, I turned to the ordnance map, and found, to 
my surprise, that the Roman road was distinctly laid down 
as passing, not under, but at the side of, Silbury Hill. Not 
content with this, I persuaded Professor Tyndall to visit the 
locality with me, and we convinced ourselves that upon this 
point the map was quite correct. The impression on our 
minds was, that the Roman engineer, in constructing the 
road from Morgans Hill, had taken Silbury Hill as a point to 
steer for, swerving only just before reaching it. Moreover, 
the map will show that not only this Roman road, but some 
others in the same part of £ngland> are less straight than is. 
usually the case. 


Mr. FergusBon admits, in the passage just quoted, that 
the pieces of the road, on the two sides of Silbury Hill, are 
not in the same straight line, so that by his own showing 
there must have been a bend somewhere. On the whole, 
therefore, I quite agree with old Stukeley, that the Boman 
road curved abruptly southwards, to avoid Silbury Hill, and 
that "this shows Silbury HiU was ancienter than the 
Eoman road."* 

How much more ancient, it is impossible to say. Stukeley 
thinks it was founded in 1859 B.C., the year of the death of 
Sarah, Abraham's wife. It is wi^er to confess our ignorance, 
than to waste valuable time in useless guesses. Still, as the 
stones of Stonehenge are roughly hewn, and as this is not 
the case with any of those at Abury, it seems reasonable 
to conclude, with Sir R. C. Hoare, and other able archsoolo- 
gists, that Abury was the older of the two ; and those who 
are disposed to agree with me, in referring Stonehenge to the 
later part of the Bronze age, will perhaps also do so in attri- 
buting Abxiry to the commencement, or at least the earlier 
portion, of the same period, for, though far from impossible, 
it is hardly probable, that so great a work should belong to 
the Stone age-f 

* Mr. Rlandford, who superintended in selecting some competent archseolo- 

the opening of the Hill in 1849, came gist, who might he appointed Con- 

abo to the same conclusion. servator of the National Antiquities ; 

t It is impossihle to mention Ahury, whose duty it would he to preserTO, as 

without regretting that so magnificent far as possihle, from wanton injury, 

a national monument should have heen the graves of our ancestors, and other 

destroyed, for a paltry profit of a few interesting memorials of the past ; to 

pounds. As population increases, and make careful drawings of all those 

land grows more valuable, these ancient which have not yet been figured, and 

monuments become more and more to report, from time to time, as to their 

liable to mutilation or destruction. condition. At a very trifling expense 

We cannot afford them the protec- the Danish Government have bought 

tion of our museums, nor, perhaps, for the nation a large number of tumuli, 

would it be desirable to do so, but it and have thus preserved many national 

is well worthy of consideration whether monuments which would otherwise have 

Government would not act wisely been destroyed. 


There is not, as yet, any satisfactory evidence either as to 
the age or origin of the great stone-circles. They are con- 
sidered by most antiquaries to have been originally temples : 
some, however, are rather disposed to regard them as courts of 
law, or battle-rings. Dr. Wilson* tells us that Mr. George 
Petrie has called his attention to several cases, in which the 
Orkney circles have been thus used, in comparatively modem 
times. In 1349, William de Saint Michael was summoned 
to attend a court held " apud stantes lapides de Bane en le 
Gamiach,'* to answer for his forcible detention of certain 
ecclesiastical property; and in 1380, Alexander, Lord of 
Regality of Badenoch, and son of Robert II., held a court 
''apud le standand stanys de la Rathe de Eyngucy Estir,'' 
to enquire into the titles, by which the Bishop of Moray 
held certain of his lands. Even so late as the year 1438, we 
find a notice, that " John off Erwyne and Will. Bemardson 
swor on the Hirdmane Stein before cure Lorde ye Erie off 
Orknay and the gentiless off the cuntre.'* Opinions, how- 
ever, will differ, as. to how far this comparatively recent 
use of the stone circles justifies us in forming an opinion, 
'^fsith regard to the purpose for which they were originally 
intended. Megalithic erections, resembling those which are 
generally, but hastily, ascribed to the Druids, are found 
in very different- countries. Mr. Maurice f was, I believe, 
the first to point out, that in some parts of India, there 
are various monuments of stone, which "recal strongly 
those mysterious, solitary, or clustered monuments of im- 
known origin, so long the puzzle and delight of antiquaries, 
which abound in our native country, and are seen here and 
there in all parts of Europe and Western Asia." 

Mr. Fergusson goes farther, and argues with great in- 
genuity that the "Buddhist architecture in India, as prac- 

* Pre-historic Annals of Scotland, second edition, toI. i. p. 164. 
t India Antiqna. 


tised from tHe third century B.C. to seventli a.d., is essentially 
tmnular, circular^ and external^ thus possessing the three 
great characteristics of ajl the so-called Druidical remains."* 
These resemblances, indeed, are too great to be accidental, and 
the differences represent, not so much a difference in style, as 
in civilisation. Thus, the tumuli of India, though sometimes 
of earth, are " generally of rubble masonry internally, and of 
hewn stone or brick on the external surface, and originally 
were apparently always surrounded by a circular enclosure of 
upright stones, though in later times this came to be attached 
to the building as an ornamental band, instead of an inde- 
pendent feature. In the most celebrated example in India, 
that at Sanchee, the circle consists of roughly squared up- 
right stone posts, joined at the top by an architrave of the 
same thickness as the posts, exactly as at Stonehenge ; the 
only difference being the insertion of three stone rails be- 
tween each of the uprights, which is a masonic refinement 
hardly to be expected among the Celts.'* In India, then, 
the circles of stones seem generally to have surrounded 
tumuli; but this is not always the case, and there are 
some, "which apparently enclose nothing." Again, they 
are generally covered with sculpture ; but to this also there 
are exceptions, as, for instance, at Amravati, where there are 
numberless little circles of rude unhewn stone, identical with 
those in this country, but smaller." 

The great stones at Stonehenge are, as we know, roughly 
hewn, and there is a very remarkable cromlech, near Con- 
folens in Charente, in which the upper stone is supported, 
not on rude stone blocks, but on four slender columns."t 
At this stage, the Druidical architecture in Western Europe 
was replaced by a tot^y different style, while in India, on 
the contrary, it was permitted to follow its natural course of 
development ; so that it requires an observant eye to detect, 
* L e, p. 212. t Statestique Monumentale de la Gbarente. 


in the rude cromleclis, stone circles, and tumuli, the proto- 
types of the highly decorated architecture of the Buddhists. 

It is a very remarkable fact that even to the present day, 
some of the hill tribes in India continue to erect cromlechs, 
and other combinations of gigantic stones, sometimes in rows, 
sometimes in circles, in either case very closely resembling 
those found in Western Europe. Among the Khasias,* "the 
ftmeral ceremonies are the only ones of any importance, and 
are often conducted with barbaric pomp and expense ; and 
rude stones of gigantic proportions are erected as monuments, 
singly or 'in rows, circles, or supporting one another like 
those of Stonehenge, which they rival in dimensions and 

Those who believe that the use of metal was introduced 
into Europe by a race of Indo-European origin, will find, in 
these interesting facts a confirmation of their opinion ; but, 
on the other hand. Professor Nilsson might appeal to pas- 
sages in the Old Testament, which show the existence of 
similar customs, if not among the Phoenicians, at least 
among their neighbours. Thus, we are told in Genesis 
xxxi. that " Jacob took a stone and set it up for a pillar ;" 
and in verse 51, "Laban said to Jacob, behold this heap, 
and behold this pillar, which I have cast between me and 
thee. This heap is a witness, and this pillar is a witness, 
that I will not pass over this heap to thee, and that thou 
shalt not pass over this heap and this pillar to me, to do me 
harm," etc. At Mount Sinai, Moses erected twelve pillars.f 
And so, again, when the children of Israel had crossed over 
Jordan, Joshua took twelve stones and pitched them in 
GKlgal. " And he spake imto the children of Israel, saying. 
When your children shall ask their fathers in time to come, 
saying. What mean these stones P Then ye shall let your 

* Dr. Hooker's Himalayan Journal, toL ii., p. 276. See also p. 320. 
t Ex. zxiy. 4. 


children know, saying, Israel came oyer this Jordan on dry 
land."* In Moab, De Sanlcy observed rude stone avenues, 
and otter monuments, whicli lie compares to Celtic dolmens ; 
and Stanley saw, a few miles to tlie north of Tyre, a circle of 
rough upright stones. 

Bemains, more or less similar, occur, however, in very dif- 
ferent parts of the world ; thus, in Algeria MM. H. Christy 
and L. Feraudf have recently examined a large number of 
cromlechs, stone-circles, and other ancient remains, very 
closely resembling those, which, in Northern Europe, we have 
been in the habit of ascribing to the Druids. They occur in 
great numbers ; indeed, in the neighbourhood of Constantine, 
MM. Christy and Feraud saw more than a thousand, in three 
days. They opened fourteen of the cromlechs, all of which 
turned out, as might have been expected, to be places of 
burial. The corpse had been deposited in a contracted 
position, accompanied sometimes by rings of copper or iron, 
worked flints, and fragments of pottery ; in one case even 
by a coin of Faustina, who lived in the second century after 

Again, Arctic travellers mention stone-circles, and stone- 
rows,, among the Esquimaux, though it would appear that 
these stone-circles are quite small, and merely form the lower 
part of their habitations. 

Thus, then, it is e\'ident that similar monimients have been 
erected, in very different countries, and at very different 
periods ; generally, however, in honor of some distinguished 
man, or to commemorate some great event. 

* Joshua iy. 21, 22. 

t Recaeil des notices et Memoires de la Sooiet6 Arcli6ologlqiie de la Proyince 
de ConstaatinQ, 1863, p. 214. 




rB preceding diapters liaye been deToted to the age 
of Bronze. We must now reyert to still earlier times 
and ruder races of men; to a period which, for obvious 
reasons, is called by archssologists the Stone age. 

The Stone age, however, if by this we signify merely the 
ante-metallic period, hSls naturally, as has been already 
stated, into two great divisions. 

First. The period of the drift, which I have proposed to 
call the Archssolithic period. 

Secondly. The Neolithic, or later Stone age, which we must 
now consider, in which the stone implements are more skil- 
fully made, more varied in form, and often polished. 

The immense number of stone implements which occur, in 
all jmrts of the world, is sufficient evidence of the im- 
portant part they played in ancient times. M. Herbst has 
favored me with the following interesting statement of the 
number of stone and bone implements in the Copenhagen 

Flint axes and wedges 1070 

Broad Chisels 285 

Hollow ditto ;......... 270 

Narrow chisels 365 

Hollow ditto 33 

Poniards 250 

Lance-heads 656 


lo^/hc>e pa 


Arrow-lieads 171 

Halfinoon shaped implements 205 

Pierced axes and axe-hammers ......... 746 

Flint flakes 300 

Sundries 489 

Bough stone implements from the 

Kjokkenmoddings 3678 

Bone implements 171 

Ditto from Kjokkenmoddings 109 

And if duplicates and broken specimens were coimted, he 
thinks that the nimiber would be between 11,000 and 
12,000. He has also had the kindness to estimate for me 
the nimibers in private and provincial museums, and, on 
the whole, he believes we shall be within the mark, if 
we consider that the Danish museimis contain 30,000 stone 
implements, to which moreover must be added the rich 
stores at Flensborg and Eiel, as well as the very nimier- 
ous specimens with which the liberality of the Danish 
archaeologists has enriched other countries; so that there 
IS scarcely any important collection in Europe, which does 
not possess some illustrations of the Danish stone implements. 
The museimi of the Royal Irish Academy includes nearly 
700 flint flakes, 612 celts, more than 400 arrow-heads, and 
50 spear-heads, besides 75 "scrapers," and numerous other 
objects of stone, such as slingstones, hammers, whetstones, 
querns, grain-crushers, etc. Again, the museimi at Stockholm 
is estimated to contain between 15,000 and 16,000 specimens* 
The very existence, however, of a Stone age is, or has 
lately been, denied by some eminent archaeologists. Thus 
Mr. Wright, the learned Secretary of the Ethnological So- 
ciety, while admitting that *^ there may have been a period 


when society was in so barbarous a state that sticks or 
stones were the only implements with which men kaew how 
to furnish themselves," doubts "if the antiquary has yet 
found any evidence of such a period." And though the 
above figures are sufficient to prove that stone was at one 
time used for many implements, which we now make of metal, 
this is not in itself a conclusive answer to Mr. Wright, nor 
in fact would it be denied by that gentleman. Moreover, 
there is no doubt, that in early ages stone and metal were 
used at the same time, the first by the poor, the second by 
the rich. 

If we consider the difficulties of mining in early days, 
the rude implements with which men had then to work, 
their ignorance of the many ingenious methods, by which 
the operations of modem miners are so much facilitated, 
and, finally, the difficulties of carriage either by land or 
water, it is easy to see that bronze implements must have 
been very expensive. 

In addition, moreover, to the a priori probability, there is 
plenty of direct evidence, that bronze and stone were in use 
at the same time. Thus, Mr. Bateman records thirty-seven 
instances of tumuli which contained objects of bronze, and 
in no less than twenty-nine of these, stone implements also 
were found. At the time of the discovery of America, the 
Mexicans, though well acquainted with the use of bronze, 
still used flakes of obsidian for knives and razors, and even 
after the introduction of iron, stone was still used for various 

Still, however, there appears, to be enough evidence to jus- 
tify us in believing, not only that there was a period "when 
society was in so barbarous a state that sticks or stones," (to 
which we must add horns and bones) " were the only imple- 
ments with which men knew how to furnish themselves," but 
also that the antiquary has found sufficient "evidence of such 


a period." Part, at least, of this evidence will be found in the 
following pages ; and though it is true that much of it has 
been obtained since our accomplished countryman published 
the work from which I have just quoted, yet he has recently 
repeated his previous statements in a lecture delivered at 

Our knowledge of this ancient period is derived princi- 
pally from four sources, to the consideration of which I 
propose to devote the four following chapters; namely, 
the tumidi, or ancient burial-mounds, the Lake habitations 
of Switzerland, the Kjokkenmoddings, or shell -mounds, 
of Denmark, and the Bone-Caves. There are, indeed, 
other remains of great interest, such, for example, as the 
ancient fortifications, the "castles" and "camps" which 
crown so many of our hiU-tops, and the great lines of 
embankment, such as the Wansdyke, which cross so many 
of our downs, where they have been spared by the plough ; 
there are the so-called druidical circles, and the vestiges 
of ancient habitations; the "Hut-circles," "Cloghauns," 
"Weems," "Picts' houses," etc. The majority of these 
belong, however, in all probability, to a later period ; and 
at any rate, in the present state of our knowledge, we can- 
not say which, or how many of them, istre referable to the 
Stone age. 

As far as the material is concerned, every kind of stone, 
which was hard and tough enough for the purpose, was 
used in the manufacture of implements. The magnificent 
collection of celts at Dublin has been specially studied, from 
a mineralogical point of view, by the Rev. S. Haughton, and 
the results are thus recorded by Wilde.* 

" Of the better qualities of rock suited for celt-making, 
the type of the felspathic extreme of the series of trap rocks 

is the pure felstone, or petrosilex, of a pale blueish 

* Catalogue of the Boyal Irish Academy, p. 72. 


or grayish green> except where the surface has been acted 
upon, and the average composition of which is 25 parts 
quartz and 75 felspar. Its physical characters are absence 
of toughness, and the existence of a splintery conchoidal 

fracture almost as sharp as that of flint At the 

homblendic extreme of the trap rocks we find the basalt, of 
which also celts were made ; tough and heavy, the siliceous 
varieties having a splintery fracture, but never affording so 

cutting an edge as the former Intermediate in 

character between these two rocks, we find aU the varieties of 
felstone, slate and porphyry streaked with hornblende, from 
which the great majority of the foregoing implements have 
been made." 

On the whole, however, flint appears to have been the 
stone most often used in Europe, and it has had a much 
more important influence on our civilisation than is generally 
supposed. Savages value it on account of its hardness 
and mode of fracture, which is such that, with practice, a 
good sound block can be chipped into almost any form 
that may be required. If we take a rounded hammer, and 
strike with it on a flat surface of flint, a conoidal fracture 
is produced ; the size of which depends, in a great measure, 
on the form of the hammer. The surface of fracture is 
propagated downwards through the flint, in a diverging 
direction, and thus embraces a cone, whose apex is at the 
point struck by the hammer, and which can afterwards be 
chipped out of the mass. Flint cones, formed in this way, 
may sometimes be found in heaps of stones broken up to 
mend the roads, and have doubtless often been mistaken for 
casts of fossil shells. 

K a blow is given, not on a flat surface, but at the angle 
of a more or less square flint, the fracture is at first semi- 
conoidal or nearly so, but after expanding for a short dis- 
tance, it becomes flat, and may be propagated through a 



lengtli of as mucli as ten inclies, thus forming a blade-like 
flake (figs. 62-69), with a triangnlar cross section (fig. 70). 
The consequence is, that a perfect flint flake will always have 
a small bulb, or projection (fig. 63 a) at the butt end, on the 
flat side ; this has been called the bulb, or cone of percussion. 
After the four original angles of a square block have been thus 
flaked off, the eight new angles may be treated in a simi- 
lar manner, and so on. Fig. 61, and pi. 1, fig. 6, represent 
blocks, or cores, from 
which flakes have been 
struck off. A flake it- 
self is represented in pi. ^^^^ ^ ^^^* ^ 
1, fig. 7, anda very large 
one from Fannerup in 
Jutland is figured, one- 

Fia. 62. 

Fio. 63. 

Fia. 64. 

Fio. 61. 

Flint core or nucleus. Flint Flake— Denmark. 

half of the natural size, in figs. 62-64. The bulb is shown 

• 6 


in figs. 63 a and 64, and the flake has been worked into a 
point at the end. Fig. 65 is an arrow-shaped flake from 

Fio. 85. 

AiTow-shaped Flint Flake— Ireland. 

Ireland, in which the butt end has been chipped away, 
apparently to adapt it to a handle or shaft. 

Fio. 66. 

Fio. 67. 

Fio. 68. 

Fio. 69. 


Flint Flakes— Denmark. 

Figs. 66-69 are small Danish flakes ; forms exactly simi- 
lar might be found in any country where the ancient in- 
habitants could obtain flint or obsidian. In fig. 66, we see 


tiiat anotlier flake had been previously taken from the same 
block. Figs. 67, 68, represent flakes, of wliich the points 
have been broken ofiP, but we see along their whole length 
the depression caused by the removal of a previous 
flake. The section of 

Flo. 70. 

such a flake is, there- 
fore, not triangular, as 
in fig. 70a, but four- 
sided, as in fig. 70b. 
Sometimes, though not 
often, a wide flake is 

, , ^ . , Section* of Flakes. 

taken on m such a way 

as to overlap two previous flakes, as in the case of the one 
represented in fig. 69. In this instance, the section is jfenta- 
gonal ; the flat under surface remaining always the same, 
but the upper side showing four facets. 

Easy as it may seem to make such flakes as these, a little 
practice will convince any one who attempts to do so, that a 
certain knack is required, and that it is also necessary to be 
careM in the selection of the flint. It is therefore evident 
that these flint flakes, simple as they may appear, are always 
the work of man. To make one, the flint must be held 
firmly, and then a considerable force must be applied, either 
by pressure or by blows, repeated three or four times, but at 
least three, and given in certain slightly different directions, 
with a certain definite force ; conditions which could scarcely 
occur in nature ; so that, simple as it may seem to the un- 
trained eye, a flint flake is to the antiquary as sure a trace of 
man, as the footprint in the sand was to Bobinson Crusoe. 

It is hardly necessary to say, that the flakes have a sharp 
cutting edge on each side, and might therefore be at once 
used as knives : they are indeed so named by some archae- 
ologists; but it seems to me more convenient to call them 
simply flakes, and to confine the name of knife to imple- 



Fio. 71. 

ments more especially intended and adapted for catting 

Many of the flakes were certainly never intended to serre 
as kniyesy but were chipped up into saws^ awls, or arrow- 
heads. Many savages use flint, or chert, in this manner, 
even at the present day, and the Mexicans in the time of 
Cortez used precisely similar fragments of obsidian. 

Next to flint flakes, axes, wedges, or celts, are, perhaps, of 
most importance. The largest and finest specimens are found 
in Denmark ; one in my possession, of beautiM white flint, is 
13in. long, l^in. thick, and 3Jin. in 
breadth. The Seeland axes have very 
often, indeed generally, perpendicular 
rides; in Jutland a large proi)ortion 
have sloping sides; this is also gene- 
rally the case in other parts of North- 
Westem Europe. In Switzerland, how- 
ever, the axes, which are much smaller 
than those from Denmark, have per- 
pendicular sides (fig. 
120). The common 
Danish axe or wedge 
is figured in pi. 1, fig. 
1. Figs. 71 and 72, 
represent forms which, 
though rare in Seeland, 
are common in other 
parts of Europe. Those 
found in Denmark are 
sometimes polished, but 
almost, if not quite, as 

Stone Axea-Ireland. often, left rOUgh. On 

the contrary, in other parts of North- Western Europe, the 
axes are usually ground to a more or less smooth surface. 

Fio. 72. 




Fro. 7S. 

That they were fixed in wooden handles is evident, in many 
specimens, from peculiar polished spaces, which have been 
produced by the friction of the wood. In abnost all cases, 
the wooden handle has long perished, but there are one or 
two instances on record, in which it has been 
preserved. Fig. 73 represents a stone hatchet, 
found, some years ago, in the County of Mona- 
ghan ; the handle was of pine, and was 13|in. 
long. Horn handles have been frequently 
found in the Swiss Lakes. To us, accustomed 
as we are to the use of metals, it seems difficult 
to believe that such things were ever made use 
of; we know, however, that many savages of 
the present day have no better tools. Yet, 
with axes such as these, and generally with 
the assistance of fire, they will cut down large 
trees, and hollow them out into canoes. The 
piles used in the Swiss Stone age Lake-habi- 
tations were evidently, from the form of the cuts on them, 
prepared with the help of stone axes ; and in the Danish 
peat bogs, several trees have been found, with the marks 
of stone axes, and of fire, upon them, and in one or two cases 
stone celts have even been found lying at the side. 

That they were also weapons of war is probable, not only on 
d priori grounds, but also because they have frequently been 
found in the graves of chiefs, associated with bronze daggers. 
About the year 1809, a large cairn in Kirkcudbrightshire, 
popularly supposed to be the tomb of a King Aldus M'Galdus, 
was removed by a fanner. "When the cairn had been re- 
moved, the workmen came to a stone coffin of very rude 
workmanship, and on removing the lid, they found the 
skeleton of a man of uncommon size. The bones were in 
such a state of decomposition, that the ribs and vertebraB 
crumbled into dust on attempting to lift them. The rem^- 

stone Celt in handle. 



ing bones being more compact, were taken out, wh"en it was 
discovered that one of the arms had been ahnost separated 
from the shoulder by the stroke of a stone axe, and that a 
fragment of the axe still remained^ in the bone. The axe 
had been of greenstone, a material which does not occur in 
this part of Scotland. There were also found with this 
skeleton a ball of flint, about three inches in diameter, which 
was perfectly round and highly polished, and the head of an 

Fio. 74, 

JFiQ .7&. 


arrow, also of flint, but not a iparticle of any metallic 

Another class of stone hatchets are those which are pierced 
for the handle, as in pi. 1, fig. 2. From the nature of flint, 

• New Statist. Ace. Kirkcudbrightshire, toI. iv., p. 332. Quoted by WiUon> 
Prehis. Ann. of Scotland, 2d ed. toI. i., p. 187. 


these were scarcely ever made of that material. There are, 
howeyer, in Copenhagen two such hatchets, in which ad- 
vantage has been ingeni^^iusly taken of a natural hole in the 
flint. It is very doubtM, whether this class of implements 
tmly belongs to the Stone age. The pierced axes are 
generally found in graves of the Bronze period, and it is 
most probable that this mode of attachijig the handle was 
used very rarely, if at all, until the discovery of metal had 
rendered the process far more easy than could have been the 
case previously. 

The so-called "scrapers," (figs. 74, 75, 105,. 106), are 
oblong stones, rounded at one end, which is brought to a 
bevelled edge by a series of small blows. One side is flat, 
the other, or outer, one is more or less convex ; sometimes 
they have a short handle, which gives them very much the 
appearance of a spoon. They have been found in England, 
France, Denmark, Ireland, Switzerland and other countries. 

Fio. 76. Fio. 77. Flo. 78. 

Esqoimanx Scraper. 

Theiy vary from one to four inches in length, and from half ^ 
an inch to two inches in breadth. A modem Esquimaux 
scraper is represented in figs. 76-78. These modem speci- 
mens are in form identical with the old ones. 



To the small, triangular " axes^'' (figs. 79-81) which are 
very characteristic of the Kjokkemndddings, as well as of the 
Coastfindsy I have applied the name by which they are usually 
known, but without wishing to prejudge the question as to 
their purpose. They are flat on one side, and more or less 
conyex on the other ; rudely triangular or quadrangular in 

Fio. 79. 

Flo. 80. 

Fie. 81. 


Danish Axe. 

shape, with the cutting edge at the broader end ; and from 
2|in. to 5Jin. in length, with a breadth of l|in. to 2Jin. 
They are never ground, and the cutting edge, though not 
sharp, is very strong, as it is formed by a plane, meeting 
the flat side at a very obtuse angle. Professor Steenstrup 
doubts whether these curious and peculiar implements were 
ever intended for axes, and regards them as having been, 
in all probability, mere weights for fishing lines, in support 
of which view he figures some not, perhaps, very dissimilar 
stone objects, used for that purpose by the Esquimaux. 
The so-called edge, in his opinion, neither has, nor could 



have, been used for cutting, but is merely the result of that 
form, which was found by the fishermen to be most con- 
venient. He also calls attention to the polished facets on 
their surfaces, which he regards as affording strong support 
to his opinion. 

It must be at once admitted, that there are many of these 

Fig. 82. Fio. 88, Fig. 84. 

New Zealand Adze. 

"axes" which can never have been used for cutting, but 
these may be regarded as failures, and are certainly not to 
be taken as normal specimens. It is true that the two 
surfaces, constituting the edge, form a very obtuse angle with 
one another, but we must remember that if this detracts from 
the sharpness, it adds greatly to the strength. Moreover, the 
angle is almost exactly the same as that which we find in 
the adzes of the New Zealanders, and other South Sea 
Islanders. Figs. 82-84, represent a recent adze, brought 
by the Rev. R. Taylor from New Zealand, and now in the 
British Museiun, which very closely resembles the typical 



axes of the Kjokkenmoddings. The edge, indeed, is polished, 
but is after all not smoother than the natural fracture of the 
flint. The projection on the underside of the Danish speci- 
men (fig, 81a.) is accidental, and due to some peculiarity in 
the flint. This surface is usually as flat in the Danish speci- 
mens, as in the New Zealand. 

The chiseh (pi. 1, fig. 5) resemble the Danish axes, in 
having perpendicular sides, but they are 
narrower, and are almost always groimd 
to a smooth surface. Many of them 
are slightly hollowed on one side, as 
in fig. 85. 

There is a curious flat, semi-circular, 
flint instrument (pi. 1, fig. 3), common 
in Denmark, but very rarely, if ever, 
foimd in Great Britain. The convex 
edge was evidently fastened into a 
handle of wood, the marks of which 
are still in many cases plainly visible. 
The other edge, which is either straight 
or concave, is generally provided with 
a number of teeth, giving it more or less 
resemblance to a saw. In some cases, 
it is so much worn away by use, that 
the implement takes the form of a new 
moon or a boomerang. The edge is in 
many cases quite polished, evidently by continuous friction 
against a soft substance. I say a soft substance, because 
the polished part overlaps on both sides, and passes in 
between the teeth of the saw, which would not have been 
otherwise the case. It is probable that the semi-lunar 
instruments were fixed in wooden handles, and then used 
in cleaning skins. Similarly shaped instruments are even 
now used as knives by the Esquimaux women, under the 

HoUow Chisel. 


Fio. 87. 

name of Ooloos. It might be conyenient to apply this 
term to the ancient Danish specimens. 

The so-called "awls'* are rude pieces of flint, or flakes 
worked up at one place by a number of small chips to a 
point (fig. 125). Though not very sharp, they are pretty 

The spear-heada (fig. 86) are very vari- 
able in size and form ; some of them are 
scarcely distinguishable from 
large arrow-heads ; others are ^®- ^ 
much larger. Some are so 
rude that it is questionable 
whether they were finished, 
while others are marvellous 
specimens of ancient art. One 
in my possession is 12in. in 
length, l^in. in breadth, and 
of wonderftdly beautiful work- i^\ 
manship. It is one of six, 
foimd together inside a large ^ 
tumulus in the island ofbl 

The daggers (pi. 1, fig. 4, \ 
and fig. 87) are also marvels 
of skill in flint - chipping. 
Their form so closely resem- 
bles that of metallic daggers, 
that some antiquaries are in- 
clined to regard them as 
copies of bronze daggers, and. 
therefore as not belonging to 
the Stone age. The localities 
in which they have been found 
do not, however, offer any support to this hypothesis. 





Fio. 88. 

Another form of flint weapon (fig. 88), wMch is common 
in Denmark, has a handle like that of the last form, but 
instead of a blade, it ends in a point, and suggests the 
idea, that if the tip of a dagger had been accidentally broken 
off, the rest of the weapon might have been worked up into 
one of these poniards, and thus utilized. In 
both these classes, the crimping along the 
edges of the handle is very curious. 

The sKngstones are of two kinds. The 
first are merely rough pieces of flint, (pi. 
1, fig. 12), reduced by a few blows of a 
hammer to a convenient size and form. 
But for the situations in which they are 
found, these might almost be regarded as 
natural fragments. Professor Steenstrup is 
now disposed to think that many of them 
were used as sinkstones for nets, but that 
some have really served as slingstones seems 
to be indicated by their presence in the Peat- 
mosses, which it is difficult to account for in 
any other way. The other kind of sling- 
stones are round flattish flint disks, some 
of which are beautifully made. 

The oval iool-stones (fig. 89), or "Tilhug- 
gersteens" of the northern antiquaries, are 
oval or egg-shaped stones, 
more or less indented on one 
or both surfaces. Their use 
is not at present thoroughly 
imderstood. Some antiqua- oyai Tooistooe. 
ries suppose that they were held between 

Dagger (broken at 

the point). the finger and thumb, and used as hammers 
or chippers. If, however, a large series is obtained, it will 
be found that the depression varies greatly in depth, and 


Fxo. 89. 



that sometimes the stone is completely perforated, which 
fELYors the views of those who regard these implements as 
ringstones for nets, or small hammer heads. 

Other stones, in which the longer axis is encircled by a 
groove, appear to have been evidently intended as sinkstones 
for nets. 

The arrow-heads are divided by Sir W. R. Wilde into five 
varieties. Firstly, the triangular (fig. 90), which frequently 
had a notch on each side to receive the string fio. ss. 
which attached it to the shaft ; secondly, that 
which is hollowed out or indented at the base, ^ 

Fio. 90. 

Fio. 91 


as in fig. 91*; thirdly, the stemmed arrow, which has a tang 
or projection for sinking into the shaft ; fourthly, when the 
wings are prolonged on each side, this passes into the barbed 
arrow (fig. 92) ; finally, we have the leaf-shaped form, a 
beautiftd example of which is represented in fig. 93. The 
true arrow-heads are generally about an inch in length, but 
they pass gradually into the javelin, and from that into the 
spear-head. There are various other kinds of flint imple- 
ments, such as hammers, saws, harpoons, etc., but — omitting 
for the present the drift types — these are the principal 

Some of the old Spanish writers on Mexico give us a 


harpoons, arrow-heads, and spear-heads, also occur; and 
Pia. 95. pierced teeth seem to have been not nnfrequently 
worn as amulets. 

Stone implements of the forms above described 
are frequently found on the surface of the ground, 
or are dug up in agricultural or other operations. 
But those foimd singly in this manner have com- 
paratively little scientific value; it is only when 
found in considerable numbers, and especially when 
associated with other remains, that they serve to 
throw much Ught on the manners and customs of 
ancient times. As already mentioned, the timiuli, 
the Lake -habitations, and the shell -mounds, are 
specially valuable in this respect, but I must also 
say a few words about the "Coastfinds" of the 
Danish antiquaries. "Coastfinds'* are discoveries 
of rude flint implements, which are found lying 
in large numbers on certain spots along the old 
line of coast. These discoveries have received 
from the Danish antiquaries the name of "Kyst- 
funden," or, as we may translate it, " Coastfinds." 
Owing, probably, to the elevation of the land 
which has taken place in Jutland since the Stone 
age, some of them are now on dry ground, and as 
the shore is very flat, the elevation, slight as it is, 
has in some cases been sufficient to separate them 
by a considerable distance from the present water- 
line. ,Some, on the other hand, are at lower levels ; 
one, for instance, close to the Railway station at 
Korsoer, is exposed only at low tide, and others 
are always covered. The "Coastfinds," however, 
^ole^ belong probably to different classes. Thus, one at 
Denm^kT Anholt was evidently a workshop of flint imple- 
ments, as is shown by the character of the chips, and by the 

mjjumtmm. 81 

difiooierj? of more than sixty fiini cores; Those, on the con- 
tmry^ which eyea at the present day are nnd^r Trater, muat 
have been so in old times, and as there are no traces of Lalce* 
hahitationfi in Denmark, it seems the most natural suppo* 
sition tibai; ihey were the places where the fiahennen used to 
drag their nets. It is still usual to choose particular eppots 
for tiiis purpose, and it is erident that many of the rude 
objects used in fishing, especially of the stones employed 
as net- weights, would there be lost. The objects discovered 
are just, what might have been expected under these cir- 
cumstaoces. They consist of irregular flint chi{^mig8^ net- 
weig^te or slingstones, flakes, scrapers, awls, and axes. 

ThejBhe six different classes of objects have been found in 
moat, if not all of the coastfinds, tiioug^ in diffi^Tent pjror 
portioas. To give an idea of the numbers in which th^ 
occur,. I may mention that Professor Steenstrup aod. I 
gathered in about an hour at Froelund, near Korsor, 141 
flakes^ 84 weights, 5 axes, 1 scraper, and i^bout 150 flint 
chips; while at a similar spot, near Aa^huus in Jutland, 
I myselE {»cked up, in two hours and a half, 76 weights, 40 
flakes, 39 scrapers, 17 awls, and a considerable number 
of flint chips. 

In the sheltered and shallow fjords of Denmark, the sea 
is generally calm, and, in many instances, a layer of sand 
has accumulated over and thus protected the flint fragments. 
This was the case with both the above-mentioned coastfinds, 
one of which was exposed in draining the land, the other in 
a railway cutting. Sometimes a change of currents will re- 
move the light sand, and leave the heavier stones, which 
again in other cases have lain apparently undisturbed and 
exposed from the first ; and in such instances, the spots are 
80 thickly strewn with white flints that they may often be 
distinguished by their color, even at a considerable distance. 

Of course, in a sea like that which surrounds our coast, 



Buch remains would soon be reduced to mere gravel ; besides 
which, we must remember that on our Southern or Eastern 
shores, even in historical times, the sea has encroached 
greatly. "Flintfinds," however, resembling in many re- 
spects these Danish ^'ooastfinds,'^ are not altogether unknown 
in this country. A great number of flint flakes, with a few 
arrows and cores, were found some years ago by Mr. Shelley 
in a field near Srcigate, but, so far as I am aware, no other 
forms have yet been observed at this place. 

In the Aberdeen Journal (October, 1863), Mr. T. F. 
Jamieson mentions a spot on the banks of the Ytiian below 
Ellon, where in a few minutes he flUed his '^ pockets with 
flint flakes, abortive arrow-heads, flint blocks from which the 
flakes have been ifitruck off, and other -such nondescript 
articles of ancient cutlery.'* There are other places, as, for 
instance, Bridlington, Pont le Voy, Spiennes, near Mens, 
Pressigny le Grand, etc., where immeiuie numbers of rude 
hatchets, cores, flakes, spear-heads, etc, have been foimd. 
Now that our attention has been called to these flintfinds, 
no doubt many similar discoveries-will be made elsewhere. 




ALL over Europe; we might indeed say, all over the 
. world, wherever they have not been destroyed by the 
plough or the hammer ; we find relics of pre-historic times — 
camps, fortifications, dykes, temples, timiiili, etc. ; many of 
which astonish ns by their magnitude, while all of them 
excite our interest by the antiquity of which they remind 
us, and the mystery with which they are surrounded. Some 

Fio. 96. 

Danish Tumulus. 

few, indeed, there are, such, for instance, as the Eoman Wall 
in England, the Dannevirke, and Queen Thyra's tumulus, in 
Denmark, of which the date and origin are known to us, but 



by fSEur the greater number, sucli as the Wansdyke, the 


I.. M- 


Plan of the preceding. 

'^ temple" of Camac in Brittany, the tumuli supposed to be 
those of Thor, Odin, and Freya at Upsala,* and the great 

Fio. 98. 

bepulchnl Stone Circle. 

tumuli near Drogheda, are entirely pre-historic* Somee of 
* See Frontispieoe. 



tiiem, doubtless^ belong to the metallic period, some to that 
of Stone, but it very rarely haj^ena that we can attribute 
any of them with reasonable probability to one period r»ther 
than to another. This is particularly the case with ancient 


Danish Cromlech. 

earthworks and megalithic temples or circles ; the barrows, 
or Lows, on tiie other hand, frequently contain objects 
flrom which some idea of relative antiquity may be ob- 
tained. These ancient burial-mounds, of which several 

Fio. 100. 


Sepulchral Stone Circle. 

typical examples are represented in figs. 96 to 100, are 
extremely numerous. In our own island they may be 
seen on almost every down; in the Orkneys alone it is 


estimated that more than two thousand still remain ; and in 
Denmark they are even more abundant; they are found 
all over Europe, from the shores of the Atlantic to the 
Oural mountains; in Asia they are, scattered over the great 
steppes, from the borders of Bussia to the Pacific Ocean, 
and from the plains of Siberia to those of Hindostan; in 
America we are told that they are to be numbered by thou- 
sands and tens of thousands ; nor are they wanting in Africa, 
where the Pyramids themselves exhibit the most magnificent 
development of the same idea ; so that the whole world is 
studded with these burial places of the dead. The Crom- 
lechs, Dolmens, and Cistvaens (fig. 99), are now generally 
regarded as sepulchral, and the great number in which these 
ancient burial places occur is very suggestive of their an- 
tiquity, since the labor involved in the construction of 
a tumulus would not be imdertaken except in honor of chiefs 
and great men. Many of them are small, but some are 
very large; Silbury Hill, the highest in Great Britain, 
has a height of one hundred and seventy feet ; but though 
evidently artificial, there is great doubt whether it is 

Mr. Bateman, in the Preface to his second work,* has 
collected together the most ancient allusions to burial cere- 
monies, and we see that "Mound-burial" was prevalent in 
the earliest times of which we have any historical record. 
Achan and his whole family were stoned with stones and 
burned with fire, after which we are told that Israel " raised 
over biTYi a great heap of stones unto this day. So the Lord 
turned from the fierceness of his anger.'* Again, the king 
of Ai was buried imder a great heap of stones. 

According to Diodorus, Semiramis, the widow of Ninus, 
buried her husband within the precincts of the palace, and 
raised over hiTn a great moimd of earth. Some of the 
« Teu Tears* Diggings in Celtic and Saxon GrayeliilLs. 


tumuli in Greece were old even in the time of Homer, and 
were considered by him to be the burial places of the heroes. 
Pausanias mentions that stones were collected together, and 
heaped up over the tomb of Laios, the father of (Edipus. 
In the time of the Trojan war, Tydeus and Lycus are men- 
tioned as having been buried under two earthen barrows. 
" Hector's barrow was of stones and earth. Achilles erected 
a tumulus upwards of an hundred feet in diameter, over the 
remains of his friend Patroclus. The mound supposed by 
Xenophon to contain the remains of Alyattes, father of 
CroDsus, king of Lydia, was of stone and earth, and more 
thun a quarter of a league in circumference. In later times, 
Alexander the Great caused a timiulus to be heaped over his 
friend Hephsestion, at the cost of 120Q talents, no mean sum, 
even for a conqueror like Alexanders-it being £232,500 ster- 
ling.*'* Virgil teUs us that Dercennus, king of Latium, 
was buried under an earthen mound ; and, according to the 
earliest historians, . whose statements are confirmed by the 
researches of archseologists, mound-burial was> practised in 
ancient times, by the Scythians, Greeks, Etruscans, Ger- 
mans, and many other nations. The size of the tumulus 
may be taken as a rude indication of the estimation in 
which the deceased was held; the Scotch Highlanders f 
have still a complimentary proverb, "Curri mi clach er do 
cuim," i.e. I will add a stone to your cairn. 

What Schoolcraft says of the !North American Indians is 
applicable to many savage tribes* '^ Nothing that the dead 
possessed was deemed too valuable to be interred with the 
body. The most costly dress, arms, ornaments, and imple- 
ments, are deposited in the grave ;" which is " always placed 
in the choicest scenic situations — on some crowning hill or 
gentle eminence in a secluded valley." And the North 

* Ten Tears' Diggings in the Celtic and Saxon Grayehills, p. y. 

t Wilson, Pre-historic Annals of Scotland, yoI. L, p. 86, second edition. 


American IndisoiB are teid, ev«i until within the ladt fiewr 
jeasTBy to ha^e cherished a Meadly feeling for lihe Fremoh, 
became, in fhe time of tiieir dupremaoy, they had at leaftt 
thifi one great merit, that i^j nearer disturbed the rMling- 
plaees of the dead. 

Bcfme of the cddest tumuli of Scandinavia are large mmmdit, 
containing a passage, formed by great blocks of stone, almoist 
ahrays opening towards the south w east» — never to &e 
north, — and leading inte a great central (duftnber, round 
which the dead sit. At Goldha^n, for instance, in ih^ year 
1880, a grave (if so it can be called) of this kind was opened, 
and numeroisB skeletons were found, sitting en a low seat 
round the walk, each with hift weapons and ornaments by 
his side. If ew, the dwellings used by Arctic nations^^^e 
''winter-houses^' ef the Esquimaux and €^reenlande»9> the 
"Turts*' of the Siberians — correspond ^osely fwiih th^e 
"©anggraben" or '^ Passage graves." She -Siberian T«rt, 
for instance, as described by Slrmati, Consists of a e^ivt^l 
Chamber, sunk a little in the ground, fetnd, in the abssuce 
c^ great stones, foMied of timber, whfle eatth is heaped ttp 
on the roof and against the sides, reducmg it to the form of 
a mound. The opening is on the south, and a ^tnall h<de 
(cfr a window is sometimes left'on the east side. Instead of 
^ass, a plate of ice is used ; it is at first ^a foot thid^, and 
four or five generally last through the winter. The fireplace 
is opposite the entrance.; and rotmd the fiides of the robm, 
against the walls, ''the floor is raised for a width of about 
six feet, and on this elevated part, the itmiates slept -at night, 
and sat at wefk by day." 

Captain Oook gives a very similar descriptioift of the 
winter habitations used by the Tschittski, in the extreme 
north-east of Asia. They are, he says,* "exactly like a 
vault, the floor of which is simk a little below the surface of 

* Yoyag^ to the Ptcifio Geean, toI. ii., p. 460, See also yoL, uL, p. 874. 


the earth. One ci them, which I ezaminedy was of an oval 
form, ahoat twenty feet long, and twelve or more high. 
The framing was ccmiptxsed of wood, and the ribs of whales, 
disposed in a judicious manner, and bound tc^ther with 
smaller materials of th6 same sort. Over this framing is 
laid a coyering of strong coarse grass ; and th4t, again, is 
covered with earth : so that» on the Outeide, the house looks 
like a little hiQoGk;, supported bj a wall of stone, three or 
JEour feet high« which is built round the two sides, and one 

These dweUings appear^ then, to agree very closely with 
the ** Oon^graben ;" indeed, it is possible that in some cases 
ruined dweUings of this hind hav6 been loistaken for sepul- 
chral tumuli;* fot some mounds have been examined which 
coiitained brofeem implements, pottery, ashes, etc., but no 
humaai bones ; in short, numerous rndicatiomi of life, but no 
trace of dea^h. "We know, siab, that several savage tribes 
have a ^up^frstilious reluctance to use anything which has 
bdimged to a dead person ; in some cases this appHeli ^ his 
hmtse, vhich is either deserted or used as a grave. The 
lAdiails of the Amazons bilry their dead under their houses, 
'#hich, how«rv6!r, «re not theii^ore abandoned by the living. 

Und^ 1^es(9 circumstances, there seems milch proba- 
bility in the view advocated by Professor Nilsson, the 
'tencOBble archseologist <£ Sweden, that these ^'Ganggra- 
ben " are a copy, a development, or an adaptation, of the 
dwelHng-house ; that the ancient inhabitants of Scandi- 
navia, unable to imagine a friture altogether different from 
th(B present, or a world quite tmlike our own, showed their 
respect and affection for the dead, by burying with them 
thdse thmgs which in life they had valued most ; with ladies 
their eriiaments, with warriors their weapons. They bidried 
the house with its owner, and the grave Was literally the 
* The 80-called ** Pond-barrows" perhaps belong to this class. 


dwelling of the dead. Wlien a great man died^ he was 
placed on his favorite seat, food and drink were arranged 
before him, his weapons were placed by his side, his house 
was closed,, and the door coyered up ; sometimes, however, to 
be opened again when his wifeoF childr^i joined him in the 
land of spirits. 

Many skulls have been obtained in Scandinavia, from 
tumuli of this character; they are round, with heavy, over- 
hanging brows, and go far to justify the opinion entertained 
by some archaeologists, that the pre-Celtic inhabitants of 
Scandinavia, and, perhaps, of Europe generally, were of Tu- 
ranian origin, akin to the modem Laplanders. The ^' cham- 
bered '* tumuli of Great Britain resemble, in many respects, 
the Scandinavian ^^ Ganggraben," and, like them, are con- 
sidered by some archaeologists as the earliest in time; but 
instead, of the round, heavy-browed skulls found in the mega- 
lithic Scandinavian tunnili, the occupants of the ^'chambered" 
mounds in England (so far,.At least, as we can judge from the 
somewhat scanty evidence which we possess), are charac- 
terised by very long and narrow skulls, which have received 
from Dr. Wilson the name of " Kimibeoephalic," or boat- 
shaped skulls. Moreover (apart from the a priori improba- 
bility of these great megalithic timiuli being in all cases 
earlier than the smaller and simpler mounds)^ we must re- 
member that in the great burial mound of "New Grange, in 
Ireland, the stones are decorated with figures very charac- 
teristic of the Bronze age, and evidently engraved before the 
stones were placed in their present position, as they are, in. 
some cases,, overlapped by the neighbouring slabs. Those 
who wish to see the present state of the question as to 
these chambered tumuli, and the Kumbecephalic skulls, will 
find it well stated by Dr. Wilson in the Pre-historic Annals 
4>{ Scotland;* but I agree with the able authors of the 
* Second ed«, toL i. p. 249 


Crania Britannica, in thinking that the evidence which he 
adduces is far from conclusive.* 

It is just possible that the comparative rarity of chambered 
tumuU in Western Europe may be connected with the 
greater mildness of the climate, which did not necessitate 
the use of underground "winter-houses ;'' or it may be an 
indication of a difference in race. Farther investigations 
will, doubtless, decide this point. In the meantime, we 
must remember that the so-called "Picts' Houses" are 
abundant in the northern parts of Great Britain. These 
curious dwellings are "scarcely distinguishable from the 
Ifffger tumuli; but, on digging into the green mound, 
it is found to cover a series of large chambers, built 
generally with stones of considerable size, and converging 
towards the centre, where an opening appears to have been 
left for light and ventilation. These differ little from many 
of the subterranean weems, excepting that they are erected 
on the natural surface of the soil, and have been buried by 
means of an artificial mound heaped over them.^f 

According to Mr. Bateman, who has recorded the sys- 
tematic opening of more than four hundred tumuli,, (a very 
large proportion of which were investigated in his presence), 
and whose opinion is, therefore, of great value, " the funda- 
mental design of them (i.e., the British tumuli), with the 
exception of the very few chambered or galleried mounds 
in Berkshire, Wiltshire, and Ireland, etc., as New Grange, 
Wayland Smithes Cave, Uleybury and others, and those of 
the incalculably later Saxon period, is pretty much. the same 
in most places; the leading feature of these sepulchral 
mounds is, that they enclose either an artless stone vault, or 
chamber, or a stone chest, otherwise called a Kistvaen, built 
with more op less care ; and, in other cases, a grave cut out 
more or less below the natural surface, and lined, if need be, 
• Crania Britannica, l.e Part 2, 5, f Wilson, /.«. vol. i., p. 116, 


with stone slabs, in which the bodj wa» placed in a perfect 
state, or reduced to ashes by fire/'* 

The care with which the dead were interred, and the 
objects buried with them, have been regarded as proving the 
existence of a belief in the immibrtalitrjr of the soul, and in a 
material ezistenoe after death. 

"That the anci«it Briton,'* says Dr. Wilson,!" lived in 
the belief of a future state, and of some doctrine of proba- 
tion and of final retribution, is apparent from the conatant 
deposition beside the dead, not only of weapons, implcimoits 
and personal ornaments, but also of vessels which may be pre- 
sumed to have contained food and drink. That his ideas of 
a future state were rude and degraded, is abundantly mani- 
fest from the same evidence/' 

But it is very far fr^m being " oone^tantly " the cade, that 
iktd dead were so weU supplicid with what we call the neces- 
saries of life ; 'indeed, it is quite the exception, and not the 
nile. Thus, out of more than 250 intermeints described by Sir 
B. Colt Hoare in the first volume of his great work on Andient 
Wiltshire, only 18 had any implements of stone, only 31 of 
bone, 67 of bronze, and 11 of iron ; and while pottety was 
present in 107, more than 60 of these contained only sepul- 
chral urns, intended to receive the ashes of the dead, and 
certainly never meant to hold food. So far, however, as 
stone implements are concerned, I must confess that Sir B« 
0. Hoare appears to have ovedrlooked the ruder iastruments 
and weapons. I will, therefoi*e, rely principally on the 
evidence of Mr. Bateman, one of the most experienced and 
careful of barrow-openers. 

Although a large number of the interments described by 
him had been already examined, there were 297 which had 
not been previously disturbed, and though he careMly men- 
tions even the rudest bit of chipped flint, thei^ aife no less 
* Bateman, Ten Yean' Dig^ngs, p. zi. f U. vol. i., p. 498. 


tlian 100 cases without any implement at all^ either of stone 
or metal^ and the drinking-vessels and food-vases were only 
about 40 in number. Moreover, lest it should be supposed 
that these ill-provided interments were those of poor persons 
or enemies, we will leave all these out of consideration. This 
we can easily do. "We may be sure that these tumuli, which 
must have required much labor, were only raised in honor of 
the rich and great ; though they may have served, and, no 
doubt, often did serve, afterwards, as burial places for the 
poor. But it is almost always easy to distinguish the primary 
interment ; for though there are some few cases in which the 
original occupant has been ignominiously ejected from his 
grave to make room for a successor, these instances are rare, 
and can generally be detected, while the secondary interments 
are usually situated either above the first, or on the sides of 
the tumulus. The same feeling which made our ancestors 
prefer to bury their dead in a pre-existing tumulus, generally 
prevented them from desecrating the earlier interments. 

In the following tables, then, I have recorded the primary 
interments only; the first column contains the name of 
the tumulus, the succeeding nine indicate the disposition 
of the corpse, and the articles found therewith, while the 
last is reserved for any special remarks. Out of 139 inter- 
ments, only 105 had any implements or weapons, and only 
35 were accompanied by any pottery that can have held 
either food or drink. Moreover, if we examine the nature 
of the implements which were deposited with the dead, we 
shall find that they are far from representing complete sets 
of tools or ornaments. The rarity of bronze in tombs is 
perhaps not surprising; but to men so practised as our 
predecessors, it must have been an easy matter to make a 
rude arrow-head, or a flint flake. Yet some of the corpses 
are accompanied by but one single arrow-head, others by a 
amaU flint flake ; some, again, by a single scraper. 






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Thus^ then, there seems to have been no intention of de- 
positing with each corpse a complete set of implements. 
The barrow on Cronkstone Hill, for instance, contained the 
skeleton of a man, with whom had been buried the burnt bones 
of some one, probably a slave, or perhaps a wife, who had been 
sacrificed at his grave, and yet the only implement foimd 
with him was a "circular instrument," probably a flint 
scraper, or a slingstone. Again, the mound known as "Cow 
Low" contained only a bone pin. The affectionate relatives 
who heaped up this tumulus would certainly not have sent 
their dead sister into the new world with nothing but a bone 
pin, if they had thought that the things they buried with 
her could be of any use. Even the great tumulus at Arbor 
Low contained only a bone pin, a piece of iron pyrites, a 
kidney shaped instrument of flint, and two vases. It would 
be easy to multiply illustrations, and it is, I think, sufli- 
ciently evident that the articles found in the graves cannot 
seriously be considered as affording any evidence of a definite 
belief in a future state of existence, or as having been in- 
tended for the use of the dead in the new world to which 
they were going. Moreover, there is a well-marked spe- 
•ciality in each case, which seems to show that these rude 
implements, far from being the result of ft national belief, 
are simply the touching evidences of individual affection. 

In some few cases, again, small models of weapons have 
been found, in lieu of the weapons themselves. In modem 
Esquimaux graves small models of kajaks, spears, etc., are 
sometimes buried, and a similar fact has been observed in 
Egyptian tombs. Mr. Franks informs me that much of 
the jewellery found in Etruscan tombs is so thin that it 
can scarcely have been intended for wear during life. 

We must always bear in mind that the ancient tumuli 
do not all belong to one period, nor to one race of men. 
Excepting, perhaps, Hie Aurignac Gave (which will be 


descaeibed in a subsequent chapter), there is, iniieed> no known 
interment which can be referred, with any reatsonable prp- 
bability, to the Paboolithic age. Still it was the examination 
of the tumuli which first induced Sir B. Colt Hoare, md 
oth^ archaeologists, to adopt for Northern Europe this 
division into three great periods, already indicated by 
ancient writers. In Denmark, especially, there was si^p- 
posed to be so sharp and well-marked a distinction betwiean 
the tumuli of the Stone age and those of the BroQ^^ 
period, that the use of bronze might be considered as 
•having been introduced by a new race of men, who rapidly 
exterminated the previous inhabitants, had entirely dif- 
ferent burial customs, and ware altogether in a much 
higher state of civilisation. It was stated that the tuiy^di 
of 'the StoDB age were generally surrounded by a cir^cle 
of great stones, and contained chambers formed of enor- 
mous blocks of stone, and that the dead w^e buried 
in a contracted or sitting posture, with the knees broi^ht 
up under the chin, and the arms folded across the breast. 
On the contrary, the burial places of the Bronze a^ 
were described as having "no circles of massive stones, 
no stone chambers; in general, no large stones on the 
bottom, with the exception of stone cists placed togetJbier, 
which, however, are easily to be distinguished from the 
stone chambers; they consist, as a general rule, of mere 
earth, with heaps of small stones, and always present them- 
selves to the eye as mounds of earth, which, in a few rare 
instances, are surrounded by a small circle of stones, and 
contain relics of bodies which have been burned, and placed 
in vessels of clay with objects of metal." ♦ 

Thus, therefore, the barrows of the age of Bronze appeared 
to be distiuguished from those of the earlier period, not only 
by the important fact, that, " instead of the simple and uni- 
* Woxsaae'B PrimeTal AntiquitieB, p. 93. 


form implements) and ornaments of eitone, bone, and amber, 
we meet, suddenly, with a number and Tariety of splendid 
weapons, implements, and jewels of bronze, and sometimes, 
indeed, with jewels of gold;'"* but also because the con- 
struction of tiie tumuli themselves was different in the two 
periods ; and the corpse, which, in the Stone age, was always 
buried in a contracted posture, was in the Bronze age always 
burnt. Subsequent investigations, however, have furnished 
the Danish antiquaries rather with exceptions to, than con- 
firmations of, this generaKsation ; * and, on the whole, it 
must be admitted that we are not acquainted with any ex- 
ternal differences by which the tumuli of the Stone, Bronze, 
and Iron ages can with certainty be distinguished from one 
another. The contents of the graves are, however, more in- 
structive. Eventually, no doubt, the human remains them- 
selves, and especially the skulls, will prove our best guides; but 
at present we do not possess a sufficient number of trustworthy 
descriptions or measurements, to justify us in drawing any 
generalisation from them, excepting, perhaps, this, that the 
skulls found with bronze in some cases closely resemble those 
discovered in graves containing only stone implements ; from 
which we may infer that, even if the^ use of bronze was intro- 
duced by a new andmore civilised race, the ancient inhabitants 
were probably not altogether exterminated. The pottery does 
not at present help us much; that found in company with 
bronze is coarse, iU-bumt, hand-made, ^lid, in form, ornamen- 
tation, and material, closely agrees with that which occurs in 
graves containing stone implements only. We too often see 
that tumuK are referred to the Stone age because they contain 
one or two implements made of that material. This, how- 
ever, is a very unsafe deduction. We know that stone was 
extensively used throughout the Bronze age; and, indeed, 
out of 37 timiuU in which Mr. Bateman found objects of 
* Worsaae's Primeyal Antiquities, p. 24. 



Isronze, no less tlian 29- eontamed also stone implements, 
many of wluch were extremely^ rude. Evidently, therefore, 
the mere presence of one or two objects of stone is in itseK 
no sufficient reason-for. referring any given interment to the 
Stone age. The following tabular statement of 297 inter- 
ments recorded by> Mr. Bateman will, however, I think, be 
found interesting : — 








None .. . 
Stone . . 
Bronze . 
Iron. . . . 

Total . 



















These interments are all from the counties of Derby, Staf- 
ford, and York. In his work on Ancient Wiltshire, Sir R. 
C. Hoare records the examination of 267 interments, which 
may be tabulated in a similar manner as follows : — 








None . . 
Stone . . 
Bronze . 
Iron . . 



•" 5. 
• 49 






Total . 






We see that in this latter table nearly all the cases of 
bronze were in interments preceded by cremation, but in 



the nortliem intameiits tlie reverse is tiie case ; and, vaf 
regatrds Wiltshire^ if we are to regard cremation as a tei^ of 
th^ Bronze age, We mnst refer almost the whole of theser 
ii^rments to ih&t period. I confess that I am somewhat 
inblined to do so. No lee» thaii 270 tumuU cluster round 
Stonehenge, and it sieemd most probable that the dead were- 
brought from a distance, to lie near the great temple. In 
this case, the great majority of the tumuli belong, therefore, 
to one period, that, namely, at whidi the temple was held 
siicred. Some few, indeed, :pii^ be referable to earlier or 
later times, but as out of 152 of these interments, which were 
examined by Sir R. d Hoare, no less than 39 contained 
objects of bronze, I am disposed to regard the whole group 
as belonging to the Bronze period. ISow in these 152 cases 
the corpse was contracted in 4 duly, and extended in 3. In 
16 the disposition of the corpse was not ascertained, and in 
no less than 129 it had been burnt. 

If we combine the observations of Sir R. C. Hoare and 
Mr. Bateman, we shall obtain the following tat)le : — 








If one . . 
Stone . 
Bronze . 
Iron . . 

Total . 























Thus, out of 37 graves containing iron weapons or imple- 
ments, the corpse was certainly extended in 21 cases, and 
probably so in several others; while out of no less than 
327 cases in which iron was not present, the corpse was 
extended only in 16, the proportion being at least iZythi* 


in tlie one case, and only ^rd in the other. On the whole 
we may certainly conclude that this mode of burial was 
introduced at about the same period as the use of iron. 

As regards the habit of burning the dead, the evidence is 
less conclusive. Out of a hundred cases/ indeed, of graves 
characterised by the presence of bronze, the corpse appears to 
have been buried in a contracted posture nineteen times only, 
in an extended positicm only seven times* It is evident, 
therefore, that during the Bronze age the dead were 
generally burnt. Possibly the graves in which a contracted 
skeleton wa& found together with objects of bronze, may 
have belcmged to the commencement of the period, and to 
representatives of the earlier race. It is true that there 
are many cases in which interments by cremation, if I may 
use such an expression, contain no weapons or objects of 
bronze. We know, however, that this metal must always 
have been expensive ; and it is not unreasonable to suppose 
that many, if not most, of these interments may belong 
to the Bronze age, although no objects of metal occurred 
in them. 

There can be no doubt that in the Neolithic Stone age it 
was usual to bury the corpse in a sitting, or contracted 
posture ; and, in short, it appears probable, although far from 
being satisfactorily established, that in Western Europe this 
attitude is characteristic of the Stone age, cremation of that 
of Bronze; while those cases in which the skeleton was 
extended may be referred, with little hesitation, to the age 
of Iron. At the same time, it must be admitted that the 
evidence is very far from conclusive ; and we must remember 
that in Anglo-Saxon times the dead were burned by some 
tribes, and buried by others. 

Although the mere presence of a few flint flakes, or other 
stone implements, is certainly no sufficient reason for referring 
any given tumulus to the Stone age; the case is different 


where a large number of objects have been found together ; 
for instance, I have in my collection a group of stone imple- 
ments, consisting of fourteen beautiftilly made axes, wedges, 
chisels, spear-heads, etc., and more than sixty capital flakes, 
which were all found together, in one of the large Danish 
sepulchral chambers on the Island of Moen,* and have been 
described by M. Boye. The tumulus had a circumference of 
one hundred and forty ells, and a height of about eight ells. 
It is probable that it had been surrounded by a circle of 
stones, for M. Jensen, the owner, remembered that, many 
years before, the northern side had been surrounded by a row 
of stones standing close together. None of them, however, 
at present remain. Unfortunately, M. Boye was not present 
when they began to remove the tumulus ; still he thinks that 
the account given to him may be relied on with safety. 
M. Jensen began to dig on the east side of the Low^^ and 
the first thing which he came to was a jar, which he im.- 
fortunately broke. It contained burnt bones and a bronze 
pin, the head of which was ornamented with concentric 
lines. Towards the S.S.E. was found a cist, about an ell long, 
and formed of flat stones. In it were burnt bones, a bent 
knife, and a pair of pincers two inches in length ; both these 
objects were of bronze. Not far from this cist was another 
urn, containing burnt bones, with several objects of bronze, 
namely, a knife, four inches in length, part of a small sym- 
bolical sword, and two fragments of an awl. It is evident 
that these three interments belonged to the Bronze age, 
and also that they were secondary, that is to say, that they 
belonged to a later date than the original sepulchral chamber, 
over which the tumulus had been made. 

The sepulchral chamber itself (fig. 101), lay north and 
south, was of an oval form, about eight and a half ells in 

* Annaler for Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historic, 1858, p. 202. 



length, and twenty and a half in circiunference, and about 
two and a half in height. The walls consisted of twelve very- 
large, unhewn stones, which, however, did not, in most cases, 
touch one another, but left intervals which were filled up by 
smaller stones. The roof was formed by five great blocks, 
the spaces between them being filled up by smaller ones. 
The passage, which was on the east side, was five- ells long 
and one ell broad, and' was formed by eleven side stones, and 
three roof stones. At the place (a) was on each side a smaller 
stone, which, in conjunction with another on the floor between 
them, formed a sort of threshold, probably indicating the 

Fia. Wl. 

Han of the Chamber in a Danish Tumulns in M5en. 

place where ihe door stood. Similar, traces of a doorway have 
been found in other Danish tumuli, and may, perhaps, be taken 
as evidence that the mounds had been used previously as 
houses: at the time of the interment, Uie construction of 
a door would have been simply purposeless ; the passage 
leading to it being filled up with rubbish. The chamber was 
filled up with mould to within half an ell of the roof. About 


the middle, not far from the bottom^ a skeleton was ex- 
tended (at 6), with the' head towards the north. On the south 
side (at e and i), occurred two crania, each of which lay on a. 
quantity of bones, indicating that the corpses had been 
buried in a sitting posture. At e was a similar skeleton, 
close to which were three amber beads, a beautiful flint- 
axcy which did not seem to have been ever used, a small 
unfinished chisel, and some fragments of pottery, ornamented 
with points and lines. At/ was another skeleton in a similar 
position, with a flint flake, an amber bead, and some frag- 
ments of pottery. Figs. 102, 103 represent one of the skulls 
from this Stone chamber. Several other skeletons were found 

Fio. 102. Fio. 103. 

Skull from a Danish Tumulus at Moen. 

sitting round, the side walls, but they had unluckily been 
removed and thrown away before the arrival of M. Boye. 
With them were at least twenty different jars or urns, all 
of them inverted, and. prettily decorated with points and. 

Besides these objects, the earth in the chamber contained five 
flint spear-heads ; a fragment of a flint spear which had been 
broken and worked up again ; two small flint chisels ; fifty- 
three flint flakes, varying from three to five and a half inches 
in length; nineteen perfect, and thirty-one broken amber 



beads^ of whicli the greater number were hammer-like, the 
reirt tubular or ring-shaped. The passage was filled up by 
earth, mixed with fragments of pottery, and small stones. 
About the middle was a skeleton, with the head towards the 
east, at the side of which were five flakes and an amber bead. 
Close to the feet was a jar, unomamented, and much ruder 
than those found in the chamber itself. Not the smallest 
fragment of metal was found either in the chamber or in the 

Again, as a second case of the same sort, I may mention 

Fio. 104. 

View in the Chamber looking through the entranee. 

the Long Barrow (fig. 104), near West Kennet, in Wiltshire, 



described by Dr. Thumam.* The tumulus in this case is- 
three hundred and thirty-six feet in length, forty feet wide 
at the west end, and seventy-five at the east, with a height 
of eight feet. The w^Us of the chamber are formed by six 
great blocks of stone, and it opens into a passage, so that the 
ground plan very closely resembles that of the tumulus just' 
described, and, in fact, of the "passage* graves'* generaUyi 

Fio. 105. 

Fio. 106. 

Fio. 107. 

Fro. 108. 

Flint Implements from the Tumulus at West Kennct. 

The chamber and entrance were nearly filled with chalk- 
rubble, containing also bones of animals, flint implements 
(figs. 105 to 108), and jfragments of pottery. In the chamber 
were four skeletons, two of which appear to have been buried 
in a sitting posture. In different parts of the chamber were 
♦ Arcliseologia, vol. xixYiii., p. 405. 



found nearly three hundred flakes, three or four flint cores, 
a whetstone, a scraper, part of a bone pin, a bead of Kimme- 
ridge shale, and several heaps of fragments of pottery (figs. 

Fio. 109. 

Fio. 110. 


Fia. 111. 

Fio. 112. 

Pottery from the Tamnliu at West Kennet. 

109 to 114), belonging apparently to no less than fifty dif- 
ferent vessels, and all made by hand, with one doubtM 
exception. No trace of metal was discovered. The two 



pieces (figs. 113, 114) were found apart fix)in tlie rest, and 
may, perhaps, be of later origin. 

Fio. lis. 

Fio. 114. 

Pottery from the Tunalas at West Kennet. 

Other similar cases might be mentioned,* in which tumidi 
of large size, coTcring a sepulchral chamber, constructed 
with great labor of huge blocks of stone, have contained 
several skeletons, evidently those of persons of high rank, 
and accompanied by many stone implements and fragments 
of pottery, yet without a trace of metal. It appears reason- 
able to conclude that these interments belong to the ante- 
metallic period; especially when, as in the first-mentioned 
case, we find several secondary interments, plainly belonging 
to a later age, and although presenting no such indications 
of high rank, still accompanied by objects of bronze. 

It may seem at first sight very improbable that works so 
considerable should have been undertaken and carried out by 
nations entirely ignorant of metal. The burial mound of 
Oberea, in Otaheiti, was nevertheless two hundred and sixty- 
seven feet long, eighty-seven wide, and forty-four in height. 
And in treating of modem savages, I shall hereafter have 
occasion to notice other instances quite as extraordinary. 

The practice of burying in old tumuli, which continued 

^'See, for instance, Lukis, Archseologia y. 35, p. 247. 



even down to the times of Charlemagne,* has led to some 
confiision, because objects of very different date are thus 
liable to be described as coming from one grave ; yet, on the 
other hand, it is very instructive, as there are several cases 
on record, besides the one above mentioned, of interments 
characterised by bronze being found above, and being, 
therefore, evidently subsequent to others, accompanied by 
stone only. 

On the whole, however, though it is evident that the objects 
most frequently buried with the dead would be those most 
generally used by the livings and though the prevalence of 
stone implements proves the important part played by stone 
in ancient times,, and goes far to justify the belief in a 
Stone age; still, the evidence to be brought forward on 
this point in the following chapters wiU probably to many 
minds seem more satisfactory ; 
and at any rate we must ad- 
mit that in the present state 
of our knowledge there are 
comparatively few interments 
which we could with confi- 
dence refer to the Neolithic 
Stone age, however firmly we 
may believe that a great many 
of them must belong to it. 

Mr. Bateman has proposed 
to range the pottery found in 
ancient British tumuli under 
four different heads — ^namely, 
1. Urns ; 2. Incense Cups ; 3. sepulchral um. 

Food Vases ; 4. Drinking Cups. The urns generally accom- 

Fio. 115. 

* One of his regulations ran as fol- clesiae deferantur, et non ad tnmulos 
lows : — '* Jubemus ut corpora Christian- pa^anorum." 
cram Sazononun ad ceemeteria ec- 



pany interments by cremation, and have either contained, 
or been inverted over, burnt human bones. They are 
generally of large size, "from ten to sixteen inches high, 
with a deep border, more or less decorated by impressions of 
twisted thongs, and incised patterns in which the chevron 
or herring-bone constantly recurs in various combinations, 
occasionally relieved by circular punctures, or assuming a 
reticulated appearance." They are all made by hand — ^no 
trace of the potter's-wheel being ever found on them. The 
material of which they are formed is clay mixed with pebbles, 
and some of them have been described as "sim-dried." This 
is not the case with any of those found by Mr. Bateman, who, 
indeed, considers the statement to be altogether a mistake, 
arising from the imperfect manner in which they were burnt. 
In color they are generally brown or burnt umber outside, 
and black inside. 

Secondly, The "incense cups," so called by Sir R. Colt 
Hoare. They diflfer very much in shape, and are seldom 
more than three inches high. When decorated, the patterns 
are the same as those on the urns, but they are often left 
plain. It is probable that they were used for lamps, as was, 
I believe, first suggested by Mr. Birch. 

" The third division includes vessels of every style of oma- 

Fio. 116. 

Fig. 117. 

Vessels ttom a Tumulus at Arbor Low. 

ment, from the rudest to the most elaborate, but nearly alike 



in size, sxid more difficult to assign to a dotenninate period 

than any other, from the fact of a coarse and a well-finished 

one having several times been v^^- iw. 

found in company." The above 

woodcuts represent two vessels 

found in a barrow on the circle 

at Arbor Low, in Derbyshire. 

Fourthly, "The drinking-cups 
(fig. 118) are generally from six 
Mid a half to nine inches high, 
of a tall shape, contracted in the 
middle, globular below, and ex- 
panding at the mouth : they are 
carefdUy formed by hand, of fine 
clay, tempered with sharp sand, 
and well baked; the walk are £ 
thin, averaging about three- 
eighths of an inch, light brown 
outside and grey within." They are generally much orna- 
mented and usually accompany well-made flint implements ; 
but in some cases bronze awls have been found with them. 
Mr. Bateman considers that the greater number belong to the 
ante-metaUic period. 

Numerous as are the varieties of pottery found in ante- 
Boman tumuli, they appear (so far, at any rate, as those 
discovered by Mr. Bateman are concerned) to have been all 
made by hand, without any assistance from the potter's wheel ; 
they are formed of clay tempered with sand and often with 
pebbles : they very rarely have handles, and spouts seem to 
have been unknown ; the ornaments consist of straight lines, 
dots, or marks, as if a cord had been impressed on the 
soft clay; no circular or curved lines are ever present, 
nor is there the slightest attempt to copy any animal or 

Drinking Cuy. 


The remains of mammals found with ancient human relics 
have acquired greatly increased interest, since the admirable 
researches of the Danish aiid Swiss zoologico-archseologistSy 
and especially of Steenstmp and Butimeyer, by whose skilM 
cross-examination much valuable and unexpected eyidenee 
has been elicited, from materials of most improinising ap- 
pearance. Much, however, as we may regret, we cannot 
wonder at the fact, that not only the earlier archsBologists, 
but even Mr. Bateman himself, paid so little attention to the 
non-human bones met with in their researches. It would be 
very interesting to ascertain what animals were in a state of 
domestication in Northern Europe during the Stone age: 
some archaeologists, as, for instance, .Professor Steenstmp, 
believe the dog to have been at that period the only animal 
domesticated; others, on the contrary, consider the cow, 
sheep, pig, and goat, if not the horse, to have been at that 
early period domesticated in the North. This appears to 
have been the case in Switzerland^ as fair, at any rate, as 
regards the cow. In the contents of .British barrows, 
"bones'* of quadrupeds have been frequently observed; 
but it is difficult to form any opinion as to whether they 
belonged to wild or tame individuals. 

As far, however, as the horse is concerned, we may pro- 
bably assume that all the remains bdong to a domesticated 
race, for there is no reason to suppose that any wild horses 
existed in Great Britain at a period so recent. I have 
thought, therefore, that it might be of interest to point out 
the class of graves in which bones or teeth of horses were 
found. In Mr. Bateman's valuable works there are, alto- 
gether, twenty-eight cases ; but of these, nine were in tumuli 
which had been previously opened, and in one case no body 
was found. Of the remaining eighteen, five were tumuli 
containing iron, and seven were accompanied with bronze. 
In one more case, that of the " Liffs,*' it is doubtful whether 


tie barrow had not been disturbed. Of the remaining six^ 
tumuli, two contained beautiM drinking vessels, of a very 
well marked type, certainly in ujse during the Bronze age, 
if not peculiar to it ; and in both these instances, as well as 
in a third, the interment was accompanied with burnt human 
bones, suggestive of dreadful rites. Even, however, if these 
cases cannot be referred to the Bronze age, we still see that 
out of the two hundred and ninety-seven interments only 
sixty-three contained metal, or about twenty-one per cent., 
while out of the eighteen cases of horses' remains twelve, 
or about sixty-six per cent., certainly belonged to the me- 
tallic period. This seems to be a primd facie evidence that 
the horse was very rare, if not altogether unknown, in Eng- 
land during the Stone age. Both the horse and bull appear 
to have been sacrificed at graves during later times, and 
probably formed part of the ftineral feast. The teeth of 
oxen are so common in tumuli, *that they are even said by 
Mr. Bateman to be ^' luiifonnly found with the more ancient 

The very frequent presence of the bones of animals in 
tumuli appears to show that sepulchral feasts were generally 
held in honor of the dead, and the numerous cases in which 
interments were accompanied by burnt human bones tend 
to prove the prevalence of still more dreadfiil customs, and 
that not only horses * and dogs, but slaves also, were fre- 
quently sacrificed at their masters' graves ; it is not impro- 
bable that wives often were btimt with their husbands, as 
in India and among many savage tribes. For instance, 
among the Feegees it is usual on the death of a chief to sacri- 
fice a certain number of slaves, whose bodies "are called 
*grass' for bedding" the grave.f "It is probable," says 

* Even so lately as in 1781, Frederick Casimir was laid in his graye with his 
slaughtered horse. Horse ferales, p. 66. 

t Manners and Customs of the Feegees, hy T. Williams, 1860, Tol. i. p. 189. 


Mr. Bateman, ''that the critical examinatiati of all dcTposits 
of burnt bones would lead to much curious information re- 
specting the statistics of suttee and infanticide^ both which 
abominations we are unwillingly compelled, by accumulated 
evidence, to believe were practised in pagan Britain." From 
the numerous cases in which the bones of an infant and a 
woman have been found together in one grave, it seems 
probable that if any woman died in childbirth, or while 
nursing, the baby was buried alive with her, as is still the 
practice among some of the Esquimaux tribes. 

I would particularly urge on those who may in j^ture open 
any barrows — 

1. To record the sex of the person buried ; this is more satis- 
factorily to be determined from the form of the pelvis, than 
from the skull. In this manner, we may hope to determine 
the relative position, and the separate occupations (if any) of 
the two sexes. 

2. To observe carefiilly the state of the teeth, from which 
we may derive information as to the nature of the food. 

3. To preserve careftdly any bones of quadrupeds that 
may be pres^it, in order to ascertain the species, and, in the 
case of the o^ and hog, to determine, if possible, whether 
th^ belonged to wild or domesticated individuals. 

As regards the pre-historic races of men we have as yet 
derived but little definite information from the examination 
of the tumuli. The evidence, however, appears to show that 
the Celts were not the earliest colonisers of Northern Europe. 
Putting on one side the mysterious " kumbecephalic *' skidls 
which have been already alluded to (p. 90), the men of the 
Stone age in Northern Europe appear to have been brachy- 
cephalic in a very marked degree, and to have had heavy, 
overhanging brows. Many ethnologists are inclined to be- 
lieve that the Turanian race, now represented in Europe by 
the Fins, Lapps, and probably by the Basques, once occupied 


the greater part of our continent, which was, however, even 
before the beginning of history, wrested from them by the 
Celts and the Teutons. 

Worsaae declares without hesitation '' that the inhabitants 
of Denmark during the Stone period cannot have been the 
Fins, whose descendants are the present inhabitants of 
Lapland ;''* grounding his opinion principally on the &ct 
that the megalithic tumuli of the Stone age are never found 
either in the north of Sweden or in Norway. Moreover, we 
must remember that the reindeer is intimately associated 
with the Fins, whereas no remains of this animal have yet 
been found in our tumuli or in the Danish shell-mounds. 

It seems to me, however, that we must wait for more evi- 
dence before we can hope to solve this question in a satis- 
factory manner; but even if the Turanian races did once 
spread over Europe, we ought not to conclude that they were 
the aboriginal inhabitants of our continent. It is, on the 
contrary, very, possible that they were preceded by others, 
jmd we may be sure that in the long period which elapsed 
between the commencement of the Drift period and that of 
the Polished Stone age, there were many wars and rumours 
of wars, and very possibly several changes in the popu- 
lation. What these were, however, we have at present 
absolutely no evidence to show, and we can therefore only 
confess our ignorance, and wait, in confident expectation, for 
"more light." 

To return for a moment to the tumuli, we may fairly hope 
that when properly questioned they wiU not only answer 
many of these interesting questions, but that they will also 
tell us many things which it would never occur to us to 
ask. It is evident, at least, that when a suj£cient number 
shall have been examined we shall know many important 
facts respecting life in those early ages; we shall know 
* Primeyal Antiquities of Denmark, p. 131. 


whether during the Stone age they had domestic animals, 
Buch as the oz and sheep, in the Korth, as would api)ear 
to have been the case in Switzerland; we shall know in 
part what kind of clothes they wore, and by the remains 
found with female skeletons we shall even be able to ascer- 
tain, in some measure, the position occupied by woman with 
reference to man. 




IN consequence of the extraordinary dryness and coldness 
of the weather during the winter months of 1853, 
the rivers of Switzerland did not receive their usual 
supplies^ and the water in the lakes, fell much below its 
ordinary level, so that, in some places, a broad strand wds 
left uncovered along the margin, while in others shallow 
banks were converted into islands. Tbe water level of this 
season was, indeed, the lowest upon record. The lowest level 
marked on the so-called stone of Stefa was that of 1674; 
but in 1854 the water sank a foot. 

M. Aeppli of' Meilen, on the Lake of Zurich, appears to 
have beeuuthe first tox)bserve in the bed of the lake certain 
specimens of human workmanship, which he justly supposed 
might throw some light on the 'hbtory and condition of the 
early inhabitants of the Swiss valleys. In a small bay 
between Ober Meilen and Dollikon, the inhabitants had 
taken advantage of the lowness of the water to increase 
their gardens, by\ building a wall along the new water-line, 
and slightly raising the level of the piece thus reclaimed, by 
mud dredged from the lake. In the course of this dredging 
they foimd great numbers of piles, of deer-horns, and also 
some implements. Fortunately the attention of Dr. Keller 
was called to these remains, and the researches at Meilen, 
conducted and described by him, have been followed by 
gimilar investigations in other lakes, and have proved that 


the early inhabitants of Switzerland constmcted some, at 
least, of their dwellings above the surface of the water, and 
that they must have lived in a manner very similar to that 
of the PaBonians, as described by Herodotus.* 

"Their dwellings/' he says, "are contrived after this man- 
ner : planks fitted on lofty piles are placed in the middle of 
the lake, with a narrow entrance from the main land by a 
single bridge. These piles, that support the planks, all the 
citizens anciently placed there at the public charge; but 
afterwards they establnihed a law to the folbwing effect: 
whenevev a man marries, for each wife he links three piles, 
bringing wood from a mountain called OrbeluB : but every 
man has several wives. They live in the following manner : 
every man has a hut on the planks, in which he dwells, with 
a trap-door closely fitted in the i^anks, and leading down to 
Hie lake. They tie the young ehildren with a cord rotund 
the foot, fearing lest they should Ml into the lake beneath. 
To their horses and beasts of burden they give fish for fodder ; 
of which *there is such an abundance, that when a man has 
opeaed his trap^door, he lets down an empty basket by a 
cord into the lake, and, after waiting a short time, draws 
it up full of fish,** 

In Ireland a number of more or less artifieial islands called 
"Orannoges^t (£g- H^) cu^ known historically to have been 
used as stronghdds by the petty chiefs. They are composed 
of earth and stores, strengthened by piles, and have sup- 
plied the Irish archsBologiBts with numerous weapons,, imple*- 
ments, and Ixmes. From the Craimoge at Buiishauglin, indeed, 
more than one hundred and fifty cartloads of bones were ob* 
tt^nedand used as manure ! These Lake-dwellings of Ireland,, 
however^ are referable to a much later period than tiiose of 
Switzerland, and are frequently mentioned in early history. 
Thus, according to Shirley, " One Thomas Phettiplace, in hia^ 
, • Terpsichore, r. 14. f See Wilde'i Catalogue, toL i. p. 220. 


answer to an inquiry from the Government, as to wliat castles 
or forts O'Neil hath, and of what strength they be, states 
(May 15, 1567) : *For castles, I think it be not nnknown 
unto your honors, he trusteth no point thereunto for his 
safety, as appeareth by the raising of the strongest castles of all 
his countreys, and that fortification which he only dependeth 

Fm. 110. 

SeetioQ of a Craanoge in ArdakiUi& Loa{|^h, 

upon is in sarttn ffi^shwater loffhea in his country, which 
from the sea there come neither ship nor boat to aj^roach 
them : it is thought that there in the said fortified islands 
lyeth all his plate, which is much, and money, prisoners, and 
gages.: which islands, hath in wars to fore been attempted, 
and now of late again by the Lord Deputy there, Sir Harry 
Sydney, which for want of means for safe conducts upon the 
wat^ it hath not preyailed.* ** 

Again,, the map of the escheated territories, made for the 
Government, a.d. 1591, by Francis Jobson, or the " Pktt 
of the County of Monaghan,'* preserved in the State Paper 
Office, contains rough (fetches of the dwellings of the petty 
chiefis of Monaghan, which ^'are in aU cases surrounded by 
water/' In the '^Annals of the Four Masters,'^ and other 
records of early Irish history, we meet with numerous in- 
stances in which the Orannoges are menticmej, in some of 
which their position has not preserved them from robbery 
and destruction ; and we need not, therefore, be surprised to 
find that many of the Swiss Pfahlbauten appear to have been 
destroyed by fiire. . 


At the Newcastle meeting of the British Association, in 1863^ 
Lord Lovaine described a Lake-dwelling observed hj him in 
the South of Scotland ; and in the "Natural History Review" 
for July, 1863, I had already mentioned one in the Northj 
whichy however, had not at that time been thoroughly ex- 
amined* Sir Charles Bunbury has recorded (Quarterly Journal 
of the Geological Society, voLxii* 1866) some similar remains 
found near Thetford, which have been described at greater 
length by Mr. Alfred Newton, in an interesting paper "On 
the Zoology of Ancient Europe," read before the Cambridge 
Philosophical Society, in March,. 1862. In his fifth memoir 
on the Ffahlbauten,* Dr. Keller has described a Lake-dwelling 
at Feschiera, on the L. di Garda ; and we are indebted to 
MM. B. Gastaldi,t P- Strobel, and L. Pigorini for a de- 
scription of ruins of a similar nature, which have been 
found in Northern. Italy. M. Boucher de Perthes, in his 
celebrated work, "Antiquit^s Celtiques et Ant^diluviennes," 
mentions certain remains found in the peat near Abbeville, 
which appear to have been the ruins of Lake-dwellings; 
an observatien which is of special interest, as an additional 
argument for referring the Swiss Lake-dwellings to the 
period of the peat in the Somme valley, and therefore to an 
^)och long, subsequent to that of the drifk-hatchets. This 
inference is entirely in accordance with the conclusions de- 
rived from the study of the stone implements themselves. 

But it is not necessary to go back to pre-historic times; 
n(xr need we appeal to doubtful history or ancient remains for 
evid^ce of the curious habit of water-dweUing. Many savage 
or semi-savage tribes live in the same manner, even at the 
present day. * I have been informed by a friend who lives at 

• Mittheilungen der Antiqiiarischen pani, Prima ricerca di Abitazioni la- 

Gesellfiehaft in ZuticIl 1863. custri nei Laghi di Lombardia. Atti 

t Nuovi Cenni sugli oggetti di Alta della Soc. Italiana di Scienze Naturali, 

Anticliitit troyati nelle Torbiere e nelle 1863. toL y. p. 154. 
liarniere dell' Italia, See also Stop- 


Salonica that the fishermen of Lake Prasias still inhabit 
wooden cottages built over the water^ as in the time of Herodo- 
tus. The city of Tcherkask also is built over the Don. But it 
is in the East Indies that this habit prevails most extensively. 
The city of Borneo is altogether built upon pilei^^ and similar 
constructions have been described by various travellers in 
New Qxiinea, Celebes, Solo, Coram, Mindanao, the Caroline 
Islands, and elsewhere. Dampier long ago mentioned similar 
dwellings constructed over the water, and Dumont d'Urville,.* 
quoted by M. Troyon, tells us that " Jadis toute la viUe de 
Tondano ^tait construite sur le lac, et Ton ne communiquait 
d'une maison & une autre qu'en bateau. Forts de cette disposi- 
tion, en 1810, les habitants eurent des d^m^l^s avec les HoUan- 
dais, et voulurent secouer leur joug : ils s'arm^rent et furent 
battus. Ce ne fiit pas sans peine qu'on en vint & bout : il 
fallut y porter de Tartillerie et construire des bateaux can- 
noniers. Depuis ce temps, et pour feviter cet inconvenient^ 
on a d^fendu aux indigenes, de construire leurs habitations 
sur le lac.'' The Bishop of Labuan thus describes the dwel- 
lings of the Dyaks : " They are built along the river side, on 
an elevated platform twenty or thirty feet high, in a long 
row; or rather it is a whole village in one row of some 
hundreds ctf feet long. The platforms are first framed with, 
beams, and then crossed with laths about two inches widi& 
end two inches apart, and in this way are well ventilated ; 
and nothing remains on the fioors,. but all the refuse falls 
through and goes below." t 

The Swiss " Pfahlbauten," or Lake-habitations,, have been 
described by Dr. KeUer, in five memoirs presented to the Anti- 
quarian Society of Zurich, in 1854, 1858, 1860, and 1863, and 
by M. Troyon, in a special work> " Sur les Habitations Lacus- 
tres," 1860, in which the author gives a general account of 

• Voyage de 1' Astrolabe, vol. v. p. 635. 
t Trans, of the Etbnol. Soo., New Ser., toI. ii. p. 28. 


what has been done in Switzerhmd, and compares the ancient 
habitations of his native land^ with the Lake-dwellings of other 
countries and times. The discoveries in Lake Moosseedorf 
have been described bj MM. Jahn and Uhlmann (Die !P&hl- 
baualterthiiiner von Moosseedorf. Bem^ 1857) ; the Lake- 
habitation at the Font de Thiele has also been described in 
a separate memoir by M. Y. Gilli^ron (Actes de la Soci^t^ 
jurassienne d'Emidation. 1860) ; and we owe to Dr. S^iiti- 
mey^ two works on the animal remains from the F&hl^ 
baaten, the firsts '^ TJntersuchung der Thierreste aus den 
Pfahlbantea der Schweiz/' published by the Antiquarian 
Society of Zurich, in 1860 ; and still more recently, a larger 
work — " Die Fauna der Pfehlbauten in der Schweiz." ' Col- 
lections of objects from these localities have also been made 
by many Swiss archeeologists. The Flora has been studied 
by M. Heer, whose results are contained in the memoirs 
published by Dr. Keller, 

Nor must we omit to mention M. Morlot's excellent ps^er in 
the ''Bulletin de la 8oci6ik Yaudoise (March, 1860)/' and his 
no less admirable "Le§on d'Ouverture d'un cours sur la haute 
Antiquity fait d. 1' Academic de Lausanne (Dec. 1860)/' From 
the conclusion of this lecture, indeed, I must express my dis- 
sent : not that I would undervalue what M. Morlot calls the 
'' practical utility of geology," nor that I am less sanguine as 
to the ftiture advantages of archaeology. Science, how- 
ever, is like virtue, its own reward, and the improvement 
of the mind must be regarded as the highest object of 
study. But M. Morlot is, to use his own metaphor, laboring 
earnestly in the vineyard, and is improving the soil, though, 
as in the old fable, it may be in the &lse hope of finding a 
concealed treasure* The Swiss archaeologists have indeed 
made the most of a golden opportunity. Not only in the Lake 
of Zurich, but also in Lakes Constance, Geneva, Neufchatel, 
Bienne, Morat, Sempach, in fact in most of the large Swiss 


lakes, as well as in several of the smaller ones (Inkwyl, 
PfefBkon, Moosseedorf, Luissel, etc), similar Lake-habitations 
have been discovered. In the larger lakes, indeed, not one, 
but many of these settlements existed; thus, there are 
already on record, in Lake Bienne, twenty ; in the Lake of 
Geneva, twenty-four; in Lake Constance, thirty-two; in Lake 
Neufchatel, as many as forty-six ; on the whole more than 
two hundred ; and many others, doubtless, remain to be dis- 
covered. Of those already known, some few belong to the 
Iron age, and even to Homan times ; but the greater num- 
ber appear to be divided in almost equal proportions between 
the age of Stone and that of Bronze. 

The dwellings of the Gauls are described as having been 
circular huts, built of wood and lined with mud. The huts 
of the Pileworks were probably of a similar nature. This 
supposition is not a mere hypothesis, but is confirmed by the 
preservation of pieces of the clay used for the lining. Their 
preservation is evidently due to the building having been 
destroyed by fire, which has hardened the clay, and enabled 
it to resist the dissolving action of the water. These frag- 
ments bear, on one side, the marks of interlaced branches, 
while on the other, which apparently formed the inner wall 
of the cabin, they are quite smooth. Some of those which 
have been found at Wangen are so large and so regular, 
that M. Troyon feels justified in concluding that the cabins 
were circular, and from ten to fifteen feet in diameter. 
Though the architecture of this period was very simple, 
still the weight to be sustained on the wooden platforms 
must have been considerable ; and their construction, which 
must have required no small labor,* indicates a large 
popidation. It would, indeed, be most interestiag if we 
could construct a retrospective census for these early periods, 

• ♦* Increasing density of popnlatian production." Bastiat, Hannonies of 
is equivalent to increasing facility of Political (Economy, p. 12. 


and M. Troyon has made an attempt to do so. The settle* 
ment at Merges, wluch is one of the largest in the Lake 
of Geneva, is 1200 feet long and 150 broad, giving a 
surface of 180,000 square feet. Allowing the huts to have 
been fifteen feet in diameter, and supposing that they oc- 
cupied half the surface, leaving the rest for gangways, he 
estimates the number of cabins at 311 ; and supposing again 
that, on an average, each was inhabited by four persons, he 
obtains for the whole a population of 1244. Starting from 
the same data, he assumes for the Lake of Neufchatel a 
popidation of about 5000. Sixty-eight villages, belonging 
to the Bronze age, are supposed to have contained 42,500 
persons ; while for the preceding epoch, by the same process 
of reasoning, he estimates the population at 31,875. 

So far as these calculations rest on the fragments of the clay 
walls, they must be regarded as altogether unsatisfactory, since 
Dr. Keller informs us that the largest pieces yet discovered 
are only a foot in their greatest diameter. There is also good 
reason to believe that the huts were not circular, but rectangu- 
lar. Nor am I inclined to attribute much value to the esti- 
mates of population based on the extent of the platforms. M. 
Troyon himself admits that his "chiflfres sent peut-6tre im peu 
^lev^s, en ^gard aux habitations sur terre ferme, dont il ne 
pent 6tre question dans ce calcul, et vu qu'on est encore bien 
loin de connaitre tons les points des lacs qui ont ^t^ occup^s," 
and, indeed, in the three years which have elapsed since his 
book was written, the number of Lake-villages discovered has 
been doubled. Moreover, M. Troyon assumes that the Lake- 
villages of the Bronze age were contemporaneous, and that 
the same was the case with those belonging to the Stone 
age. This also I should be disposed to question ; both these 
periods, but especially the Stone age, in all probability ex- 
tended over a long series of years, and though in these 
matters it is of course necessary to speak with much caution. 


.«tIU if we are to make any assumption in the case, it would 
^fleem safer to suppose that in each period some of the vil- 
lages had perished, or been forsaken, before others were built. 

We might feel surprise that a people so uncivilised should 
Jiave constructed their houses with immense labor on the 
water, when it would have been so much more easy to have 
built them on dry land. But we have already seen how, 
even in historical times, such dwellings have served as simple 
tand yet valuable fortifications. The first settlers in Switzer- 
land had to contend with the boar, the wolf, the bear, and 
the urus ; and subsequently, when the population increased, 
and disputes arose, the Lake-habitations, no doubt, acted as 
fortifications, and protected man from man, as they had 
before preserved him from wild beasts; still, though it is 
evident that the security thus given would amply compensate 
for much extra labor, it remains difficult to understand in 
what manner the piles were driven into the ground. 

In many cases, indeed, settlements of the Stone age are 
characterised by what are called "Steinbergs," that is to say, 
artificial heaps of stones, etc., evidently brought by the 
natives to serve as a support to the piles. In fact, they found 
it easier to raise the bottom round the piles, than to drive 
the piles into the bottom. On the other hand, some of these 
constructions, as, for instance, those at Inkwyl and Wauwyl, 
described respectively by M. Morlot and Col. Suter, more 
closely resemble the Irish Crannoge. We see, therefore, 
that, as Dr. Keller says, the Lake-dwellers followed two 
different systems in the construction of their dwellings, 
which he distinguishes as " Pfahlbauten," or Pilebuildings, 
and " Packwerkbauten," or Crannoges: in the first of which 
the platforms were simply supported on piles ; in the second 
of which the support consisted not of piles only, but of a solid 
mass of mud, stones, etc., with layers of horizontal and per- 
pendicular stakes, the latter serving less as a support than 


128 oaHffTRUCTKnr of tbe piatfobms. 

to bind the mass firmly together. It is evident that the 
" Packwerkbau'' is a much sin^ler and ruder affiur than the 
** P&hlbaUy" in which no small skill must have been required 
to connect the perpendicular and horizontal piles firmly to- 
gether. Still the "Packwerkbauten'^ were not suitable for 
the larger lakes, as during storms they would have been in- 
jured by the waves, which must have passed hannlesdy through 
the open-work of the "Pfahlbauten." We find, therefore, that 
while the former method of construction prevailed only in 
small lakes or morasses, the latter was adopted in the larger 
lakes, and even sometimes, as at Ebersberg, on dry land; a 
custom which, however singular, exists even at the presait 
day, as, for instance, in the island of Borneo. 

After having chosen a favorable situation, the first step 
in the construction of the Lake-habitations was to obtain the 
necessary timber. To cut down a tree with a stone hatchet 
must have been no slight undertaking. It is, indeed, most 
probable that use was made of fire, in the same manner as 
is done by existing savages in felling trees and making 
canoes. Burning the wood and then scraping away the 
charred portion renders the task far more easy, and the men 
of the Stone period appear to have avoided the use of large 
trees, except in making their canoes. Their piles were im- 
bedded in the mud for from one to five feet, and must also 
have projected from four to six feet above the water level, 
which cannot have been very different from what it is at 
present. They must, therefore, have had a length of ircm 
fifteen to thirty feet, and they were from three to nine inches 
in diameter. The pointed extremity which entered into thfe 
mud still bears the marks of the fire and the rude cuts made 
by the stone hatchets. The piles belonging to the Bronze 
period being prepared with metal axes, were much more 
regularly pointed, and the differences between the two have 
been iageniously compared to those shown by lead pencils 


well and badly cut. To drag the piles to the lake, and fix 
them firmly, must have required much labor, especially 
when their number is considered. At Wangen alone M. 
Lohle has calculated that 40,000 piles have been used ; but 
we must remember that these were probably not all planted 
«t one time, nor by one generation. Wangen, indeed, was cer- 
tainly not built in a day, but was, no doubt, gradually en- 
larged as the population increased. Herodotus informs us that 
the PaBonians made the first platform at the public expense, 
but that subsequently at every marriage (and polygamy was 
permitted), the bridegroom was expected to add a certain 
number of piles to the common support. In some localities, 
as at Brobenhausen, on Lake Ffaffikon^ the piles were 
atrengthened by cross-beams. The pile- works of subsequent 
periods differ little from those of the Stone age, so far at 
least as can be judged by the parts remaining, but the piles 
:are less decayed, and project above the mud farther than is 
the case with those of the preceding epoch. 

Through the kindness of Col. Suter I had an opportunity 
•of examining the construction of the lake-dwelling at Wau- 
wyl, near Zofingen, in the Canton of Lucerne. This ap- 
parently belonged to the Stone age, no trace of metal 
having yet been discovered in it. It is situated in a peat 
mioss, which was evidently at one time the bed of a shallow 
lake. By the gradual growth of peat, however, the level has 
been raised several feet, and the plain has recently been 
drained. We were assisted by six labourers, who dug out 
the peat, which we then carefully examined. I mention this, 
because the difference in the objects collected from different 
Pfahlbauten, may probably be^ in part at least, accounted for 
by the different ways in which the search has been made. The 
peat at Wauwyl varies in thickness from three to ten feet, 
and rests on a white bed consisting of broken, fresh- water 
shells. This stratum, though only a few inches thick, is 



found in the old beds of many small lakes, and is frequently 
mentioned by the Swiss arckadologists under the name of 
" weissgrund." It must not, however, be confounded with 
the "blancfond" of the larger lakes. The piles go through 
the peat and the " weis^rund " into the solid ground below. 
It is not easy to obtain them whole, because the lower por- 
tions are much altered by time, and so thoroughly saturated by 
water, that they are quite soft. CoL Suter, howerer, extracted 
two of them; one was 14ft. 6in. in length, of which 4ft. was in 
the peat, and the remaining 10ft. 6in. in the sand beneath ; the 
other was only 8fb. Gin. long, 4fk. of which was in the peat, 
the other 4fk. 6ia. in the solid ground. The piles vary from 
three to five inches in diameter, and are always round, never 
having been squared. The lower part is very badly cut, so 
that it is difficult to understand how they can have been 
forced to so great a depth into the ground. 

In most of the Pfahlbauten the piles are scattered, 
more or less irregularly, over the whole extent of the 
settlement ; at Wauwyl this is not the case, but they en- 
close, as it were, four quadrangular areas, the interiors of 
which are occupied by several platforms one over the other, 
the interstices being filled up by branches, leaves, and peat. 
The objects of antiquity are not scattered throughout the 
peat, but lie either on the kyer of broken shells, which 
formed the then bottom of the lake, or in the lower part of 
the peat. It is therefore evident that almost the whole, if not 
the whole, of the peat has grown since the time at which this 
interesting ruin was inhabited. The upper part had, how- 
ever, been removed before our arrival, so that the " cultur- 
chicht," the layer containing the objects of antiquity, was ex- 
posed ready for examination in the maimer already described. 

Some of the piles still stand two or three feet above the 
level of the peat, but the greater number are broken off 
lower down. We stood on one of the upper platforms. 


wluck seems to have been the floor on which the huts were 
erected^ and the beams of which are still perfectly preserved. 
It was at first sr question in what manner the platforms at 
this place were supported ; whether they rested like a raft 
on the surface of the water,, rising and sinking with it ; or 
whether they were fixed, and rested on a sort of artificial 
island,, formed by the clay,.,branches,^ etc., which now occupy 
the interspaces between the different platforms. Subsequent 
observations, however, confirmed as they have been by dis- 
coveries elsewhere, as for instance, at Inkwyl and Niederwyl, 
have decided, the question m favor of the latter hypothesis. 

During my visit to Wauwyl we obtained four small stone 
axes, one arrow-head, forfejr flint flakes, fifteen rude stone 

Fio. 130. 

hammers,, eight whetstones, thirty- 
three slingstones,. eight instruments 
of bone, and two of wood, besides 
numerous bones,, and a great quantity 
of broken, pottery. Col. Suter re- 
garded this as a fair average day's 
work. Altogether, about 350 instru- 
ments of stone and bone have been 
discovered at Wauwyl ; at Moossee- 
dorf more than 1,300, at Wangen 
more than 2,000, while M- Troyon 
estimates that those at Concise must 
have amounted to 25,000. 

The axe was pre-eminently the 
implement of antiquity. It was 
used in war and ui the chase, as 
well as for domestic purposes, and 
great nimibers have been found, especially at Wangen (Lake 
of Constance) and Concise (Lake of Neufchatel). With a few 
exceptions, they were small, especially when compared with 
the magnificent specimens from Denmark; in length they 

Swiss Stone Axe. 


varied from six inches to one, while the cutting edge had 
generally a width of from fifteen to twenty lines, Flint was 
sometimes used, and nephrite, or jade, in a few cases, but 
serpentine was the principal materiaL Most of the larger 
settlements were evidently manufacturing places, and many 
spoilt pieces and half-finished specimens have been foimd. 
The process of manufacture is thus described by M. Troyon : 
After having chosen a stone, the first step was to reduce it 
by blows with a hammer to a suitable size. Then grooves 
were made artificially, which must have been a very tedious 
and difficult operation, when flint knives, sand, and water 
were the only available instruments. Having carried the 
grooves to the required depths, the projecting portions were 
removed by a skilM blow with a hammer, and the implement 
was then sharpened and polished on blocks of sandstone. 

Sometimes the hatchet thus obtained was simply fixed in a 
handle of horn or wood. Generally, however, the whole 
instrument consisted of three parts. A piece of horn, two or 
three inches in length, received the stone at one end, and was 
squared at the other, so as to fit into a longer handle either 
of wood or horn. These intermediate pieces present several 
variations ; some are simply squared, while others have a pro- 
jecting wing which rested against the handle ; some few are 
forked as if tfco receive a wedge, and one has a small transverse 
hole, apparently for the insertion of a peg. It is remarkable 
that while in some places these horn axe-handles are numerous, 
this being especially the case at Concise, whence several hun- 
dred have been obtained, in other Lake- villages they are very 
scarce: at Wangen, for instance, though more than 1,100 stone 
axes have been found, M. Lohle has as yet met with only a 
few handles, all of which were of woods The axes appear to 
have been fastened into the handles by means of bitumen. 

The stone knives may be considered as of two sorts. Some 
diflfer from the axes principally in having their width greater 


than their length. In other cases flint flakes were set in 
wooden handles and fastened, like the axes, bjr means of 
bitumen. Saws also were made in a similar manner, but 
with their edges somewhat rudely* dentated ; we do not 
find in Switzerland any of the semilimar stone implements, 
which are frequent in Denmark. The arrow-heads were 
made of flint, or in some cases of rock crystal, and were 
of the usual forms. Spindle whorls fio. 121. 

of rude earthenware (fig. 121) were 
abundant in some of the Lake-villages 
even of the Stone age. This indi- y^^^^ ^ J*. 
cates a certain skill in weaving, of fjj ^ 
which, as we shall presently see, there ^BKJ; It^SJ^?! 
is even more conclusive evidence. ^HBMjLta:, ^, 
There are also found rounded stones, ^^^^™«4Ulj^ii 
pierced with one or sometimes two 

"■ n T • • Spindle Whorl from Eobenhausen 

holes. The use of these is uncertam, (stone age). 

but they may perhaps have been used to sink fishing lines. 

The flint flakes ofler no peculiarities ; the Swiss specimens 
are, however,, of small size. The presence of corn-crushers, 
which are round balls of hard stone, two to three inches in 
diameter, proves that agriculture was known and practised 
even in the Stone age. 

The list of objects hitherto found at Wauwyl is as follows : 

Stone axes, principally of serpen- 
tine 28 

Small flint arrow-heads 22 

Flint flakes 136 

Corn-crushers 13 A 

* Eude stones used as hammers, / jjc^^ ^jj 

common (say) 20 LoUected. 

Whetstones 18 I 

Slingstones 43 / 

In all about 280 articles of stone. 


The flint, of whidi the flakes and arrow-heads were 
formed, must have come from a distance, and the best pieces 
in all probability were obtained from France. Visits may 
have been made to the French quarries, just as Cathn tells us 
that the American tribes, from far and near, visited the red 
pipestone quarry of Coteau des Prairies. A few fragments 
of Mediterranean coral have been found at Concise, and of 
Baltic amber at Meilen. Some archaeologists have argued 
from these facts, that there must have been a ceErtain amount 
of commerce eyen in the Stone age. As, however^ both these 
settlements appear to have belonged to the transitional period 
between the age of Stone and that of Bronze, it would be 
safer to refer both the amber and the coral to the later period. 

But the most important fact of this nature is the presence 
of nephrite. This rock is not known to occur in the Alps, 
or, indeed, in Europe; some archsBologists haye suggested 
that it may possibly have been obtained from the conglome- 
rate known as the "Nagelflue,*' others think that it must 
have been introduced from the East. Even if this is the 
case, it would not be any proof of commerce, properly so 
called; but I should rather be disposed to think that the 
nephrite had passed from hand to hand, and from tribe 
to tribe, by a sort of barter. Other facts of a similar 
nature are on record. Thus, Messrs. Squier and Davis 
tell us, that in the tumuli of the Mississippi valley, 
we find "side by side, in the same mounds, native copper 
from Lake Superior, mica from the Alleghanies, shells from 
the Gulf, and obsidian (perhaps porphyry) from Mexico." 
Good representations of the sea-cow, or manatee, are found 
a thousand miles from the shores inhabited by that animal, 
and shells of the large tropical Pyrula perversa are found in 
the tumuli round the great lakes, two thousand miles from 

Like other savages, the Lake -dwellers made the most 


of any animal they eould catch. They ate the flesh, 

Fko.ia2. ^^ *^® ^^^ ^^^ dothing, picked every 

fragment of marrow out of the bcmes^ and 

then^ in many cases, fashioned the bones 

themselves into weapcais. The larger and 

more compact ones served as hammers, and, 

as well as horns of the deer, were used as 

handles for hatchets. In some cases, pieces 

of bone were worked to an edge, but they 

are neither hard nor sharp enough to cut 

well. Bone awls are numerous, and may 

have been used in preparing skins for 

clothes. Fig. 122 represents a chisel, or 

scraper, of bone, from Wangen. In most of 

the settlements, ribs spUt c^en and pointed 

at one end have been found, but for what 

purpose they were intended it is difficult to say. Perhaps 

they were used in netting, or in the manufaeture of pottery. 

A few objects made of wood have also been found at Wau- 

wyl and elsewhere ; but these, even if originally numerous, 

would be difficult to distinguish from the surrounding peat, 

esj^eeially as it contains so many branches of trees and other 

fragments of wood ; and it would also be very difficult to 

extract them entire. Perhafws, therefore, implements of wood 

may have been much more varied and common than the 

«c#llectiMis would appear to indicate. 

The pottery of the Stone age presents nearly the same 
<Jiaracter8 in all the settlements. Very rude and coarse, it 
u generally found in broken pieces, and few entire vessels 
Iiave been obtained. There is no evidence that the potter's- 
wheel was known, and Ae baking is very imperfect, having 
apparently taken place in an open fire. The material is also 
very rude, and generally contains numerous grains of quajrtz. 
The form is frequently cylindrical, but several of the jars 


are rounded at the base, and without feet. In some of the 
Bronze age villages, rings of pottery are found, which were 
evidently intended to serve as supports for these earthenware 
tumblers, but none of them have yet been met with in any of 
the Stone age villages. Possibly the earthenware during the 
Stone age rested on the soft earth, and tables were only 
introduced in the Bronze age, when by means of metallic 
implements it became so much easier to cut wood, and 
particularly to make boards. Many of the vessels had 
small projections, which were pierced in such a manner 
that strings might be passed through them, and which 
may, therefore, have, served for suspension. Some of 
the vessels, also, are pierced by small holes at different 
levels; it has been suggested that these may have been 
used in the preparation of curds, the small holes being in- 
tended to permit the escape of the milk. The ornaments 
on the pottery belonging to this age are of a very rude and 
simple character. Sometimes a row of knobs runs round the 
vase, just below the lip ; this style of ornamentation is com- 
mon on the pottery found by M. Gilli^ron at the Pont de 
Thifle. Another curious character is the frequent presence 
of a row of depressions which do not completely penetrate 
the thickness of the vessel ; but the commonest decorations 
are simple lines or furrows made sometimes by a sharp instru- 
ment, sometimes by the finger-nail, and occasionally produced 
by pressing a cord on the soft clay. No representation of 
any animal or vegetable has yet been met with; indeed, 
curved Hues can hardly be said to exist, being very rare, 
and when present very irregular and childish. It is true 
that Dr. Keller gives a figure (also copied by Troyon, I.e., 
pL vii. f. 3S) of a vase found at Wangen (Stone age), on 
which is a much more elaborate ornament, apparently in- 
tended to represent leaves. This surprised me very much, but 
having obtained, through the kindness of M. Morlot, a cast of 



the fragment from which this drawing was copied, I am in a 
position to state that the representation is very complimentary. 
Although there can be little dou^t that the skins of ani- 
mals supplied the ancient Lake-dwellers with their principal 
articles of clothing, still in several of the settlements, and 
especially at Wangen and Robenhausen, both of which be- 
long to the Stone age, pieces of rude fabric have been found 
in some abundance. They consist either of flax fibres or 
straw (fig. 123). The presence of spindle whorls has been 
already mentioned. 

Fio. 123. 

Piece of Tissue Arom Robenhausen. 

The antiquities found at Wauwyl, Robenhausen, at the 
Pont de Thi^le, at Moosseedorf, and elsewhere in small 
lakes and peat-bogs, are more or less covered by a 
thick layer of peat, which perhaps at some future date 
will give us a clue to their age. On the contrary, in the 
large lakes no peat grows. At the entrance of the rivers, 
indeed, much mud and gravel is of course accumulated ; the 
Lake of Geneva, for instance, once no doubt extended for a 
considerable distance up the Valley of the Rhone* But the 
gravel and mud brought down by that river are> as every 
one knows, soon deposited, and the water of the lake is else- 
where beautifully clear and pure. 


The lake itself is very deep, in parts as mucli as nine 
hundred and eighty feet ; and the banks are generally steep, 
but round the margin ^ere is, in most places, a fringe of 
shallow water, due probably to the erosive action of the 
waves, and known to the fishermen as the '^ blancfend," 
because the lake is there of a pale greyish hue, when oan« 
trasted with the bright blue of the central deeper wat^. 
It is on this '^blancfond,'' and at a depth of sometimes as 
much as fifteen feet, that the Pfahlbauten were generally 
constructed. On calm days, when the sur&ceef the water is 
unruffled, the piles are plainly visible. Few of them now 
project more than two feet from the bottom ; eaten away by 
the incessant action of the water, some of them ''n'apparais- 
sent plus que comme aiguiUes,'' which finally also disappear, 
and leave only a black disk at the surface of the mud. Tlus, 
however, is the case principally in the Lake* villages of the 
Stone age. "Ce qui les distingue surtout," says Prof. Besor, 
''c'est la quality des pieux, qui sent beaucoup plus gros que 
ceux des stations du bronze : ce sont des trencs entiers, mesu- 
rant jusqu'i 28 et 30 centimetres. Au lieu de faire sailUe 
dans I'eau, ils sont k fleur du fond.'' On the other hand, in 
speaking of the Bronze age piles, he says : " Les pieux sont 
plus gr^les ; ce sont frequemment des troncs fondus en quatre, 
n'exc^dant gu^re 4, au plus 5 pouces de diamdtre ; au lieu 
d'etre d, fleur du fond, ils s'^lSvent de 1 ik 2 pieds au-dessus 
de la vase, ce qui permet de les reconnattre facilement, mal- 
gr^ leur plus grand profondeur." M. Troyon also tells us 
that **0n pent dire que les pilotis de la fin du deuxi^e age, 
anciens de plus de deux nulle ans et saillants d'un k trois 
pieds au-dessus de la vase, pr^sentent d, pen prds partout le 
m^me aspect, tandis que ceux de T&ge de la pierre ont etS 
g^n^ralement us^s jusqu'sl la surface du limon dont ils sont 
parfois reconverts."* 

* Les Constructions laenstree da lac de Neofcliatel. 


The more complete defitruction of the piles belonging to 
the earlier period depends not only on their greater age, but 
on their occurrence in shallower water. The action of the 
waves being greatest near the surface, and diminishing gra- 
dually downwards, not only are those piles which occupy the 
deeper parts, least liaUe to destruction, but in each the 
erosion takes place gradually £rom above, so that the 
upper end of the piles is often more regularly pointed 
even than the lower. Lying among them are fragments 
of bone, horn, pottery, and sometimes objects of bronze. 
Most of these' are imbedded in the mud or hidden imder 
the stones, but others lie on ihe bottom yet iminjured; 
so that when for the first time I saw them through the 
transparent water, a momentary feeling of doubt as to their 
age rose in my mind. So fresh and so unaltered, they look 
as if they were only things of yesterday, and it seems hard to 
believe that they can have remained there for centuries. The 
explanation of the difficulty is, however, to be found in the 
fact that the action of the most violent storms is perceptible 
only to a small depth. Except, therefore, near the mouths 
of rivers, or where there is much vegetation, the deposition 
of mud at depths greater than four feet is an extremely slow 
process, and objects which fall to the bottem in such situa- 
tions will neither be covered over nor carried away. " J'ai 
pfech^," says M. Troyon, "sur Templacement en face du. Mou- 
lin de Bevaix^ les fragments d'un grand vase qui gisaient & 
pen de distance les uns des autres, et que j'ai pu r^unir de 
mani^re k les remontre compl^tement. A la Tongue, prds 
d'Hermance, j'ai trouv^ les deux fragments d'lm anneau sup- 
port, distants de quelques pieds, qui, en les rapprochant ne 
laissent aucun interstice." The upper parts of the objects 
also, which are bathed by the water, are generally covered by 
a layer of carbonate of lime, while the lower part which has 
sunk into the mud is quite unaltered. M. Troyon once^ 


obtained at Cortaillod a pair of bracelets in one haul of the 
dredge — the first, which had been visible from the boat, was 
greenish and covered with incrustation; the second, which 
had been in the mud immediately below, was as fresh as if it 
had only just been cast. 

As piles of the Bronze age are sometimes found at a 
depth of as much as fifteen feet, and it is manifest that 
buildings cannot have been constructed over water much 
deeper than this, it is evident that the Swiss lakes cannot 
since that period have stood at a much higher level than at 
present. This conclusicm is confirmed by the position of 
Roman remains at Thonon, on the Lake of Geneva, and we 
thus obtain satisfactory evidence that the height of the Swiss 
lakes must have remained almost unaltered for a very long 

For our knowledge of the animal remains from the Pile- 
works we are almost entirely indebted to Prof. Riitimeyer, 
who has published two memoirs on the subject (Mittheilungen 
der Antiq. Gesellschaft in Zurich, Bd. xiii. Abth. 2, 1860 ; 
and, more recently, a separate work. Die Fauna der Pfahlbau- 
ten in der Schweiz, 1861). The bones are in the same frag- 
mentary condition as those from: the Kjokkenmoddings, and 
have been opened in the same manner for the sake of the 
marrow. There is alsa the same absence of certain bones 
and parts of bones, so that it is impossible to reconstruct a 
perfect skeleton, even of the commonest animal. 

The total niunber of species amounts to about seventy, of 
which ten are Cashes, three reptiles, twenty birds, and the 
remainder quadrupeds. Of the latter, six species may be 
considered as having been domesticated, namely, the dog, 
pig, horse, goat, sheep, and at least two varieties of oxen. 
The bones very seldom occur in a natural condition, but those 
of domestic and wild animals are mixed together, and the 
state in which they are found, the marks of knives upon them. 


and their having been almost always broken open for the sake 
of the marrow, are all eyidences of human interference. 

Two species, the one wild, the other domestic, are especially 
numerous — the stag and the ox. Indeed, the remains of these 
two equal those of all the ©thers together. It is, however, 
an interesting fact, that in the older settlements, as at 
Moosseedor^ Wauwyl, and Robenhausen, the stag exceeds 
the ox in the number of specimens indicated, while the 
reverse is the case in the more modem settlements of the 
western lakes, as, for instance, those at Wangen and Meilen. 

Next to these in order of abundance is the hog. Less nu- 
merous again, and generally represented by single specimens 
where the preceding occur in numbers, are the roe, the goat, 
and the sheep, which latter is most abundant in the later set- 
tlements. With these rank the fox and the martens. Foxes 
are occasionally eaten by the Esquimaux,* and Captain Lyon 
seems to have taken rather a fancy to them.t They also 
appear, whether from choice or necessity, to have been eaten 
during the Stone period. This conclusion is derived from 
the fact that the bones often present the marks of knives, 
and have been opened for the sake of the marrow. While, 
however, the fox is very frequent in the Pileworks of the 
Stone epoch, it has not yet been foimd in any settlement 
belonging to the Bronze period. Oddly enough, the dog is 
rarer than the fox, at least as far as the observations yet go, in 
the Lake-dweUings of the Stone period, though more common 
than the horse:; and of other species but few specimens have 
been met with, though in some localities the beaver, the 
badger, and the hedgehog appear in some numbers. The 
bear and the wolf, as well as the urus, the bison, and the elk, 
seem to have occasionally been captured ; it is probable that 
the latter species were taken in concealed pits. 

* Crantz, History of Greenland, yol. i. p. 73, 
t Lyons* Journal, p. 77. 


From the small lake at Moosseedorf, M. Eiitimeyer has 
identified the following list : — Of the dog, three specimens ; - 
fox, four specimens ; beaver, five specimens ; roe, six speci- 
mens; goat and sheep, ten specimens; cow, sixteen speci* 
mens ; hog, twenty specimens ; stag, twenty specimens. It 
is certainly very striking to find two wild species repre- 
sented by the greatest number of specimens, and particularly: 
so, since this is no exceptional case ; but the whole sum o£ 
the wild, exceeds that of the domesticated individuals,, a^ 
result, moreover,, which holds gpod in other settlements- 
of this epoch. Not only does this indicate a great antiquity,, 
but it also proves that the population must have been some- 
times subjected, to great privations, partly from the unavoid- 
able uncertainty of supplies so obtained, partly because it i& 
improbable that foxes woidd have been eaten except under 
the pressure of hunger. 

The bones of the stag and the wild boar often, indicate 
animals of asou imusual magnitude^ while,., on the other hand,, 
the fox appears to have been somewhat smaller than at present. 
The dogs varied less than they do now; in fact they all belong- 
to one variety, which was of middle size, and appears to have 
resembled our present beagles. (M. Riitimeyer describes it 
as "resembling the Jagdhund" and the " Wachtelhund.'')? 
The sheep of the Stone period difiered from the ordinary 
form, in its small size, fine legs, and short,, goat-like horns: 
particulars, in which it is nearly resembled by some northern, 
and mountain, varieties at the present day, as, for instance, 
by the small sheep of the Shetlands, Orkneys, Welsh hOls, 
and parts of the Alps. At Wauwyl, however, M. Riitimeyer 
found traces of an individual with large horns. Our know- 
ledge of the wild species of sheep is so deficient, that M. 
Riitimeyer does not venture to express any opinion concern- 
ing the origin of the domestic varieties, except that he is 
inclined to trace them up to several wild races. 



In his first memoir, Prof. Biitimeyer gives an interesting 
table, which, with some additions which I owe to the courtesy 
of Prof. Biitimeyer, is here subjoined, premising, that 1 denotes 
a single individual; 2, several individuals; 3, the species 
which are conunon ; 4, those which are very common ; 5, 
those which are present in great number. 

1 UrBUsArctos , 

2 Meles vulgaris , 

3 Mustela Foina , 

4 », Maries , 

5 „ Putorius , 

6 „ Erminea 

7 Littra vulgaris , 

8 Canis Lupus , 

9 „ familiaris (palus- 

la „ „ major... 

11 „ Vulpes 

12 Fdi&Catus 

13 Erinaceus europaeus ... 

14 Castor Fiber 

15 Sciurus europaeus 

16 Mus sylyaticus 

17 Lepus timidus 

18 Sus Scrofa ferus 

19 „ Palustris ferns .... 

20 „ Scrofa domesticus 

21 „ Palustris domesticus 

22 Equus Caballus 

23 Cervus Alces 

24 „ Elaphus 

25 ,f Capreolus ... 

26 „ Dama 

27 Capra Ibex 

28 „ Hircus 

29 Oyis Aries 

30 Antilope rupicaprQ ... 

3 1 Bos pnmigenius 

32 „ Bison 

33 „ Taurus primigenius 

34 „ brachyceros 

36 „ trochoceros 

36 „ Taurus frontosus . 





The almost entire absence of the hare is doubtless owing 



to the curious prejudice which was and is entertained by 
many races against the flesh of this animal. It was never 
eaten by the ancient, Britons, and is avoided by the Lapps at 
the present day. Among the Hottentots it was eaten by the 
women, but was forbidden to men.* It was regarded as un- 
clean by the Jews, being erroneously supposed to chew the 
cud. According to Crantz, the Greenlanders, if in want, will 
eat foxes rather than hares.t Finally, its remains do not 
occur in the Danish shell-mounds. 

The birds which have been discovered are : — 

Aquila fulva. The golden eagle. At Robenhausen. 

Aquila haliaetus. A single bone found at Moosseedorf 
is rather doubtfully referred to this species by 
M. Riitimeyer. 

Falco milvus. Robenhausen. 

Falco palumbarius. Wauwyl, Moosseedorfc 

Falco nisus. Moosseedorf. 

Strix aluco. Concise. 

Stumus vulgaris. Robenhausen, 

Corvus corona. „ 

Cinclus aquaticus. „ 

Columbus palumbus „ Moosseedorf. 

Tetrao bonasia. „ 

Ciconia alba. Not unfrequent at Moosseedorf and Robenh. 

Ardea cinerea, Robenhausen. 

Fulica atra. „ 

Larus. Sp, in .,, 

Cygnus olor „ 

Anser segetum. „ 

Anas boschas. Robenhausen, Moosseedorf, Wauwyl. 

Anas querquedula. „ „ 

Podiceps minor. „ 

♦ Kolben's Cape of Good Hope, yol. i. p. 205. 
t History of Greenland, p. 73. 


The reptQes and fishee are represented by about ten of our 
commonest species. 

13ie common moose and our two house-rats, as well as tiie 
domestic cat and the barn-door fowl, are absent from the 
Lake-habitaiions of Switzerland, as also firom the Ejokken* 
moddings of Denmark ; Prof. Biitimeyer attributes to a later 
period a single bone of the latter bird which was found at 
Merges, a settlement belonging to the Bronze period. 

The earliest remains of the ass mentioned by Prof. Biiti- 
meyer are those found at Ghavannes and Noville, which, 
however, were not connected with Pfahlbauten, and belonged 
to post-Boman times. 

It IS singular, that though remains of the horse have 
been found in all the Pileworks, they f^e so rare that their- 
presence may almost be considered accidental : thus, Wangen 
has only produced a single tooth ; Moosseedorf, a metatarsal 
bone, which has been polished on one side ; Bobenhausen, a 
single Os naviculare tarsi ; and Wauwyl, only a few bones, 
which may all have belonged to a siugle individual. On the 
other hand, when we come to the Bronze period, we find at 
Nidau nume)\)us bones of this species; so that, as far as 
these slight indications go, the horse, even if present in the 
Stone age, seems to have been rarer than at subsequent 
periods. All the remains of this animal belonged ap- 
parently to the domestic variety. 

Though he refers some bones to the wild boar, and 
odiers to the domestic hog, yet Prof. Biitimeyer considers 
that the greatest number of the remains of this genus 
belong to a different race, which he calls Sus scrofa 
palustris. This variety was, in his opinion, less powerful 
and dangerous than the wild boar, the tusks being much 
smaller in proportion; in &ct, he describes it as having, 
with the molar teeth of an ordinary fiill-grown wild boar 
premolars, canines, and incisives resembling those of a young 



domestic hog. He considers that all the bones of this variety 
from Moosseedorf belonged to wild individuals, while of 
those from Nidau, Bobenhausen, Wauwyl, and Concise, some 
bear, in his opinion, evidences of domestication. It has been 
supposed by some naturaUsts that this variety was founded 
only on female specimens, but in his last work Prof. Riiti- 
meyer combats this opinion at some length, and gives copious 
descriptions and measurements of the different parts. He also* 
points out numerous sexual differences in the S. palustris, of 
the same nature, but not so well marked, as those of the wild 
boar. Eelying also on its well-defined geographical and 
historical range, he denies that it can be considered as a 
cross between the wild boar and domestic hog, or that the 
differences which separate it fr^m the former can be looked 
upon as mere individual peculiarities. He considers, in- 
deed, that as a wild animal it became extinct at a very 
early period, though the tame swine of India, which 
agree closely with this race, may perhaps have descended 
from it. 

Our domestic hog first makes its appearance in the later 
Pileworks, as, for instance, at Concise. Prof. Eutimeyer does 
not, however, believe that it was tamed by the inhabitants 
of Switzerland, but is rather disposed to look upon it as 
having been introduced during the Bronze age, and the more 
so, as he also finds at Concise traces of an ox {B. trochoceroa) 
which does not occur in the earlier Pileworks. 

In endeavouring to ascertain whether any given bones 
belonged to a wild or domesticated animal, we must be 
guided by the following considerations : the number of in- 
dividuals represented; the relative proportions of young 
and old; the absence or presence of very old individuals, 
at least in the case of species that served for food ; the traces 
of long, though indirect, selection, in diminishing the size of 
any natural weapons which might be injurious to man ; the 


direct action of man during the life of the animal; and 
finally the texture and condition of the bones. 

Applying these considerations to the Sus palustris from 
Moosseedorf, it is evident, says Prof. Rutimeyer, firstly, that 
the argumeixt derivable from the number of young specimens 
loses much of its force on account of the great fertility of the 
sow, and the ease with which the young con be foimd and 
destroyed; secondly, in the number of individuals repre- 
sented, it is equalled by the stag, which certainly was never 
domesticated; thirdly, some bones of very old individuals 
have been found, and some of very young, even of imbom 
pigs ; the smaUness of the tusks is, according to Prof. Eiiti- 
meyer, a characteristic of the race and not an evidence of 
domestication ; the bones are of a firm and close texture, and 
the only cases of decay have arisen &om an extreme degrada- 
tion of the teeth, which would certainly be unlikely to occur 
in a domestic animal. Finally, none of the teeth show 
traces of any filing or other preparation, except such as may 
have taken place after the death of the animal ;- from all which 
reasons Prof. Eutimeyer infers that the inhabitants of Moos- 
seedorf had not yet succeeded in taming either the Sus scrofa 
palustris or the Sua scrofa ferus. 

Prof. Riitimejrer htus paid great attention to the texture and 
condition of the bones themselves, and believes that he can 
in many cases from these alone distinguish the species, and 
even determine whether the bone belonged to a wild or a 
domesticated animal. 

In wild animals the bones are of a firmer and closer tex- 
ture; there is an indescribable, but to the accustomed eye 
very characteristic, sculpturing of the external surface, pro- 
duced by the sharper and more numerous impressions of 
vessels, and the greater roughness of the surfaces for the 
attachment of mtiscles. There is also an exaggeration of all 
projections and ridges, and a diminution of all indifferent 


surfaces. In the cansideraticm of the remains of oxen, these 
distinctions hare proved of the greatest importance. By th^ 
assistance, and &is is in many respects <me of the most 
int^esting parts of the W)rk, Prof. Rutifflieyer has convinced 
himself that besides the two wild species of bos, namely, 
the urns {B. primigmim) and the aurochs (JB. fmm or Bison 
JSurqpdBus), three domestic races of oxen occur in Fileworks. 

The first of these is allied to, and in his opinion descended 
from, the urns, and he th^*efore calls it the Primigenius race. 
This yariety occurs in all the Pileworks of the Stone jimod. 
The second or ^ochoceros race, he correlates with a fossil 
q>ecies described under this name by F. von Mey^, from the 
diluvium <^ Arezao and Siena. This variety has hitherto 
only been found at ConeiBe. 

The third, or Longifrons race, is by far the most common 
of the three. It occurs in all the Pileworks, and at Moos- 
seedorf and Wangen — that is to say, in the settlements which 
are supposed to be the oldest----almost to the exdusion of the 
Primigenius race. Prcrf, Rutimeyer considers that it is the 
domesticated form of B, hngifrona of Owen, but as the word 
" longifrons'' seems to him to be inappropriate and incorrect, 
he uses the name ** brachyceros," which was originally pro- 
posed in manuscript by Owen for this species, but which has 
also b^n used by Gray for an African species, and ought 
not Aerefore to be adc^ited. 

A subsequ^it portion of the work is devoted to the ex- 
amination of the existing races of European oxen. The old 
Trochoceros race Prof. Btitimeyer considers to be extinct, but 
he sees in the great oxen of Friesland, Jutland, and Hoists, 
the descendants of the Bos primigenius. Tbh race does not 
now occur in Switzerland, but he considers that there are at 
present in that country two distinct varieties of domestic 
oxen. The one of various shades between light grey and 
dark brown, but without spots, and prevailing in Schwyz, 


Un, Yakis, etc., in fkcty in the whole eoimtry south of a 
line drawn from the Lake of Constance to Y alais, agrees in 
its general osteological characters with the Bos Icmgifrons of 
Owen. The other or spotted variety, which is generally of 
larger size, and prevails in fTc^rthem Switzerland, is con- 
sidered by Prof. Biitimeyer to be descended from the B* 
frontosus, a species found fos»l in Sweden, and described 
ly Nilsson. 

I wiU not express aoiy opinion of my own as to these eon- 
elusions* The subject is one no less difficult than important^ 
and my space does not permit me to lay before my readers 
the details given by Prof. Butimeyer, to whose work there- 
fore those must refer who wish for more informati<m on 
the subject. AU naturalists must feel much indebted to 
Prof. Biitimeyer for the labor he has spent and the light he 
has thrown upon the subject, whether we eventually adopt 
his conclusions or not. 

Making allowance for the marine animals, such as seals 
and fish, oysters, cockles,, whelks,, etc.^ which we could 
not expect tO' find so fser away from the sea, the fauna 
indicated by the remains feund in the Swiss lakes agrees 
remarkably with that which charascterises the Danish Kjok- 
kenmoddings,. and belongs evidently to a fan* later age than 
that oi the celebrated stone hatchets, which were first made 
known to us by the genius and perseverance of M. Boucher 
de Perthes 

Instead of the elqyhant and rhinoceros we find in Ihe 
later or second stone period — ^in that,, namely, of the Kjok- 
kenmoddings* and '^ P£aMbauten"-— the urus and bison, the 
elk, and the red deer already installed as monarehs of the 
forest. The latter, indeed, with the boar, appears to have 
been very frequent, and to have formed a most important 
article of food to the Lake-dwellers. The urus, or great 
fossil ox, is now altogether extract, at least as a wild 


q)ecies.* It is m^itioned by Csesar, who describes it as 
being Uttle smaller than an elephant. (Hi sunt magnitudine 
paulo infra elephantos, specie et colore et figur& tanri.) 
According to Herberetein, it still existed in Germany during 
the sixteenth century, soon after which, however, it must 
have become extinct. 

The aurochs, or European bison, seems to have disappeared 
fi^m Western Europe, at about the same period as the urus. 
There is no historical record of its existence in England or 
Scandinavia. In Switzerland we cannot trace it later than 
the tenth century ; but it is mentioned in the " Niebelungen 
Lied," of the twelfth century, as occurring in the Forest of 
Worms, and in Erussiia the last was killed in the year 1775. 
At one period, indeed, it appears to have inhabited ahnost 
the whole of Europe, much of Asia, and part even of America, 
but at present it is confined in Europe to the imperial forests 
in Lithuania, where it is preserved by the Emperor of Kussia ; 
while, according to Nordmann and Von Baer, it still exists 
in some.pcuiis of Western Asia. 

We have no notice (of the existence of the elk in Switzer- 
land during the historical period, but it is mentioned by 
Csesar as existing in the great Hercynian forest ; and even 
in the twelfth century it was to be met with in Sclavonia 
and Himgary, according to Albertus Magnus and Gesner. 
In Saxony, the death of the last is recorded as having oc- 
curred in 1746. At present it inhabits Prussia and Lithuania, 
Finland and Kussia, Scandinavia and Siberia, to the shores 
of the Amoor. 

The ibex disappeared from most of the Swiss Alps, perhaps 
not much later than the elk. It has lingered longest in the 
West. In Glarus the last .one perished in 1550, though near 

* Prof. BUtimejer, howeyer, con* though dwarfish, descendAiits of the 
aiders l&at the celebrated wild cattle of B: primigenius. 
Tankenrille Park are unmiatakeable, 


Cliiaveiina it existed until the commeiiceinent of the seyen- 
teenth centuiy, and in the Tyrol until the second half of the 
eighte^ith, while it still maintains itself in the mountains 
surrounding Mont Is6ran. 

The extermination of the bear, like that of the ibex, seems 
to haye begun in the East, and not yet to be complete, since 
this animal still occurs in the Jura, in Yalais, and in the 
south-eastern parts of Switzerland. The fox, the otter, and . 
the different species of weasels, are still the common car- 
nivora of Switzerland, and the wild cat, the badger, and the 
wolf still occur in the Jura and the Alps, the latter in cold 
winters venturing even into the plains. The beaver, on the 
contrary, has at last disappeared. It had long been very 
rare in Switzerland, but a few survived until the beginning 
of the present century, in Lucerne and Yalais. Bed deer 
were abundant in the Jura and Black Forest in the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries, though they do not appear to have 
been so large as those which lived in earlier times. The last 
was shot in the canton of Basle, at the close of the eighteenth 
century, while in western Switzerland and Yalais they lin- 
gered somewhat longer. The roedeer still occurs in some 

The Fauna thus indicated is certainly very much what 
might have been expected. We find among the remains 
of the Lake-dwellings most of the species which characterise 
the post-tertiary epoch in Europe. Some of the larger ones 
have since Mlexi away in the struggle for existence, and 
others are becoming rarer and rarer every year, while some 
maintain themselves ev^i now, thanks only to the inclemency 
and inaccessil»lity of the mountainous regions which they 
inhabit. The gradual process of extermination, which has 
continued ever since, had even then begun. 

Taken as a whole, therefore, the animals of the Swiss Pile- 
works belong evidently to the faima which commenced ins 


post-tertiarj times with the mammoth, the rhinoceros ticho- 
rhinns, the cave bear, and the fossil hysenb. 

While, however, we must regard the latina of the Stone 
age as belonging to the same great zoological epoch with tiiat 
of the river drift; gravels on the one hand, and the present 
time on the other, we cannot forget that the immense period 
which has elapsed since the. end of the tertiary period has 
produced great changes in the fauna of Europe. In this 
post-tertiary era the Pileworks occupy, so to say, the middle 
position. Distinguished from the present &una of Switzer- 
land by the possession of the urus, the bison, the elk, the 
stag, and the wild boar, as well as by the more general dis- 
tribution of the beaver, the bear, the ibex, etc., their fauna 
differs from the drift gravels in the absence of the mammoth, 
the rhinoceros, the cave bear, and the cave hyaena. 

Prof Biitimeyer thioks that from these considerations 
alone, even if we had no other evidence, we might carry this 
division farther ; and if we take the settlements at Moossee- 
dorf, Wauwyl, Robenhausen,> and Nidau, which have been 
the most carefully studied in this respect, the three former, 
which belong to the Stone age, certainly offer a marked con- 
trast to the latter, which is the locaKty whence the largest 
number of bronze objects has as yet been obtained. 

It is of course unnecessary to point out the interest and 
importance of such a distinction, which accords so well with 
that indicated by the study of the weapons and the state of 
preservation of the piles. Thus, the urus has only occurred 
at Moosseedorf, Wauwyl, Kobenhausen, and Concise; the 
aurochs only at Wauwyl and Robenhausen ; the bear only 
at Moosseedorf and Meilen. A glance at the table given at 
page 167, will show that several other species have as yet 
only occurred at Moosseedorf and Bobenhausen ; a fact, how- 
ever, which indicates rather the richness than the antiquity 
of these localities. Possibly, we may consider the presence 


of these larger species as an indication of their greater 
abundance in the oldest period; bat we most not forget 
that not only the bear and the elk^ but also the aurochs 
and the urus appear at a comparatiTely late period. On 
the other hand, the abiindance of wild animals, and the 
fact that at Moosseedorf and Wauwyl the fox was more 
abundant than the dog, while elsewhere the reyerse is the 
case, certainly speak in fayor of the greater antiquity of 
these two settlements. 

'The evidence deriyed from the distribution of the domestic 
animals is^ perhaps, more, satisfactory. The sheq^ is present 
eyen at Moosseedorf, though not so at Nidau. 
On the other hand, the horse is frequent at Nidau, while at 
Moosseedorf only a single bone of this animal was discoyered, 
in a different condition from that of the other bones, and 
probably more recent. Finally, the domestic hog of the 
{»-esent race is absent from aU the Pileworks of the Stone 
period, excepting the one at Wauwyl, and becomes frequent 
only at Nidau, 

If succeeding inyestigations confirm the conclusions thus 
indicated, we may infer that the domestic animals, which 
were comparatiyely rare in the Stone period, became more 
frequent after the introduction of bronze ; a change indi- 
cating and perhaps producing an alteration of habits on 
the part of the inhabitants. 

Bare, indeed, as they may haye been, o±en, horses, sheep, 
and goats could not be successftilly kept through the winter 
in the climate of Switzerland, without stores of proyisions 
and some sort of shelter. A pastoral people, therefore, must 
haye reached a higher grade than a mere nation of hunters. 
We know, moreoyer, in another way, that at this period 
agriculture was not entirely imknown. This is preyed in 
the most unexpected manner, by the discoyery of carbonised 
cereals at yarious points. Wheat is most common, haying 


been disooTered at Meilen^ Moosseedorf^ and Wangen. At the 
latter place, indeed, many buahels of it were found, the grains 
being united in large thick lumps. In other cases the 
grains are free, and without chaff, resembling our present 
wheat in size and form, while moire rarely they are still in 
the ear. Ears of the Hordeum hexastichon L. (the six-rowed 
barley) are somewhat numerous. This species differs from 
the H. Yulgare L. in the number of rows and in the smaller 
size of the grains. According to De Oandolle, it was the 
species generally cultivated by the ancient Greeks^ Eomans, 
and Egyptians. In the ears from Wangen, each row has 
generally ten or eleven grains, which, however, are smaller 
and shorter than those now grown. 

Still more unexpected was the discovery of bread, or rather 
cakes, for leaven does not appear to have been used. They 
were flat and round, from an inch to fiifteen lines in thick- 
ness, and, to judge from one specimen, had a diameter of 
four or five inches. In other cases the grains seem to have 
been roasted, coarsely ground between stones, and then either 
stored up in large earthenware pots, or eaten after being 
slightly moistened. Grain prepared in a similar manner was 
used in the Canary Islands at the time they were conquered 
by Spain, and even now constitutes the principal food of the 
poorer classes. In what way the ground was prepared for 
the cultivation of com we know not, as no implements have 
as yet been discovered, which can with certainty be regarded 
as agricultural. 

Carbonised apples and pears have been found at Wan- 
gen, sometimes whole, sometimes cut into two, or more 
rarely into four pieces, and evidently dried and put aside 
for winter use. Apples are more niunerous than pears, 
and have occurred not only at Wangen, but also at Boben- 
hausen in Lake Pfe£Skon, and at Concise in Jjake Neuf- 
chatel. Both apples and pears are small, and resemble 


those wkLch still grow wild in the Swiss forests. No traces of 
the vine, the cherry, or the damson have yet been met with, 
but stone& of the wild plum and the Prunus padus have been 
found. Seeds of the raspberry and blackberry, and shells 
of the hazel-nut and beech-nut occur plentifully in the 

From all this, therefore, it is evident that the nourishment 
of the dwellers in the Pileworks consisted of com and wild 
fruits, of fish, and the flesh of wild and domestic animals. 
Doubtless also milk was an important article of their diet. 

The list of plants found in the Pileworks stands aa 
follows : — 

Pinus abies. 
„ picea. 
„ sylvestris. 
„ Mughus. 
Quercus Robur. 
Fagus sylvatica. 
Popidus tremula. 
Betula alba. 
Alnus glutinosa. 
Oorylus Avellana. 
Prunus spinosa. 
„ Padus. 
„ avium. 

Carpinus Betuhis. 
Comus sanguinea. 
TaxuB baccata. 
Bubus idseus. 

„ fruticosus. 
Fragaria vesca. 
Carum Carvi. 
Heracleum Spondylium. 



Hoidenom disticdiam. 
y, hexasticlium. 

Tra^ natans. This species was supposed to be extinct 
in Switzerland, but it has recently been discoTered 
in a living condition. It is^ however^ very local*. 




NympheDa alba. 

Nuphar lutenm. 
,y pumilum. 
Neither hemp, oats, nor rye have yet been found. Small 
pieces of twine and bits of matting made of flax may have 
been part of some article of clothing. For this purpose 
also there can be little doubt that the skins of animals 
were used, and some of the stone impIeBSients seem well 
adapted to assist in their preparation^ while the bone pins, 
and the needles made from the teeth of boars, may have 
served to fasten them together. 

To what race of men these interesting remains are ascrib- 
able, we have as yet no direct evidence. Human bones are 
very rare in the Pileworks, and may probably be referred to 
accidents, especially as we find that those of children are 
most numerous. M. Desor, indeed,, states that not a single 
hiunan skeleton has yet been foimd in any of the stations 
belonging to the Stone age, and Br. Keller, in his fifth re- 
port, informs us that all the Lake-villages taken together 
have not yet produced more than half a dozen. One mature 
skull from Meilen ha& been described by Professor His, who 
considers that it does not differ much from the ordinary 
Swiss type. While his work was in the press, Prof. Riitimeyer 
received from Col. Schwab four more skulls, two of which 
were obtained at Mdau, one at Sutz, and one at Biel. 


Another skull ghown to me by Professor Desor, and found 
at Auvemier, completes the numb^ mentioned by Dr. Keller. 
All these settlements, however, appear .to have belonged to 
the Bronze age, nor has it yet been possible certainly to 
refer many of the ancient tumuli found in Switzerland to the 
earlier period. 

Passing now to the Lake-habitations belonging to the 
Bronze age, we find that they are less generally distributed 
than those of the earlier period. They have as yet been 
found only on the Lakes of Geneva, Luissel, Neufchatel, 
Morat, Bienne, and Sempach ; none in eastern Switzerland. 
It has been supposed from this that the age of Stone 
lasted longer in the east than in the west, and that flint 
and serpentine were in use on Lake Constance long after 
bronze had replaced them on the western lakes. We can, 
however, hardly suppose that the inhabitants of Likwyi and 
Moosseedorf in Berne, who imported flint from France, can 
have been ignorant of the neighbouring civilisation on the 
Lake of Bienne. Perhaps, however, settlements of the 
Bronze age may yet be found on the Lake of Constance ; 
but as the question now stands, Pileworks of the Metallic 
period are peculiar to western and central Switzerland. The 
constructions of the latter period are more solidly built, but 
do not otherwise appear to have differed materially from 
those of the Stone age. They are often, however, situated 
farther from the land and in deeper water, partly no doubt 
on account of the greater &cility of working timber, but 
partly also, perhaps, because more protection was needed as 
the means of attack were improved. The principal imple- 
ments of bronze are swords, daggers, axes, spear-heads, 
knives, fish-hooks, sickles, pins, rings and bracelets. The 
number of these articles which have been discovered is 
already very great, the collection of CoL Schwab alone con- 
taining no less than 4346 objects of metal. They are classi- 



fied in the following table, whicli I owe to the kindness of 
Dr. Keller, and which gives an idea of the relative propor- 
tions in which they occur : — 


CeltB a&d firagmentfl 



Kniyes and fngmenta .. 


Small ring;s 


Bracelets and fragments 



Spiral wires 


Arrow-heads , 



Yarions ornaments ..... 



Sickles , 

Double-pointed pins 

Small bracelets 














































































These objects were all cast, and the skill displayed in 
their manufacture, as well as the beauty of their forms and 
ornamentation, shows a considerable development of art. 
The discovery of a bar of tin at Estavayer, and of a moidd for 
casting celts at Merges, has proved that some at least of these 
objects were made in Switzerland, just as evidence of a similar 
nature shows that other countries in Europe, as, for instance, 
Denmark, Ibigland, Scotland, and Ireland, had also their 
own foundries. The similarity of form and ornamentation 
appears also to indicate some communication between dif- 
ferent parts of Europe ; but as Cornwall and Saxony are the 


only known European sources of tin, tlie mere presence of 
bronze is in itself a suj£cient eyidence not only of metallur- 
gical skill, but also of commerce. 

Brought from so great a distance> at a time when the 
means of transport were very imperfect, objects of metal 
must have had a great value. It is difficult, therefore, to 
understand how so many can have been left uncared-for and 
forgotten, along the shallow margins of the Swiss lakes. 
" II est Evident," says Prof. Desor, " que ce ne sont pas des 
rebuts qui se seraient perdus, sans qu'on s'en inqui^t4t. Us 
ne sont pas tomb^s k Feau'par hasard, non plus que cette 
quantity de vases qui sont aceumul^s sur certain points, ni les 
jattes jL provisions qu'on retire intactes." On the whole he 
is inclined to think that in some of these cases, at least, we 
have '^de simples magasins destines aux utensiles et aux 
provisions, et qui auraient ^t^ dfetruits par Tincendie, comme 
semble I'indiquer la trace du feu que montrent fr^quemment 
les poutres aussi bien que les vases en terre. On expliquerait 
ainsi comment il se fait que les objets en bronze sont presque 
tous neufs, que les vases sont entiers et r^unis sur un seid 
point. Cette hypothdse semble corrobor^e par ropinion de 
plusieurs de nos chercheurs d'antiquit^s les plus experiment's, 
qui pretendent que Ton n'a chance de faire de bonnes trou- 
vailles que ]k ou les pieux sont bruits, tandis que Ton perd 
son temps & fouiller les stations ou les pieux ne sont pas char- 
bonnes." Col. Schwab also, than whom no man has had 
more experience in such matters, is of opinion that com- 
paratively Uttle is ever found except in such Lake- villages as 
show traces of fire. "Wo immer verbranntes Holz zum 
Vorschein kommt, hat man beim Suchen nach Alterthiimem 
auf Ausbeute zu rechnen. Zeigen sich keine Brandspuren, so 
iflt alle Bemuhung von wenig oder keinem Erfolge begleitet." 

It has also been suggested that the early inhabitants of 
Switzerland may have worshipped the Lakes, and that the 


beautiful bracelets; etc., may bave been offerings to the 
gods. In fact, it appears from ancient writers that among 
the Guuls, Germans, and other nations, many lakes were 
regarded as sacred. M. Aymard (Etude Archaeol. sur le Lac 
du Bouchet. Le Puy. 1862) has collected several instances of 
this kind. According to Cicero,* Justin,t and Strabo,J there 
was a lake near Toulouse in which the neighbouring tribes 
used to -deposit offerings of gold and silver. Tacitus, Pliny, 
and Yirgil also mention the existence of sacred lakes. Again, 
so late as the sixth century, Gregory of Tours, who is quoted 
by M. Troyon and M. Aymard, tells us (De glor. confes. 
chap, ii.) that on mount Helanus there was a lake which was 
the object of popular worship. Every year the inhabitants 
of the neighbourhood brought to it offerings of clothes, skins, 
cheeses, cakes, etc. Traces of a similar superstition may still 
be found lingering in the remote parts of Scotland and Ire- 
land; in the former country I have myself seen a sacred 
spring surrounded by the offerings of the neighbouring pea- 
sanlay, who seemed to consider pence and balance as the 
most appropriate and agreeable sacrifice to the spirit of the 
waters. This hypothesis would account for the newness 
of tiie objects, few — indeed, according to Professor Desor, 
scarcely any— of which present traces of having been used. 
Neiiiier the coarse broken pottery, the castaway fragments of 
bones, nor the traces of habitations, can, however, be ac- 
counted for in this manner. § 

The pottery of the Bronze period is more varied and more 
skilMly made than that of the Stone age, but the potter's wheel 
does not seem to have been in use. Eings of earthenware 
are common, and appear to have been used as supports for 
the round-bottomed vases. The ornaments are, according to 
M. Troyon, of the same character as those on the objects of 

• De Nat. Deor. Kb. iii. xxx. f Just, xxxii. iii. J 6«og. vol. iv. 

§ See also Wylie " On Lake-dwellings of the Early periods.*' Archseol. ▼ol. 
xxrviii., p. 181. 


bronze. Many of the large urns appear to have been used 
as storeplaces for tbe nuts, etc., which were collected during 
the summer for the winter's use. In the absence, perhaps, 
of boxes and cupboards, even ornaments and instruments 
seem to have been kept in large jars. Some beautiful brace- 
lets were found with seyeral sickles in a jar at Cortaillod. 
Pieces of pottery, distorted by fire during the process of 
baking, have, according to M. Troyon, been found in many 
of the Lake- villages, whence he concludes that the pottery 
was manufeictured on the spot. 

M. Troyon is of opinion that the inhabitants of Switzer- 
land during the Bronze age were of a different race from 
those who had lived there during the earlier period, and he 
agrees with some of the Scandinavian archaeologists in re- 
garding them as the true "Celts," £ind in attributing to them 
the habit of burning their dead. "Des que le bronze se 
r^pand en Europe, I'incin^ration devient d'un usage g^n^ral. 
L'apparition d'un nouveau peuple r^pond ^videmment & celle 
de ce m^tal. L'ume cineraire, de mSme que la tombe cu- 
bique, se retrouve sous la surface du sol ou dans le tumulus, 
mais celui-ci, g^n^ralement moins ^lev^ que dans I'&ge pri- 
mitif, ne recouvre plus guere de salle fun^raire. Quand on 
voit combien il est rare que le bronze accompagne le premier 
mode d'inhumation, on doit reconnaitre que I'envahisseur est 
rest^ maitre du sol ; du reste il ne pouvait en 6tre autrement 
de la part d'un peuple poss^dant des armes en m^tal, or ces 
armes sent celles des anciens Celtes qui n'inhumaient point 
leur morts, mais les livraient au flammes du bvicher. L'in- 
cin^ration ^tant une partie int^grante de leurs pratiques 
religieuses, et I'ume cineraire devenant d*un usage g^n^ral 
avec le bronze, il en r^sulte que le Celte n'est pas le premier 
habitant de TEurope dans laquelle il a introduit les arts 
metaUurgiques." It would be very desirable to have some 
statistics in order that we might appreciate the value of the. 



evidence to be derived from these Swiss tumuli. M. Troyon 
relies on the fact that many of the Lake-villages were 
destroyed by fire, and that when, as appears to have been 
the case at several places, they were rebuilt during the 
Bronze age, this was done, not exactly on the same spot, 
but farther away from the bank. Dr. Keller, on the other 
hand, considers that the primitive population did not differ, 
either in disposition (anlage), mode of life, or industry, 
from that which was acquainted with the use of bronze ; and 
that the whole phenomena of the Lake- villages, from their 
commencement to their conclusion, indicate most clearly a 
gradual and peaceable development The number of in- 
stances in which Lake-villages had been destroyed by fire 
has been, he considers, exaggerated. Of the settlements on 
the Lakes of Bienne and Neufchatel, amounting in all to 
sixty-six, only a quarter have, according to Col. Schwab, 
shown any traces of combustion; a proportion which is, 
perhaps, not greater than might have been expected, re- 
inembering that the huts were bmlt of wood, and in all pro- 
babiKty covered by thatch. Moreover, if these conflagrations 
had resulted from the attacks of enemies, we ought surely to 
have found numerous remains of the slain, whereas aU the 
Lake- villages together have as yet only supplied us with the 
remains of six human skeletons. 

It must, I think, be confessed that the arguments used by 
M. Troyon do not justify us in believing with him that the 
introduction of bronze was accompanied by an entire change 
of population. The construction of Lake-dwellings is a 
habit so unusual, that the continuance of similar habitations 
during the Bronze age seems to me a strong argument 
against any such hypothesis. 

The evidence of increasing civilisation is more satisfactory. 
During my visit to Switzerland I endeavoured to obtain 
statistics as to the objects found in the different Pfahlbauten, 


and so far as six stations are concerned, the result is shown 
in the following table. If, for instance, we commence with 
the remains discovered at the Pont de Thiele, between the 
Lakes of Nenfchatel and Bienne, the list comprises 17 axes, 
20 whetstones, and 97 arrow-heads, flint flakes, chips, etc.? 
besides 22 axe-handles and 95 other implements of bone, 
making altogether 252 objects of stone and bone. Yet not 
only are objects of metal altogether absent, but the other 
articles imply an archaic character. There is only one doubt- 
ful case of a comcrusher, and not a single spindle-whorl. 
Moosseedorf and Wauwyl have produced almost exactly the 
same list. Wangen, on the Lake of Constance, is an even 
more remarkable case. M. Lohle has found there more than 
1100 axes, 100 whetstones, 150 comcrushers, and 260 arrow- 
heads, flint flakes, chips, etc. ; altogether more than 1600 
instruments and chips of stone, besides about 350 of bone, 
making, with 100 earthenware spinning- weights, a grand 
total of more than 2000 objects, and yet not a trace of metal. 
The number of comcrushers and spindle -whorls is in- 
teresting, when we remember that alone among these four 
localities, Wangen has supplied us with specimens of car- 
bonised grain, and flax fabrics. 

Now let me ask the reader to compare with these four cases 
the list of remains from the Bronze age settlements of Merges, 
Nidau, Estavayer, Cortaillod and Corcelettes. The maimer 
in which the collections were made accounts probably for the 
absence of whetstones, and, perhaps, to a great extent for 
that of the flint flakes, etc. On these points, therefore, I lay 
no stress ; but the total absence of stone axes at Merges, and 
their rarity at Nidau and Estavayer, is very remarkable. M. 
Porel assured me that though he had carefully looked for 
them he had never found one. The large number of com- 
crushers and the presence of spinning- weights are also 














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Col. Schwab's splendid ooUection from the Steinberg at 
Nidau tells the same tale. He has only 33 stone axes, and 
yet as many as 335 comcrushers. The other articles of stone 
he has not apparently collected. He has nearly 200 spindle- 
whorls, and many earthenware rings, some of which have 
also been found at Morges, but which are entirely wanting 
at the Pont de Thiele, at Wauwyl, at Moosseedorf, and at 

It is, of course, possible that very different states of civi- 
lisation may co-exist in different parts of the same country ; 
but in this case we must remember that the settlement at the 
Pont de Thiele, and the one at Nidau were on the borders of 
the same lake, and that Moosseedorf, again, is only about 
fifteen nules from Nidau. Nor can we suppose that the 
differences were merely a question of wealth; the bronze 
fish-hooks, axes, small rings, pins, etc., which are found in 
such large nimibers, show that bronze was used not for 
articles of luxury only, but also for the ordinary implements 
of daily life. 

Nor is it only in the presence or absence of bronze that 
the Pfahlbauten differ from one another; there are many 
other indications of progress. We cannot expect to find 
much evidence of this in the implements of bone or stone ; but, 
as has already been mentioned, the better forms of stone axe, 
and those which are perforated, are very rare, if not alto- 
gether absent in the Stone age, none having been found at 
the Pont de Thiele, at Moosseedorf, or at Wauwyl, and only 
two at Wangen. 

Again, it is not only by the mere presence of bronze, but 
by the beauty and variety of the articles made out of it, that 
we are so much struck. In a collection of objects made at 
any of the Stone age settlements, no one can fail to remark 
the imifonnity which prevails. The wants of the artificers 
seem to have been few and simple. In the Bronze age all 


this is altered. We find not only, as before, axes, arrows^ 
and knives, but, in addition, swords, lances, sickles, ear-rings, 
bracelets, pins, rings, and a variety of other articles. More- 
over, it is a very remarkable &ct, ei^)ecially when we con- 
sider the great, I might say the immense, number of bronze 
celts which are found, that scarcely two of them have been 
cdst in the same mould. 

The pottery teUs the same tale. There is no evidence that 
the potter's wheel was known to men of the Stone age, and 
the materials of which the Stone age pottery is composed are 
very rough,* containing large grains of quartz, while that of 
the Bronze age is more carefully prepared. The ornaments 
of the two periods show also a great contrast. In the Stone 
age they consist of impressions made by the nail or the 
finger, and sometimes by a cord twisted round the sofb clay. 
The lines are all straight, or if curved are very irregular and 
badly drawn. In the Bronze age all the patterns present in 
the Stone age are continued, but in addition we find circles 
and spirals ; while imitations of animals and plants are cha- 
racteristic of the Iron age. 

In the following page is a table abstracted from a larger 
one given by Professor Riitimeyer : — 1, represents a single 
individual; 2, several individuals; 3, denotes the species 
which are common ; 4, those which are very common ; and 
5, those which are present in great numbers. A glance will 
show that wild animals preponderate in the Stone age of 
Pfahlbauten at Moosseedorf and Wauwyl, tame ones at the 
Bronze age settlement of Nidau- 

Thus, then, we see that the distinction between the ages 
of Stone and Bronze is by no means confined to the mere 
presence of metal. Some may consider that the evidence is 

* The extreme coarseness of the Swiss poses ; for the vessels fonnd in tumnli ' 
Lake pottery is, perhaps, owing to its of the Stone age, the material was often 
haying been intended for kitchen pur- more carefully prepared. 



not yet sufficient to justify any conclusion. Still tlie 
nature and execution of the ornaments — the xnaaufacture 
of pottery, the presence of the potter's wheel, the greater 
variety of requirements, evidenced by the greater varietj'' 
of implements, the indications of more advanced husbandry, 
the diminution of wild animals and the increase of tame 



Wild Animals. 
Brown Bear 

























Pine Marten 





Beaver ^ 





E^e Deer 

Wild Boar 

Marsh Boar* 

Domestic Anoulls. 
Domestic Boar 






o • 

ones-— all indicate a higher civilisation for the inhabitants of 
Morges and Nidau, than for those of Moosseedorf and 
Col. Schwab has found at the Steinberg more than twenty 

• Considered hy Prof. Riitimeyer to 
haTe been at first wild, but domesticated 

at Nidan and in the later Pfahlbauten. 


crescents, made of earthenwarei and with the convex side 
flattened, to serve as a foot. They are compressed at the 
sides, sometimes plain, sometimes ornamented, from eight to 
twelve inches from one horn to the other, and from six to 
eight inches in height. They are considered by Dr. K^er 
to be religious emblems, and are taken as evidence of moon- 
worship. • He refers to Pliny, xvi. 95: "Est autem id 
(viscum) rarum admodum inventu et repertimi magn& re- 
ligione petitur et ante omnia sext& luna, quad principia 
mensium annorumque his facit, et saBculi post tricesimnm 
annum, quia jam virium abunde habeat nee sit sui dimidia ; 
omnia sanantem appellantes suo voeabulo.^' This passage he 
translates as follows : " The mistletoe is, however, very rare, 
but when it is found it is gathered with great religious cere- 
mony, especially on the sixth day of the moon, at which 
epoch begin their months, years, and divisions of thirty 
years, because it has then sufficient force, and yet is not in 
the middle of its course ; calling it Heal-all in their lan- 
guage.*' This name has generally been referred to the 
mistletoe.* But the Swiss archaeologists consider that this is 
a mistake, and that it properly refers to the moon. 

The Pileworks of Switzerland appear to have become gra- 
dually less numerous. During the Stone age they were 
spread over the whole country. Confined, so far as we at 
present know, during the Bronze era to the Lakes of Western 
Switzerland ; during that of Iron they have as yet been 
found only on the Lakes of Bienne and Neufchatel. In 
these settlements not only has a new substance made its 
appearance, but the forms of the implements are different. 
We have, indeed, copies of the bronze axes made in iron, 
just as we found before that some of the earKer bronze celts 
resembled the stone axes in form, but these are exceptional 
eases. The swords have larger handles, and are more richly 
* See The Gelt, Boman and Saxon, p. 48. 


ornamented ; the knives have straight edges ; the sickles are 
larger ; the pottery is more skilfully made and is of the kind 
generally known as Boman : the personal ornaments are also 
more varied, and glass for the first time makes its appearance. 

A field of battle at Tiefenau, near Berne, is remarkable for 
the great nimiber of iron weapons and implements which 
have been found on it. Pieces of chariots, about a hundred 
swords, fragments of coat of mail, lance-heads, rings, fibuLae, 
ornaments, utensils, pieces of pottery and of glass, accom- 
panied by more than thirty Gaulish and Massaliote coins of 
a date anterior to our 'era, enable us to refer this battle-field 
to the Eoigtian period. About forty Boman coins have also 
been found at the small island on the Lake of Bienne. 

After this period we find no more evidences of Lake-habi- 
tations on a large scale. Here and there, indeed, a few 
fishermen may have lingered on the half-destroyed plat- 
forms, but the wants and habits of the people^ had changed, 
and the age of the Swiss Pileworks was at an end. 

We have, however, traced them through the ages of Stone 
and Bronze down to the beginning of the Iron period. We 
have seen evidences of a gradual progress in civilisation, and 
improvement in the arts, an increase in the nimiber of domestic 
animals, and proofs at last of the existence of an extended com- 
merce. We found the country inhabited only by rude savages, 
and we leave it the seat of a powerful nation. Changes so 
important as these are not effected in a day ; the progress of 
the human mind is but slow ; and the gradual additions to 
human knowledge and power, like the rings in trees, enable 
us to form some idea how distant Txmst be the date of their 
commencement. So varied, however, are the conditions of 
the human mind, so much are all nations affected by the 
influence of others, that when we attempt to express our 
impressions, so to say, in terms of years, we are baffled by 
the complexity of the problem. 


Some attempts have, indeed, been made to obtain a more 
definite chronology^ and tbey will be alluded to in a later 
chapter. Though we must not conceal from ourselves the 
imperfection of the archsDological record, stiU we need not 
despair of eyentuaUj obtaining some approximate chrono- 
logy* Our knowledge of primitive antiquity has made an 
enormous stride in the last ten years, and we may fairly look 
forward with hope to the fiiture. 

The Swiss archaeologists are continuing their labors, and 
they may rest assured that we in England await with interest 
the result of their investigations. Few things can be more 
interesting than the spectacle of an ancient and long-for- 
gotten people thus rising, as it were,, to take that place which 
properly bdongs to it in the history of the human race. 




DENMARK occupies a larger space in the history, than 
on the map of Europe; the nation is greater than 
the country. Though, with the growth of physical power 
in surrounding populations, she has lost somewhat of her 
influence in political councils,, and has recently been most 
unjustly deprived of a great part of her ancient possessions : 
still the Danes of to-day are no unworthy representatives 
of their ancestors. Many a larger nation might envy 
them the position they hold in science and in art, and few 
have contributed more to the progress of human knowledge. 
Copenhagen may well be proud both of her museums and of 
her professors. I would especially point to the celebrated 
Museum of Northern Antiquities, as being most character- 
istic and unique. 

For the formation of such a collection Denmark offers un- 
rivalled opp(»*tunities. The whole country appears to have 
been, at one time, thickly studded with tumuli : where the 
land has not been brought into cultivation, many of them 
are often in sight at once, and even in the more fertile and 
thickly populated parts> the plough is often diverted from its 
course by one of these ancient burial places. Fortunately, 
the stones of which they are constructed are so large and so 
hard, that their destruction and removal is a laborious and 
expensive undertaking. While,, however,, land grows more 


yaluable^ or perhaps when the stones themselves are 
coveted for building or other purposes, no conservative tra- 
dition, no feeling of reverence for the dead, protects them 
from desecration : and it is estimated that not a day passes 
without witnessing the destruction of one or more of these 
tumuli, and the loss of some perhaps aknost irrecoverable 
link in the history of the human race. 

Almost every barrow, indeed, contains in itself a small 
collection of antiquities, and the whole country may even be 
considered as a museimi on a great scale. The peat bogs, 
which occupy so large an area, may ahnost be said to swarm 
with antiquities, and Professor Steenstrup estimates that on 
an average every column of peat three feet square contains 
some specimen of ancient workmanship. All these advan- 
tages and opportunities, however, might have been thrown 
away, but for the genius and perseverance of Professor 
Thomson, who may fairly be said to have created the 
museum over which he so worthily presides. 

In addition to the objects collected from the tumuli 
and the peat bogs, and to &ose which have been found 
from time to time scattered at random in the soil, the 
Museum of Northern Antiquities contains an immense col- 
lection of specimens from^ome very interesting shell-mounds, 
which are known in Denmark under the name of " Kjokken- 
moddings,^' and were long supposed to be raised beaches, like 
those which are found at so many points along our own 
shores. True raised beaches, however, necessarily contain a 
variety of species ; the individuals are of different ages, and 
the shells are, of course, mixed with considerable quan- 
tity of sand and graveL But it was observed in the first 
instance I believe by Professor Steenstrup, that in these sup- 
posed raised beaches, the shells belonged entirely to full 
grown, or to nearly full grown, individuals : that they con- 
sisted of four species which do not live together, nor require 


the same conditions^ and would not, therefore, be found 
together alone in a natural deposit : and thirdly, that the 
stratum contained scarcely any grayel, but consisted almost 
entirely of shells. 

The discovery of rude flint implements, and of bones still 
bearing the marks of knives, confirmed the supposition that 
these beds were not natural formations, and it subsequently 
became evident that they were, in fact, the sites of ancient 
villages ; the primitive population having Kved on the shore 
and fed principally on sheU-fish, but partly also on the pro- 
ceeds of the chase. In many places hearths were discovered 
consisting of flat stones, arranged in such a manner as to 
form small platforms, and bearing all the marks of fire. The 
shells and bones not available for food gradually accumulated 
roumd the tents and huts, until they formed deposits generally 
from three to five feet, but sometimes as much as ten feet in 
thickness, and in some cases more than three hundred yards 
in length, with a breadth of from one hundred to two 
hundred feet. The name Kjokkenmoddiug, applied to these 
moujids, is derived from Kjokken, " kitchen,'* and modding, 
(corresponding to our local word midding), " a refiise heap," 
and it was, of course, evident that a careful examination of 
these accumulations would throw much light on the manners 
and civilisation of the then population. 

Under these circumstances a committee was formed, con- 
sisting of Professor Steenstrup, the celebrated author of the 
treatise "On the Alternation of Generations,'* Professor 
Forchhammer, the father of Danish Geology, and Professor 
Worsaae, the well-known archaBologist : a happy combina- 
tion, promising the best results to biology, geology, and 
archaeology. Much was naturally expected from the labours 
of such a triumvirate, and the most sanguine hopes have been 
ftdfilled. Already more than fifty of the deposits have been 
carefiilly examined, many thousand specimens have been col- 


lected, ticketed, and deposited in the Museum at Copenliagen, 
and the general results haye been embodied in six Reports 
presented to the Academy of Sciences at Copenhagen.* 

It is fix)m these reports, and from the excellent Memoir 
by M. Morlot, that the following information has prin- 
cipally been derived. Being, however, anxious to pre- 
sent to my readers a complete and accurate account of 
these interesting shell-mounds, I have twice visited Den- 
mark ; first in 1861, with Professor Busk, and again in the 
summer of 1863. On both these occasions, through the 
kindness of Professor Thomsen and Herr K. Herbst every 
facility has been afforded me of examining the large coUec* 
tions made in different Kjokkenmoddings, in addition to 
which I had the great advantage of vidlting several of the 
shell-mounds under the guidance of Professor Steenstrup 
himself — one, namely, at Havelse * in 1861, and those at 
Meilgaard and Fannerup in 1863. 

Mr. Busk and I also visited by ourselves one at Bilidt, 
on the Isef jord, close to Fredericksund, but this is one of the 
places at which it would seem that the inhabitants cooked 
their dinners actually on the shore itself, so that the shells 
and bones are much mixed up with sand and gravel ; and 
we wete not very successful in the search for flint imple- 
ments. At Havelse, on the contrary, the settlement was on 
rather higher groimd, and though close to the shore, quite 
beyond the reach of the waves ; the shells and bones are 
therefore almost unmixed with extraneous substances. At 
this place the Kjokkenmodding is of small extent, and is 
in the form of an irregular ring, enclosing a space on 
which the ancient dwelling or dwellings probably stood. 
In other cases, where the deposit is of greater extent, as 

* XJntorsiSgelser i geologisk-antiqua- also has published an excellent abstract 
risk Retning af G. Forchhammer, J. of the Reports in the M^pi. de la So- 
Steenstrup, og J. Woraaae. M. Morlot ci6t6 Vaudoise, T. vi. 186^. 


for instance in the celebrated shell-mound at Meilgaard, 
the surface is undulating, the greater thickness of the 
shelly stratum in some places apparently indicating the 
arrangement of the dwellings. When the shell-moxmd 
at Havelse was previously visited by Professor Steen- 
strup, the shells were being removed to serve as manure, 
and the mound, presenting a perpendicular section, was in 
a very favourable condition for examination. The small 
pit thus formed had, however, been filled in; so that we 
were obHged to make a fresh excavation. In two or 
three hours we obtained about a hundred fragments of 
bone, many rude flakes, slingstones, and flint fragments, 
together with nine rude axes of the ordinary "shell- 
mound'* type, several of which, however, were picked up 
on the surface. 

Our visit to Meilgaard in 1863 was even more success- 
ful. This, which is one of the largest and most interestiug 
shell-mounds hitherto discovered, is situated not far from the 
sea-coast, near Grenaa in north-east Jutland, in a beautiful 
beech forest called " Aigt,'* or " Aglskov," on the property of 
M. Olsen, who with a praiseworthy devotion to science, has 
given orders that the Kjokkenmodding should not be de- 
stroyed, although the materials of which it consists are well 
adapted for the improvement of the soil and for other pur- 
poses, to which, iadeed, they had already been in part applied 
before the true nature of the deposit was discovered. Arriving 
at his house without invitation or notice, we were received by 
M. Olsen and his family with kindness and hospitality. M. 
Olsen immediately sent two workmen to clear away the rub- 
bish which had fallen in since the last archaeological visit, so 
that when we reached the spot we found a fresh wall of the 
shell-mound ready for examination. In the middle, this Kjok- 
kemnddding has a thickness of about ten feet, from which, 
however, it slopes away in all directions; round the prin- 


cipal mound are several smaller ones, of the same nature. 
Over the shells a thin layer of mould has formed itself, on 
which the trees grow. A good section of such a Kjokken- 
modding can hardly fail to strike with astonishment any one 
who sees it for the first time, and it is di£B[cult to convey in 
words an exact idea of the appearance which it presents. The 
whole thickness consists of shells, oysters being at Meilgaard 
by far the most numerous, with here and there a few bones, and 
still more rarely stone implements or fragments of pottery. 
Excepting just at the top and bottom, the mass is quite 
immixed with sand and gravel ; and, in fact, contains 
nothing but what has been, in some way or other, subservient 
to the use of man. The only exceptions which I could see 
were a few, very few, rough flint pebbles, which were pro- 
bably dredged up with the oysters. While we were in this 
neighbourhood, we visited another Kjokkenmodding at Fan- 
nerup on the Kolindsund, which was even in historical times 
an arm of the sea, but is now a freshwater lake. Other 
similar deposits have been discovered on the Eandersfjord 
and Mariagerfjord in this part of Jutland, nor are the two 
settlements at Havelse and Bilidt by any means the only 
ones on the Isefjord; in the neighbourhood of Roeskilde, 
Kjokkenmoddings occur near Qjerdrup, at Kattinge, and 
Kattinge Vaerk, near Trallerup, at Gjershoi, and opposite the 
island of Hyldehohne ; besides several farther north, others 
have been found on the islands of Fyen, of Moen, and of 
Samsoe, and in Jutland along Liimfjord and Horsensfjord, 
as weU as on the Mariagerfjord, Randersfjord, and Kolind- 
sund. The southern parts of Denmark have not yet been 
carefully examined. Generally it is evident that deposits of 
this nature were scattered here and there over the whole 
coast, but that they were never formed inland. The whole 
country was more intersected by fjords during the Stone 
period even than it is now. Under these circimistances it is 


evident that a nation which subsisted principally on marine 
mollusca would neyer form any large inland settlements. In 
some instances^ indeed, Kjokkenmoddings have been found 
as far as eight miles from the present coast, but in these 
cases there is good reason for supposing that the land has 
encroached on the sea. On the other hand, in those fio. 124. 
parts where Kjokkenmoddings do not occur, their 
absence is no doubt occasioned by the waves having 
to a certain extent eaten away the shore : an explana- 
tion which accounts for their beiug so much more 
frequent on the borders of the inland fjords than on 
the coast itself; and which seems to deprive us of 
all hope of finding any similar remains on our eastern 
and south-eastern shores. Shell-moxmds have, how- 
ever, actually been found on our coasts. They were 
observed by Dr. Gordon, of Bimie, on the shores 
of the Moray Firth. I have had the advantage of 
visiting these sheU-moxmds with him. The largest 
of the Scotch Kjokkenmoddings is at a place called 
Brigzes on Loch Spynie. We did not find any im- 
plements or pottery in it, although we searched for 
several hours, but a labourer who had been employed 
in carting it away for manure had previously found 
some fragments of rude pottery and the bronze pin 
(fig. 124). Loch Spynie has been partially drained, 
and is shut out from the sea by a great accimndation 
of shingle, so that the water is now perfectly fresh. 
From ancient records it appears that the shingle bar- 
rier was probably completed, and the lake shut out 
from the sea in the thirteenth and fourteenth cen- 
turies. On the other hand, I have submitted the bronze 
bronze pin figured here to Mr. Franks, who gives TscotS 
it as his opinion that it is probably not older than moimd. 
800 or 900 a.d. If, therefore, it really belongs to the shell- 



mound^ and there seems no reason to doubt the statement of 
the man who found it, we thus get an approximate date for 
the accumulation of the mound itself. At St. Val^ry, close 
to the mouth of the Somme, Mr. Eyans, Mr. Frestwich, and 

found a large accimiulation of shells, from which I ob- 
tained several flint flakes and some pieces of rude pottery. 
Mr. Pengelly and Mr. Spence Bate have recently described 
some shell-mounds in Cornwall and Devonshire. Similar 
remains have been observed by travellers in various parts 
of the world, as, for instance, in Australia by. Dampier,* 
in Tierra. del; Fuego by Mr. Darwin, f. and in the Malay, 
Peninsula by Mr. Earle.} 

The fact that the majority of the Danish shell-mounds are 
found at a height of only a few feet above the sea appears to - 
prove that there has been no. considerable subsidence of the 
land since their formation, while on the other hand it clearly 
shows that there can have been no elevation.. In certain, 
cases,, however, where the shore is steep, they have been, 
found at a considerable height.. It might indeed be sup- 
posed that where, as at Bilidt, the materials of the Ejokken- 
modding were rudely interstratified with sand and gravel,, 
the land must have sunk ; . but if for any length of time such 
a deposit was subjected to the action of the waves, all traces 
of it would be obliterated, and it is therefore probable that 
an explanation is rather to be found in the fact that the 
action of waves and storms may have been greater at that 
time than they are now. At present the tides only affect 
the Kattegat to the extent of about a foot and a half, and 
the configuration of the land protects it very much from the 
action of the winds. On the other hand, the tides on the 
west coast of Jutland rise about nine feet, and the winds 
have been known to produce diflferences of level amounting 

* Pinkerton's Travels, vol. ii, p. 473. f Journal, p. 234. 

X Ethnological Soc. Trans. New Ser. vol. ii., p. 119. 


to twenty-nine feet; and as we know that Jutland' was 
anciently an archipelago, and that the Baltic was more open 
to the German >Ocean. than it is now/ we can easily nnder- 
stand that the fluctuations of level may have been v greater, 
and we can thus explain how the waves may have risen over 
the Xjokkenmodding at Bilidt (which is after all not much 
more than ten feet above the water), without resorting to 
the hypothesis of a subsidence and subsequent elevation of 
the coast. 

In tile Lake-habitationa of the Stone age in Switzerland, 
grains of wheat and barley,. and even. pieces of bread, or 
rather biscuit, have been found. It does not, however, ap- 
pear that the men of the Kjokkenmdddings had any know- 
ledge of agriculture, no traces of grain of any sort having 
been hitherto discovered. The only vegetable remains found 
in them have been burnt pieces of wood, and some charred 
substance, referred by M. Forchhammer to the Zdsiera marina, . 
a sea plant which was, perhaps, used in the production of 

The four species which are the most abundant in the shell- 
mounds are — 

The oyster, Ostrea edulisy Jj. 

The cockle, Cardium eduk, L. 

The mussel, Mytilus edulis, L. and 

The periwinkle, JDiUorina Kttorea, L.., 
all four of which are still used as food for man. Other 
species occur more rarely, namely,-: — 

Noam reticulata, L. 

Bucdnum undatnm, L. 

Venus pullastra, Mont. 

Selix nemoralis, Miill. 

Venm aurea, Qm. 

Tngonella plana. Da. 0. 

Littorina ohtusata, L. 


Helix striffella, Miill. and 
'Carocoilalapicida, L. 

It 'is remarkable that the specimens of the first seven 
species are well developedy aiMl decidedly larger than any 
now found in the (neighbourhood. This is especially the case 
with the Cardiumedule ajui- Littorma Kttoreay while the oyster 
has entirely disappeared, and ey^i in the (Kattegat itself 
occursonly in a few places ; a result which may, perhaps, be 
partly owing to the quantities caught by fishermen. Some 
oysters were^ however, still living in the Isefjord at the be- 
ginning of this century, and their destruction cannot be alto- 
gether ascribed to the fishermen, as great numbers of dead 
shells arO' still present ; but in this case it is attributed to the 
abundance of starfishes, which are very destructive to x)ysters. 
On the whole, their disappearance, especially when taken 
in connexion with the dwarf size of the other species, is 
evidently attributable in a great measure to the smaller 
proportion of salt in the water. 

Of Crustacea only a few fragments of crabs have hitherto 
been found. The remains of vertebrata are very numerous 
and extremely interesting. In order to form an idea of the 
number of bones, and of the relative proportions belonging 
to different animals. Professor Steenstrup dug out from three 
different parts of the shell-mound at Havelse square pillars 
with sides three feet in length, and carefully collected the 
bones therein contained. In the first .pillar he found 175 
bones of mammals, and 35 of birds; in the second pillar he 
found 121 of mammals and 9 of birds ; in the third 309 of 
mammals and 10 of birds. The pillars, however, were not 
exactly comparable, because their cubic contents depended on 
the thickness of the shell-mound at the place where they 
were taken, and varied between seventeen and .twenty cubic 
feet. On the whole. Prof. Steenstrup estimates that there 
were from ten to twelve bones in each cubic foot. It will be 


seen, therefore, that the number of bones is very great. 
Indeed, from the mound at Havelse alone the Committee ob- 
tained in one summer 3500 bones of mammals, and more than 
200 of birds, besides many hundred of. fishes, which latter, 
indeed, are almost innumerable. The most dOmmon species 
are — 

Clupea harengus, L. (the herring) 

OadtM caUarius, L. (the dorse) 

Pkuronectea limanda, L. (the dab) and 

Murcena anguilla, L. (the eel). 

The remains of birds are highly interesting and instruc- 
tive. The domestic fowl (Qallua domeaticus) is entirely 
absent. The two domestic swallows of Denmark {Hirundo 
rustica and IT. urbica), the sparrow and the stork are also 
missing. On the other hand, fine specimens of the caper- 
cailzie (Tetrao urogallm) which feeds principally on the buds 
of the pine, show that, as we knew already from the remains 
found in the peat, the country was at one time covered with 
pine forests. Aquatic birds, however, are the most frequent, 
especially several species of ducks and geese. The wild swan 
{Cygnm rmmcm) which only visits Denmark in winter, is 
also frequently found ; but, perhaps, the most interesting of 
the birds whose remains have been identified is the Great 
Auk {Aha impennis, L.), a species which is now almost 

Of mammalia by far the most common are — 

The stag (Cerms elaphua, L.) 

The roedeer {Cervua mpreolu8,'L,) and 

The wild boar {Sua aorofay L.) - 

Indeed, Professor Steenstrup estimates that these three species 
form ninety-seven per cent, of the whole ; the others are— 

The urus {B6a urm, L.) 

The dog {Canis/amiliaris, Ju.). 


The fox {Oania vulpes, L.) 

The wolf {Cants lupiM, L.) 

The marten {Maries sp. un.) 

nUhe otter {Lutra vulgaris, Exl.) 

'^e ponpoise {Delphinus phoccma, L.) 

The seal {Phoca sp.) 

The water rat '{HypvdcBus amphibitiSy L. and 

HypudcBus agrestisy L.) 
The beaver {Castor fiber y L.) 
The lynx {Felis lynXy L.) 
The wfld cat {Felis catus, L.) 
The hedgehog {Erinacem europcmSy L.) 
The bear {Ursus arctoSy L.) 
The mouse {Mas yiavicollisy Mel.) 

There are also traces of a smaller species of ox. The Lithu- 
anian aurochs {Bison europceus) has been found, though rarely, 
in the peat bogs, but not yet in the'Ejokkenmoddiags. The 
musk ox {Bublilus mosehatus) and the domestic ox {Sos taurus)y 
as well as the reindeer, the elk, the hare, the sheep^ and the 
domestic hog, are ail absent.* 

Professor Steenstrup does not bielieve that the domestic 
hog of ancient 'Europe was directly derived from the wild 
boar, but rather that it was introduced from the East ; and 
the skulls li^hich he showed me in- support of this belief cer- 
tainly exhibited very great differences between the two races. 
It is extremely' unlikely that an animal so: powerful and so 
iutractable as the urus appears to have been, can have been 
domesticated by savages, and the condition of the bones 
themselves confirms the idea that they belonged to wild ani- 
mals. The sheep, the horse, and the reiudeer beiug entirely 
absent, and the domestic cat not having been known in 

* It is a cimoiu fiact that, as Prof, cate, as a general rule, larger and more 
Steenstrup informs me, the bones from powerfdl animals 4han those of the 
V the ]^j5kkenmoddings of Jutland indi- Islands. 


Europe until about the nintli century, the dog* appears to 
have been the only domestic animal of the period; and 
though it may fairly be asked whether the bones may not 
have belonged to a race of wild dogs, the question admits of 
a satisfactory answer. 

Among the remains of birds, the long bones which form 
about one-fifth of the skeleton, are, in the Kjokkenmoddings, 
about twenty times as numerous as the others, and are almost 
always imperfect, the shaft only remaining. In the same 
manner it would be impossible to reconstruct a perfect skele- 
ton of the quadrupeds, certain bones and parts of bones being 
always absent. In the case of the ox, for instance, the 
missing parts are the heads of the long bones (though while 
the shaft only of the femur is found, in the humerus one end 
is generally perfect), the back bone except the two first 
vertebrae, the spinous processes, and often the ribs, and the 
bones of the skull except the lower jaw and the portion 
round the eyes. It occurred to Prof. Steenstrup that these 
curious results might, peiiiaps, be referred to dogs; and, 
on trying the experiment, he ascertained that the bones 
which are absent from the Kjokkenmoddings are precisely 
those which dogs eat, and those which are present are the 
parts which are hard and solid and do not contain much 
nourishment. Prof. Steenstrup has since published a diagram 
of a skeleton, tinted in such a manner as to show at a glance 
which of the bones occur in the Kjokkenmoddings, and 
points out that it coincides exactly with one given by M. 
Mourens to fllustrdte those portions of the skeleton which 
were first formed. Although a glance at the longitudinal 
section of a long bone, as, for instance, of a femur 
and a comparison of the open cancellated tissue of the 
two ends with the solid, close, texture of the shaft, at once 

* From the marks of kniyes on the was then, as it is still among seyeral 
bones, it seems evident that the dog sayage tribes, an article of food. 


jufitifies and accounts for the selection made by the dogs, it is 
interesting thus to ascertain that their predilections were the 
same in primsDval times as at present. Moreoyer, we may 
in this maimer explain the prevalence of some bones in fossil 
strata. I have already mentioned that of the skull, the hard 
parts round the eye and the lower jaw are the only parts 
left ; now the preponderance of lotver Jaws in a, fossil state is 
well known. 

For instance, in the "Proceedings of the Geological Society 
for 1857," p. 277, Dr. Falconer, after describing some of the 
fossils found by Mr. Beccles at Swanage, says: — '>The curious 
fact that only lower jaws should have turned up among the 
Stonesfield mammalian remains has often been the subject 
of speculation or remark. The same, to a certain extent, 
has held good with the remains found in the Purbeck beds. 

In these minute creatures, unless the bone be com-i 

plete, and, supposing it to be a long bone, with both its 
articular surfaces perfect, it is almost hopeless, or at any rate 
very discouraging, to attempt to make out the creature that 
yielded it ; whereas the smallest fragment of a jaw, with a 
minute tooth in it, speaks volumes of evidence at the first 
glance; This I believe to be one great reason why we hear 
so much of jaw remains, and so little of other bones." No 
doubt it is so, but these observations, made by Prof. Steen- 
strup, afford a farther explanation of the fact, and it is to be 
regretted that the parts of the long bones which are most 
important to the palaeontologist are also those which are 
preferred by beasts of prey. 

In every case, the bones which contained marrow are spKt 
open in the manner best adapted for its extraction : this pecu- 
liarity) which is in itself satisfactory proof of the presence 
of man, has not yet been observed in bones from the true 
tertiary strata. 

The Kjokkenmoddings were not mere summer quarters; 


the ancient fishermen resided on these spots for at least 
two-thirds, if not the whole of the year. This we learn 
from an examination of the bones of the wUd animals, as it 
is ofben possible to determine, within very narrow limits, the 
time of year at which they were killed. For instance, the 
remains of the wild swan (Cygnus mmicus) are very common, 
and this bird is only a winter visitor, leaving the Danish 
coasts in March, and returning in November. It might 
naturally have been hoped that the remains of young birds 
would have supplied evidence as to the spring and early 
summer, but imfortunately, as has been already explained, 
no such bones are to be found. It is, therefore, fortunate 
that among the mammalia two periodical phenomena occur ; 
namely, the shedding and reproduction of stags' antlers, 
which, with slight variations according to age, have a fixed 
season ; and, secondly, the birth and growth of the young. 
These, and similar phenomena render it. highly probable 
that the "mound-builders" resided on the Danish .coast all 
the year round, though I am disposed to think that, like 
the Fuegians, who lead, even now, a very similar life, they 
frequently moved from spot to spot. This appears to me 
to^ be iadicated not only by the condition of the deserted 
hfearths, blit by the color of the flint flakes, etc.; for while 
many of these retain the usual dull bluish black color which 
is characteristic of newly-broken flints, and whicfc remains 
imaltered as long as they are surrounded by carbonate of 
lime, others are whitened, as is usual with those which have 
been exposed fop any length of time. Perhaps, therefore, 
these were lying on the surface during some period of deser- 
tion, and covered over only when the place was again inhabited. 
The flint implements found in the Kjokkenmoddings re- 
semble those which are characteristic of the " Coastfinds." 
They may be classed as flakes (flgs. 62-69); "Shell-mound" 
axes, which, as we have already observed, present a peculiar 



form (figs. 79-81, and pi. 1, figs. 8, 9), awls (fig. 125), sling- 

Fio. 12«. 


stones or net-weights (pL 1, fig. 12), and rude lance-heads 

Fio. 127. 

Fie. 136. 

Fio. 128. 



(figs. 126-128). With these occiir other forms, which, though 
very rude, are evidently artificial, such as fig. 129, which 

Fio. 129. 

Rude Flint Implement. 

appears to have been a kind of axe, and others of which the 
sharp edges were evidently used for cutting purposes. 

In the two days which we spent at Meilgaard, we found 
the following objects : — 

" Shell-mound" axes 19 

Flint flakes 139 

Bone pins, etc 6 

Horns 6 

Pottery, only 4 pieces 

Stone hammer 1 

Slingstones, about 20 

Of the three "pillars'^ of material, just alluded to (p. 180), 
the first contained seven flint flakes, two axes, one worked 
piece of horn, three worked pieces of bone, and some pottery ; 
in the second were sixteen flint flakes, one axe, and seven 
slingstones; in the third, four flint flakes, two flint axes, 
and a pointed bone. In short, without appearing to be 
richer than other Kjokkenmoddings, Meilgaard and Havelse 
have each produced already more than a thousand of these 
rude relics, though but a small portion of the mound has 
in either case been hitherto removed. We need not, there- 


fore, wonder at the namber of axes found in the valley of the 
Somme^ where so much larger a mass of material has been 

None of the large polished axes have yet been found in 
the Xjokkenmoddings : but a fragment of one, which was 
discovered at Havelse, and which had been worked up into a 
scraper, shows that they were not/ altogether unknown. A 
very few carefiilly-formed weapons have been found, but the 
implements generally are very rude, and of the same types 
as those which have been already described as characteristic 
of the " Coastfinds.'' Small pieces of very coarse pottery 
have also been discovered, and many of the boHes from the 
Kjokkenmoddings bear evident marks of a sharp instrument; 
several of the pieces found by us were in this condition, and 
had been fiEushioned into rude pins. 

The observations of Arctic travellers prove that even if 
human bones had been found in the sheU-mounds, this 
would not of itself be any proof of cannibalism ; but the 
absence of such remains satisfactorily shows that the 
primitive population of the North were free from this 
practice. On the other hand, the tumuli have supplied 
us with numerous skeletons which probably belong to 
the Stone age. The skulls are very round, and in many 
respects resemble those of the Lapps, but have a more 
projecting ridge over the eye. One curious peculiarity is, 
that their -front teeth did not overlap as ours do, but met one 
another, as do those of the Ghreenlanders at the present day. 
This evidently indicates a peculiar maimer of eating. 

Much as still remains to be made out respecting the men 
of the Stone period, the facts already ascertained, like a few 
strokes by a clever draughtsman, supply us with the elements 
of an outline sketch. Carrying our imagination back into 
the past, we see before us on the low shores of the Danish 
Archipelago a race of small men, with heavy overhanging 


brows, roTind heads, and faces probably mucb like those of 
the present Laplanders. As they must evidently have had 
some protection from the weather, it is most probable that 
they lived in tents made of skins. The total absence of metal 
in the Kjokkenmoddings proves that they had not yet any 
weapons except those made of wood, stone, horn, and bone. 
Their principal food must have consisted of shell-fish, but they 
were able to catch fish, and often varied their diet by game 
caught in hmiting. It is, perhaps, not micharitable to con- 
clude that, when their hunters were unusually successful, the 
whole commxmity gorged itself with food, as is the case with 
many savage races at the present time. It is evident that 
marrow was considered a great deKcacy, for every single bone 
which contained anj was split open in the manner best 
adapted to extract the precious morsel. 

"We have already seen that the mound-builders were 
regular settlers and not mere summer visitors, and on the 
whole they seem to ha/ve lived in very much the same 
manner as the Tierra del Fuegians, who dwell on the 
coaat, feed principally on ssheU-fish, and have the dog as 
their only domestic animal. A very good account of them is 
given in Darwin's Journal (p. 234) from which we extract 
the following passages, which give us a vivid and probably 
correct idea of what might have been seen on the Danish 
shores, long, long ago. " The inhabitants, living chiefly upon 
shell-fish, are obliged constantly to change their place of resi- 
dence ; but they return at intervals to the same spot^, as is 
evident from the pile of old shells^ which^ must ofben amount 
to some tons in weight. These heaps can be distinguished at 
a long distance by the bright green colour of certain plants 
which invariably grow on them The Fuegian wig- 
wam resembles, in size and dimensions, a haycock. It merely 
consists of a few broken branches stuck in the ground, and 
very imperfectly thatched on one side with a few tufts of 


grass and rushes. The whole cannot be so much as the work 

of an hour^ and it is only used for a few days At a 

subsequent period, the Beagle anchored for a couple of days 
under WoUaston Island, which is a short way to the north- 
ward. While going on shore, we pulled alongside a canoe 
with six Fuegians. These were the most abject and misera- 
ble creatures I anywhere beheld. On the east coast, the 
natives, as we have seen, have guanaco cloaks,, and on the 
west, they possess sealskins. Amongst the centrali tribes the 
men generally possess an otter skin, or some small scrap 
about as large as a pocket-handkerchief, which, is barely 
sufficient to cover their backs as low down as their loins. It 
is laced across the breast by strings, and according as the 
wind blows, it is shifted from side to side. But these 
Fuegians in the canoe were quite naked, and even one full 
grown woman was absolutely so.. It was raining heavily, 
and the fresh water, together with the spray, trickled down 
her body. . . . These poor wretches were stunted in 
their growth, their hideous faces bedaubed with white paint, 
their skins filthy and greasy, their hair entangled, their 
voices discordant, their gestures violent and without dignity. 
Viewing such men, one can hardly make oneself believe they 
are fellow-creatures and inhabitants of the same world. . . 
At night, five or six human beings, naked, and scarcely pro- 
tected from, the wind and rain of this tempestuous climate, 
sleep on the wet ground coiled up like animals. Whenever 
it is low water, , they must rise to pick shell-fish from the 
rocks; and the women, winter and summer, either dive to 
coUect sea eggs, or sit patiently in their canoes and, with a 
baited hair line, jerk out small fish. If a seal is killed, or 
the floating carcase of a putrid whale discovered, it is a 
feast: such miserable food is assisted by a few tasteless 
berries and &ngi. Nor are they exempt from famine, and, 
as a consequence, cannibalism aciDompanied by parricide.'^ 


In this latter respect^ however^ the advantage appears to be 
all on the side of the ancients, whom we have no right to 
accuse of cannibalism. 

If the absence of cereal remains justifies us, as it appears 
to do, in concluding that they had no knowledge of agricul- 
ture, they must certainly have sometimes suffered from periods 
of great scarcity, indications of which may, perhaps, be seen 
in the bones of the fox, wolf, and other camivora, which 
would hardly have been eaten &om choice ; on the other hand, 
they were blessed in the ignorance of spirituous liquors, and 
saved thereby from what is at present the greatest scourge of 
Northern Europe. 

Prof. Worsaae has proposed to divide the Stone age into 
two -divisions, the first of which he again sub-divides. His 
classification stands as follows — 

The Older Stone Age. 

1. The stone implements found in the drift, and in caves 
with remauis of the mammoth, rhinoceros, hyaena, and other 
extinct animals. , 

2. The Kjokkenmoddings and Coastfinds. 

The Later Stone Age. 

Characterised byihe beautifully worked stone implements 
and large tumuli. 

The shell-mounds and coastfinds, according to Professor 
Worsaae, are characterised by very rough flint implements 
(fig. 26-129) and are evidently the remains of a much ruder 
and more barbarous people than that which constructed 
the large Stone age tumuli, and the beautiM weapons^ etc., 
found in them. He does not altogether deny that a few well- 
worked implements, and fragments of such, have been found 
in the Kjokkenmoddings, but he considers that some of these 
at least may be altogether more recent than the shell- 


mounds in whioli they are reported to have been founds and, 
at any rate, that their presence is altogether exceptional. At 
Meilgaard, for instance, the researches undertaken under the 
superintendence of the late king in June, 1861, produced more 
than five hundred flint flakes and other rude implements, but 
not a single specimen with a trace of polishing, or in any 
way resembling the flint implements found in the timiuli. 
On the other hand these rude implements -are 'said to be 
wanting in the tumuli, where they are replaced by instru- 
ments of a different character and more skilful workmanship. 
Moreover, while it is admitted on all hands that the shell- 
mound makers had no domestic animal but the dog, and no 
knowledge of agriculture. Prof. Worsaae considers that 
during the later Stone age, the inhabitants of Denmark cer- 
tainly possessed tame cattle 4uid horses, and had in all pro- 
bability some knowledge of agriculture. 

Prof. Steenstrup is of an entirely diflFerent opinion, and 
considers that the Kjokkenmoddings and Stone age tumuli 
were contemporaneous. He denies altogether that remains of 
tame oxen or horses have been found in tumuli of the Stone 
age, except in very few instances, and in these he maintains 
that the fragments which have occurred are evidently not 
coeval with the mounds themselves, and that in all probability 
they have been introduced by foxes. He admits that the 
stone implements from the sheU-mounds and coastfinds are 
altogether different from, and much ruder than, those from 
the tumuli; he considers the two classes as representing, 
not two different degrees, but two different phases of one 
single condition of civnisation. The tumuli are the burial 
places of chiefs, the Kjokkenmoddings are the refuse 
heaps of fishermen. The first contain all that skill could 
contrive, affection offer, or wealth command; the second 
only those things which art could not make available, 
which were thrown away as useless, or accidentally lost. 


In order, therefore, to compare these two cUsses of objects, 
we mast take, not the ordinary rude specimens which are sp 
numerous in the shell-mounds, but the few better made im- 
plements which, fortunately for science and for us, were lost 
among the oyster-shells, or which had been broken, and 
therefore thrown away. These, though few in number, are, 
in Professor Steenstrup'3 opinion, quite as numerous as could 
have be^n expected under the circumstances. Moreover, t]xB 
long flint flakes, which are so common in the Ejokkenmod- 
dings, are sufficient evidence that great sldll in the treatment 
of flint had already been attained. Indecjd^ as Professor 
Steea^trup well says, these flakes, are the resolt of such a 
small number of blows, they are so silQple in ^pearance, 
that the art shown in their manufacture has geaaerally been 
much imderrated. Any one, however, who will try to make 
some for himself, while he will probably be very unsuc- 
cessful, will Qrt least learn a vali^tble lesson in the 19- 
preciation of flint implements. Some of the flakes found in 
the Kjokkenmoddings are equal to any from the Tu^nuli; 
several of those which we found at Meilgaard were more 
than five, and one was more than six inches in length, while 
I have in my possession a giant flake &om Fannerup (figs, 
62-64), given to me by Professor Steenstrup, which hj^s a 
length of eight inches and three quarters. As regards the 
rude, more or less triangular, " axes " which are so charac- 
teristic of the Kjokkenmoddings and Coastfinds, Prof. Steen- 
strup, as we have already seen, declines to compare them 
with the poHshed axes of the tumuli, because in his opinion 
they were not intended for the same purposes. In addition 
to the direct evidence derived from the discovery of some 
few well-made flint axes of the tumidus type. Professor 
Steenstrup relies much on the more indirect evidence de- 
rivable from the other contents of the shell-mounds. Thus 
tlie frequent remains of large and full-grown animals, for 



instance of the seal, and the wild ox, are in his opinion 
sufficient evidence that the shell-mound builders must have 
had weapons more useful and destructive than any which 
Prof. Worsaae will concede to them ; moreover, he considers 
that many of the cuts which are so common on the bones 
found in the shell-heaps must have been made by polished 
implements, and are too smooth to be the marks of flint 
flakes, according to the suggestion of Professor Worsaae. 
Finally, Professor Steenstrup, though not attributing so 
much weight as Professor Worsaae to the absence of the 
ruder implements &om the tumuli, even if this had been 
the case, disputes the fact on the ground that these imple- 
ments would not until recently have been recognised and 
collected, and that they have, in fSact, been found whenever 
they were looked for. 

After having carefully considered the evidence on both 
sides, I find myself, as might naturally be expected, unable 
altogether to agree with either. 

The small rude axes seem to me even less well adapted to the 
purpose suggested by Prof. Steenstrup, than for those which 
have generally been attributed to them. There are, no doubt, 
some which could never have been used for cutting, but these 
may have been failures, owing to some want of skill on the 
part of the manufacturer, or some flaw in the .flint itself. 
Others appear to me, as to Prof. Worsaae, serviceable, though 
rude ; and well adapted for some purpose (possibly for oyster 
dredging or chopping wood), which required a strong, rather 
than a sharp edge. They also very closely resemble in 
form some of the adzes used by the South Sea Islanders, 
one of which is figured for comparison (see pp. 72, 73). 
They seem to me, however, as to Prof. Steenstrup, to differ 
in character from the well-made and generally polished 
axes, and not to be ruder implements of the same type. 
Although the carefully formed knives, axes, lance-heads, etc., 


would not be likely to abound in the Kjokkenmoddings, any 
more than works of art, or objects of value in modem dust- 
heaps ; still I confess I should have expected that fragments 
of these instruments, recognisable to us, though useless to 
their original owners, would have been more niunerous than, 
in reality, they appear to be. 

In addition to the five hundred rude implements, described 
by Prof Worsaae, as having been found at Meilgaard during 
the king's visit, I myself obtained a hundred and forty flint 
flakes, with about fifty other implements, in the visit to 
this celebrated locality which I made last year under the 
gxudance of Prof. Steenstrup. To these, again, must be 
added many which had previously been collected by M. 
Olsen, and the members of the Kjokkenmodding committee ; 
and yet among so large a nui^ber of instruments of various 
kinds there is only one which in any respect resembles the 
well-worked implements of the tumuli. So, again, at Havelse 
only a single fragment of a polished axe has been found 
among more than a thousand objects of the ruder kind. It 
might, however, fairly be urged that in such a comparison, 
neither the flakes nor "slingstones** ought to be brought into 
consideration ; in this case, and if we were to count the axes 
only, the numbers would be immensely diminished. 

There is also much weight in Prof. Steenstrup's argument 
derived from the flint flakes, and he has not at all exaggerated 
the skill shown in their manufacture. Their edges, how- 
ever, are so sharp that it would, I cannot help thinking, 
be very difficult to distinguish a cut produced by a flake, 
fix)m one made by a ground axe. On the other hand, the 
alleged absence of rude implements in the Stone age bar- 
rows has been satisfactorily explained by Professor Steen- 
strup. In this coxmtry it might be argued from the re- 
searches of so intelligent an antiquary as Sir R. Colt Hoare, 
that rude implements were never, or very rarely, foimd in 


tumuli, but the more recent researches of Mr. Bateman have 
shown that this is very far from being the case, and have 
made it eyident that the ruder implements of stone must 
have been orerlooked by the earUer archaDologists. In the 
tumuli examined by Mr. Bateman, he obtained many flint 
flakes, etc., quite as rude as those which are foimd in the 
shell-mounds. I am not aware, however, that any of the 
small triangular axes, which are so characteristic of the 
shell-mounds, have yet been met with in the tumuli. Ifor, 
on the other hand, have any forms resembling those which 
are characteristic of the Palaaolithic age, yet be^a found in 
the shell-mounds. 

Finally, as regards the supposed remains of domestic 
animals (other than the dog) in Stone age tumidi, the 
evidence brought forward by Professor Worsaae seems to- 
me altogether inconclusive, which, however, is of the less, 
consequence, as the point will certainly be determined 
ere long, now that attention has specially been directed 
to it. 

On the whole, the evidence appears to ^ow that the 
Danish shell-moxmds represent a definite period in the his- 
tory of that country, and are probably referrible to the early 
part of the Neolithic Stone age^ when the art of polishing 
flint implements was known, but before it had reached its 
greatest development. 

It is, as yet, impossible to affix a date in years to the 
formation of the Kjokkenmoddings, which nevertheless are, 
as evidently, of immense antiquity. We know that the 
country has long been covered by beech forests, and yet it 
appears that during the Bronze age beeches were absent, 
or only represented by stragglers, while the whole country 
was covered with oaks. This change implies a great lapse 
of time, even if we suppose that but a few generations of 
oaks succeeded one another. We know also that the oaks 


had been preceded by pines, and that the country was in- 
habited even then. 

Again, the immense number of objects belonging to the 
Bronze age which have been found in Denmark from time 
to time, and the great nimiber of burial places, appear to 
justify the Danish Archaeologists in assigning to this period 
a Tory great lapse of time. The same arguments apply with 
even more strength to the remains of the Stone period, as a 
country, the inhabitants of which live by himting and fishing, 
can never be thickly populated ; and, on the whole, the con- 
clusion is forced upon us, that the country must have been 
inhabited for a very long period, although none of the Danish 
remains belong to a time as ancient as some of those which 
have been found in other parts of Europe, and which will be 
described in subsequent chapters. 




OIJR knowledge of Nortli American Archaeology is derived 
mainly from four excellent memoirs published under 
the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution: — 1. Ancient 
Moniunents of the Mississippi Valley, comprising the Results 
of extensive Original Surveys and Explorations ; by E. G. 
Squier, A.M., and E. H. Davis, M.D. 2. Aboriginal Mwiu- 
ments of the State of New York, comprising the Results 
of Original Surveys and Explorations, with an illustrative 
Appendix ; by E. Gt. Squier, A.M. 3. The Antiquities of 
Wisconsin, as surveyed and described by J. A. Lapham. 
4. The Archaeology of the United States, or Sketches, His- 
torical and Biographical, of the Progress of Information and 
Opinion respecting Vestiges of Antiquity in the United 
States; by Samuel F. Haven. There are, indeed, several 
other memoirs which we ought perhaps to have added to our 
list, especially one by Mr. Caleb Atwater, who, according to 
Messrs. Squier and Davis, "deserves the credit of being: the 
pioneer in this department." His researches form the first 
volimie of the Archaeologia Americana, which was published 
in 1819, and contains plans and descriptions of many ancient 
works. Nor must we omit to mention Schoolcraft's " Histoiry> 
Condition and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United 

The memoir by Messrs. Squier and Davis, occupying more 
than three himdred pages, is chiefly descriptive of ancient 


fortifications^ enclosures^ temples and mounds, and of the 
different implements, ornaments, etc., whicli have been. ob- 
tained from them. It is embellished with forty-eight plates, 
and no less than two hundred and seven woodcuts. 

In his second work, Mr. Squier confines himself to the 
antiquities of the State of Kew York. Within these limits, 
however, he describes manjr ancient monuments of various 
kinds, and he feels '' warranted in estimating the nimiber 
which originally existed in the State at from two hundred 
to two hundred and fifty." He comes to the conclusion, 
"little anticipated," he saya,. "when I started on my trip of 
exploration, that the earthworks of "Western New York wei^e 
erected by the Iroquois, or their western neighbours, and do 
not possess an antiquity going very far back of the discovery." 

The systematic exploration of the ancient remains in Wis- 
consin, of which the memoir by Mr. Lapham is the result, 
was undertaken by him on behalf of the American Anti- 
quarian Society, by which the nec(Bssary funds were provided. 
The cost of the publishing, however,, which from the great 
number of engravings (fifty-five plates, besides sixty-one 
wood engravings) was considerable, was defrayed by the 
Smithsonian Institution, and the work is included in the 
seventh volume of "Contributions." 

Mr. Havea^s work is well described in the title, and forms 
an interesting, introduction to the study of North American 
Archaeology. He gives us comparatively few observations or 
opinions of his own ; but after a careM examination of what 
others have written, he comes to the conclusion that the 
ancient earthworks of the United States "differ less in kind 
than in degree from other remains concerning which history 
has not been entirely silent. They are more numerous, more 
concentrated,4iind in some particulars on a larger scale of 
labour, than the works which approach them on their several 


borders, and with whose various characters they are blended. 
Their numbers may be the result of frequent changes of 
residence by a comparatively limited population, in accordance 
with a superstitious trait of the Indian nature, leading to the 
abandonment of places where any great calamity has been 
su£^red ; but they appear rather to indicate a country thickly 
inhabited for a period long enough to admit of the progressive 
enlargement and extension of its movements.*' 

Although more especiallj devoted to the present condition 
and habits of the Indian tribes, still, as constituting their 
history, Schoolcraft gives us Hiuch archaeological information, 
and we shall have occasion fre<iuently to quote from his work. 

The antiquities themselves fall into two great divisions: 
Implements (iniJuding ornaments) and Earthworks. The 
earthworks have been again divided by the American Ar<5h8B- 
ologists into sevdn classes: — 1. Defensive enclostires ; 2. 
Sacred and miscellaneeus enclosures ; 8. Sepulchral mounds ; 
4. Sacrificial moxmas; 5. Temple mounds; 6. "Animal" 
mounds ; and 7. Miscellaneous mounds. These classes we 
shall treat separately, and we can then better consider the 
"mound-builders*' themselves. 


The simple weapoiis <jf bone and stone which are found in 
America closely refeemble those which occur in other coun- 
tries. The flakes, hatchets, axes, arrow-heads, and bone 
implements are, for instance, very similar to those which 
occur in the Swiss Lakes, if only we make allowance for the 
differences of materiaL In addition to the simple forms,^ 
which may almost be said to be ubiquitous, there are some, 
however, which are more complicated. In many cases they 
are perforated, as for instance those figured by Messrs. Squier 
and Davis {l.c. p. 218). The perforated axes found in Europe 

Tins USB OF COPPBK. 201 

ate generally considered to belong to the metallic age ; but 
as far as America is concerned, we hare not yet any evidence 
as to tie relative antiquity of the perforated and imperforate 

At the time of the discovery of America, iron was abso- 
lutely unknown to the natives, with the exception, perhaps, 
of a tribe near the mouth of the La Plata, who had arrows 
tipped with this metal, which they are supposed to have ob- 
tained from masses of native iron. The powerftd nations of 
Central America were, however, in the age of Bronze, while 
the North Americans were in a condition of which we find 
in Europe but scanty traces— namely, in an age of Copper. 
Silver is the only other metal which has been found in the 
ancient tumuli, and that but in very small quantities. It 
occurs sparingly in a native form with the copper of Lake 
Superior, whence, in aH probability, it was derived. It does 
not appear to have been ever smelted. From the large quan- 
tity of galena which is found in the mounds, Messrs. Squier 
and Davis are disposed to think that lead must have been 
used to a certain extent by the North American tribes : the 
metal itself, however, has not, I believe, yet been found. 

Copper, on the other hand, occurs fi^uently in the tu- 
muli, both wrought and tinwrought. The axes have a 
striking resemblance to those simple al&es of Europe, which 
contain the minimum quantity of tin; and some of the 
Mexican paintings give us interesting evidence as to the 
manner in which they were handled and used. These, how- 
ever, were of bronze, and had, therefore, been fused; but 
the Indian axes, which are of pure copper, appear in all 
cases to have been worked in a cold state, which is the more 
remarkable, because, as Messrs. Squier and Davis have well 
observed, " the fires upon the altar were sufficiently intense to 
melt down the copper implements and ornaments deposited 
upon them. The hint thus afforded does not seem to have 


been seized upoxL"* This is the more surprising, because as. 
Schoolcraft t tells us ''in almost all the works lately opened^ 
there are heaps of coals and ashes, showing that fire had 
much to do with their operations." Thus, though they were 
acquainted with metal> they did not know how to use it ; and 
as Professor Dana has well observed in a letter with which 
he favored me, they may in one sense be said to have been in 
an age of stone, since they used the copper^ not as metal, but 
as stone. This intermediate condition between an age of 
stone and one of metal is most interesting. 

In the neighbourhood of Lake Superior,, and in some other 
still more northern localities, copper is found native in large 
quantities, and the Indians had therefore nothing to do but 
to break off pieces and hammer them into the required 
shape. Heame's celebrated journey to the mouth of the 
Coppermine River, under the auspices of the Hudson's Bay 
Company, was imdertaken in order to examine the locaKty 
whence the natives of that district obtained the metal. In 
this case it occurred in lumps actually on the surface, and the 
Indians seem to have picked up what they could, without 
attempting anything that could be called mining. Roimd 
Lake Superior, however, the case is very diflferent. A short 
account of the ancient coppermines is given by Messrs. 
Squier and Davis in the work already so often cited, by Mr. 
Squier in " The Aboriginal Monuments of the State of New 
York," by Mr. Lapham, J and by Mr. Schoolcraft,§ while the 
same subject is treated at considerable length by Professor 
Wilson. The works appear to have been first discovered in 
1847 by the agent of the Minnesota Mining Company. 

" Following up the indications of a continuous depression 
in the soil, he came at length to a cavern where he found 

• One " cast " copper axe is however recorded as having heen foand in the State 
of New York, but there is no evidence to show by whom it was made, 
t Indian Tribes, p. 97.. % U, p. 74. § l,e, p. 95. 



several porcupines had fixed their quarters for hybernation ; 
but detecting evidences of artificial excavation, he proceeded 
to clear out the accumulated soil, and not only exposed to 
view a vein of copper, but found in the rubbish numerous - 
stone mauls and hammers of the ancient workmen. Sub- 
sequent observations brought to Kght ancient excavations of 
great extent, frequently from twenty-five to thirty feet deep, 
and scattered over an area of several miles. The rubbish 
taken from these is piled up in mounds alongside ; while the 
trenches have been gradually refilled with the soil and decay- 
ing vegetable-matter gathered through the long centuries 
since their desertion ; and over all, the giants of the forest 
have grown, and withered, and fallen to decay. Mr. Knapp, 
the agent of the Minnesota Mining Company, counted three 
hundred and ninety-five annular rings on a hemlock-tree, 
which grew on one of the mounds of earth thrown out of an 
ancient mine. Mr. Foster also notes the great size and age 
of a pine stump, which must have grown, flourished and died 
since the works were deserted ; and Mr. C. Whittesley not 
only refers to living trees now flourishing in the gathered 
soil of the abandoned trenches, upwards of three hundred 
years old, but adds, ^On the same spot there are the de- 
cayed trunks of a preceding generation or generations of 
trees that have arrived at maturity, and fallen down from old 
age.' According to the same writer, in a. communication 
made to the American Association, at the Montreal meeting 
in 1867, these ancient works extend over a track from 100 
to 150 miles in length, along the southern shore of the 

In another excavation was found a detached mass of native 
copper, weighing upwards of six tons. It rested on an 
artificial cradle of black oak, partly preserved by immersion 
in water. Yarious implements and tools of the same metal 
were foimd with it. The commonest of these are the stone 


mauls or hammers, of whicli from one place ten cart-loads 
were obtained. With tkese were ^' stone axes of large size, 
made of greenstone, aad shaped to receive withe-handles. 
Some large round greenstone masses^ that had apparently 
been used for sledges, were also found. They had round 
holes bored in them to a depth of several inches, which 
seemed to have been designed for wooden plugs, to which 
withe-handles might be attached, so that several men could 
swing them with sufficient force to break the rock and the 
projecting masses of copper. Some of them were broken, 
and some of the projecting ends of rock exhibited marks of 
having been battered in the manner here suggested." * 

Wooden implements are so perishable that we coidd not 
expect many of them to have been found. Two or three 
wooden bowls, a trough, and some shovels with long handles, 
are all that appear to be recorded. 

It has often been stated that the Indians possessed some 
method, at present unknown, by which they were enabled to 
harden the copper. This, however, from examinations insti- 
tuted by Professor Wilson, seems to be an error. Some 
copper implements, which he submitted to Professor Crofts, 
were found to be no harder than the native copp« from 
Lake Superior. " The structure of the metal was also highly 
laminated, as if the instrument had been brought to its 
present shape by hammering out a solid mass of copper," 


Before the introduction of metallic vessels, the art of the 
potter was more important even than it is at present. Ac- 
cordingly, the sites of all ancient habitations are generally 
marked by numerous fragments of pottery : this is as true 
of the ancient Indian settlements, as of the Celtic towns of 
• Prof. W, W. Mather in a letter to Mr. Squier, le, p. 184. 


England, or the Lake^villages of Switzerland. These frag- 
ments, however, would generally be those of Aide household 
vessels, and it is principallj from the tumuli that we obtain 
those better-made urns and cups from which the state of the 
art may fairly be inferred. Yet I know of no British sepul- 
chral urn, belonging to ante-Boman times, which has upon 
it a curved line. It is unnecessary to add that representa- 
tions of animals or plants ar^ entirely wanting. They are 
also absent from all articles belonging to the Bronze age in 
Switzerland, and I might almost say in Western Europe 
generally, while ornaments of curved and spiral lines are 
eminently characteristic of this period. The ornamental 
ideas of the Stone age, on the other hand, are confined, so far 
as we know^ to compositions of straight lines, and the idea of 
a curve does not seem to have occurred to them. The most 
elegant ornaments on their vases are impressions of the 
finger-nail, or of a cord wound round the soft clay. 

Dr. Wilson has well pointed out, that, as regards Europe, 
"in no single case is any attempt made to imitate leaf or 
flower, bird, beast, or any simple natural object ; and when, 
in the bronze work of the later Iron period, imitative forms 
at length appear, they are chiefly the snake and dragon 
shapes and patterns, borrowed seemingly by Celtic and Teu- 
tonic wanderers, with the wild fancies of their mythology, 
froni the far Eastern cradle-land of their birth." Very 
different was the condition of American Art. 

" The art of pottery attained to a considerable degree of 
perfection.'' Some of the vases found in the tumuli are said 
to rival, "in elegance of model, delicacy, and finish," the 
best Peruvian specimens. The material used is a fine clay : 
in the more delicate specimens, pure ; in the coarser ones, 
mixed with pounded quartz. The art of glazing and the use 
of the potter's wheel appear not to have been known, though 
that "simple approximation to a potter's wheel may have 


existed,*' which consists of " a stick of wood grasped in the 
hand by the nffddle, and turned round inside a wall of clay 
formed by the other hand or by another workman." * 

Among the most characteristic specimens of ancient 
American pottery are the Pipes. Some of these are simple 
bowls, smaller indeed, but otherwise not unlike a common 
everyday pipe, from which they differ however in having 
generally no stem, the mouth having apparently been applied 
direct to the bowl. Others are highly ornamented, and 
many are spirited representations of monsters or of animals, 
such as the beaver, otter, wild cat, elk, bear, woli*, panther, 
raccoon, opossum, squirrel, manatee, eagle, hawk, heron, owl, 
buzzard, raven, swallow, parroquet, duck, grouse, and many 
others. The most interesting of these, perhaps, is the 
Manatee or Lamantin, of which seven representations have 
been found in the moimds of Ohio. These are no mere rude 
sculptures, about which there might easily be a mistake, but 
'^ the truncated head, thick semicircular snout, peculiar nos- 
trils, tumid, furrowed upper lip, singular feet or fins, and 
remarkable moustaches, are all distinctly marked, and render 
the recognition of the animal complete."! This curious 
animal is not at present found farther than the shores of 
Florida, a thousand miles away. 


The ornaments which have been found in the mounds 
consist of beads, shells, necklaces, pendants, plates of mica, 
bracelets, gorgets, etc. The number of beads is some- 
times quite surprising. Thus the celebrated Grave Creek 
mound contained between three and four thousand shell- 
beads, besides about two hundred and fifty ornaments of 
mica, several bracelets of copper, and various articles carved 

* Squier and Davis, Le. p. 195. f Squier and Daris, le. p. 252. 


in stone. The beads are generally made of shell, but are 
sometimes cut out of bone or teeth ; in form they are gene- 
TaQjr round or oblong ; sometimes the shell of the Unio is 
cut and strung so as to ^'exhibit the convex surface and 
pearly nacre of the shell." The neddaces are often made of 
beads or shells, but sometimes of teeth. The ornaments of 
mica are thin plates of Tarious forms, each of which has a 
small hole. The bracelets are of copper, and generally en- 
circle the arms of the skeletons, besides being frequent on 
the "altars." They are simple rings "hammered out with 
more or less skill, and so bait that the ends approach, or lap 
over, each other." The so-called "gorgets" are thin plates 
of copper, always with twa holes, and probably therefore 
worn as badges of authority. 


The Earthworks are most abundant in the central parts 
of the United States. They decrease in number as we i^ 
proach the Atlantic, and are very scarce in British America 
and on the west of the Eocky Mountains. 

De/enswe Enclosures. 

The works belonging to this class "usually occupy 
strong natural positions," and as a fair specimen of them we 
may take the Boumeviile Enclosure in Ross County, Ohio. 
"This work," say Messrs. Squier and Davis {Lc. p. 11), 
"occupies the summit of a lofty detached hill, twelve nules 
westward from the city of Chillicothe, near the village of 
Boumeviile. The lull is not far from four hundred feet in 
perpendicular height ; and is remarkable, even among the 
steep hills of the west, for the general abruptness of its sides, 
which at some points are absolutely inaccessible." .... The 
defences consist of a wall of stone, which is carried round the 


hill a little below the brow ; but at some places it rises, so 
as to cut off the narrow spurs, and extends across the neck 
that connects the hill with the range beyond." It must not, 
however, be understood that anything like a true wall now 
exists; the present appearance is rather what might have 
been ''expected from the falling outwards of a wall of stones, 
placed, as this was, upon the declivity of a hill." Where it 
is most distinct it is fcom fifteen to twenty feet wide, by 
three or four in height. The area thus enclosed is about 
one hundred and forty acres, and the wall is two miles and a 
quarter in length. The stones themselves vary much in size, 
and Messrs. Squier and Davis suggest that the wall may 
originally have been about eight feet high, with an equal 
base. At present, trees of the largest size are growing upon 
it. On a similar work, known as "Fort Hill," Highland 
Coimty, Ohio, Messrs. Squier and Davis found a splendid 
chestnut tree, which they suppose to be six hundred 
years old. "If," they say, "to this we add the probable 
period intervening from the time of the building of this 
work to its abandonment, and the subsequent period up to 
its invasion by the forest, we are led irresistibly to the con- 
clusion that it has an antiquity of at least one thousand years. 
But when we notice, all aroimd us, the crumbling trunks of 
trees, half hidden in the accumulating soil,, we are induced to 
fix on an antiquity still more remote." 

The enclosure known as "Clark's Work," in Ross County, 
Ohio, is one of the largest and most interesting. It consists 
of a parallelogram^ two thousand eight hundred feet by 
eighteen hundred^ and enclosing about one hundred and 
eleven acres. To the right of this, the principal work is a 
perfect sqtuire, containing an area of about sixteen acres. 
Each side is eight hundred and fifty feet in length, and in 
the middle of each is a gateway thirty feet wide, covered 
by a small mawid. Wiidun the area of the great work are 


several smaller mounds and enclosures ; and it is estimated 
tliat not less than three millions of cubic feet of earth were 
used in this great undertaking. It has also been observed 
that water is almost invariably found within, or close to 
these enclosures. 

Sacred and Miscellaneous Enclosures. 

If the purpose for which the works belonging to the first 
class were erected is very evident, the same cannot be said 
for those which we have now to mention. That they were 
not intended for defence is inferred by Messrs. Squier and 
Davis from their small size, from the ditch being inside the 
embankment, and from their position, which is often com- 
pletely commanded by neighbouring heights. 

Dr. Wilson also (vol. i. p. 324) foUows Sir R. C. Hoare in 
considering the position of the ditch as being a distinguishing 
mark between military and religious works. But Catlin ex- 
pressly tells us that in the Mandan village which he describes, 
the ditch was on the inner side of the embankment, and the 
warriors were thus sheltered while they shot their arrows 
through the stockade. We see, therefore, that, in America 
at least, this is no reliable guide. 

While, however, the defensive earthworks occupy hill 
tops, and other situations most easy to defend, the so-called 
sacred enclosures are generally found on ''the broad and* 
level river bottoms, seldom occurring upon the table-lands or 
where the surface of the ground is undulating or broken." 
They are usually square or circular in form ; a circular being 
often combined with one or two squares. " Occasionally we 
find them isolated, but more frequently in groups. The 
greater number of the circles are of small size, with a nearly 
uniform diameter of two hundred and fifty or three hundred 
feet, and invariably have the ditch interior. to the wall." 



Some of the circles, however, are much larger, enclosing fifty 
acres or more. The squares or other rectangular works 
never have a ditch, and the earth of which they are com- 
posed appears to have been taken up evenly from the sur- 
fiuje, or from large pits in the neighbourhood. They vary 
much in size ; five or six of them, however, are " exact 
squares, each side measuring one thousand and eighty feet — 
a coincidence which could not possibly be accidental, and 
which must possess some significance.^' The circles also, in 
spite of their great size, are perfectly round, so that the 
American archaeologists consider themselves justified in con- 
cluding that the mound-builders must have had some stan- 
dard of measurement, and some means of determining angles. 

The most remarkable group is that near Newark, in the 
Scioto Valley, which covers an area of fimr aqtmre miles ! A 
plan of these gigantic works is given by Messrs. Squier and 
Davis, and another, from a later survey, by Mr. Wilson. 
They consist of an octagon, with an area of fifty, a square 
occupying twenty acres, and two large circles occupying re- 
spectively thirty and twenty acres. From the octagon an 
avenue formed by parallel walls extends southwards for two 
miles and a half; there are two other avenues which are 
rather more than a mile in length, one of them connecting 
the octagon with the square. 

Besides these, there are various other embankments and 
small circles, the greater number about eighty feet in 
diameter, but some few much larger. The walls of these 
small circles, as well as those of the avenues and of the 
irregular portions of the works generally, are very slight, 
and for the most part about four feet in height. The other 
embankments are much more considerable ; the walls of the 
large circle are even now twelve feet high, with a base of 
fifty feet, and an interior ditch seven feet deep and thirty- 
five in width. At the gateway, however, they are still more 


impoBing ; the walls being sixteen feet liigh, and tlie ditch 
thirteen feet deep. The whole area is covered with "gigantic 
trees of a primitive forest ;" and, say Messrs. Squier and 
Davis^ "in entering the ancient avenue for the first time, 
the visitor does not &il to experience a sensation of awe, 
such as he might feel in passing the portals of an Egyptian 
temple,, or in gazing upon the silent ruins of Petra. of the 

The city of Gircleville takes its name from one of these 
embankments, which, however, is no more remarkable than 
many others. It consists of a square and a circle, touching 
one another ;. the sides of the square being about nine hun- 
dred feet in length,, and the circle a little more than a 
thousand feet in diameter. The square had eight doorways, 
one at each angle, and one in the middle of each side, every 
doorway being protected by a mound. The circle was peculiar 
in having a double embankment. This work, alas ! has been 
entirely destroyed ; and many others have also disappeared, 
or are being gradually obliterated by the plough. Under 
these circumstances, we read with pleasure that " The Direc- 
tors of the Ohio Land Company, when they took possession 
of the country at the mouth of the Muskingum Kiver in 
1788, adopted immediate measures for the preservation of 
these monuments. To their credit be it said, one of their 
earliest official acts was the passage of a resolution, which is 
entered upon the Journal of their proceedings, reserving the 
two truncated pyramids and the great mound, with a few 
acres attached to each, as public squares.." Such enlightened 
conduct deserves the thanks of archaeologists, and I sin- 
cerely hope that the Company has prospered. 

Both as being the only example of an enclosure yet ob- 
served in Wisconsin, and also as having in many req)ects a 
great resemblance to a fortified town, the ruins of Aztalan 
are well worthy of attention. They are situated on the west 

'- 1 

212 aztalaK. 

branch of Bock River, and were discovered in 1836 by N. F. 
Hyer, Esq., who surveyed them hastily, and published a 
brief description, with a figure, in the " MUwaukie Adver- 
tiser." In " Silliman's American Journal," No. XLIV., is a 
paper on the subject by Mr. Taylor, from which was derived 
the plan and the short account given by Messrs. Squier 
and Davis.* The most complete description is contained in 
Mr. Lapham's "Antiquities of Wisconsin" f Th© name 
" Aztalan" was given to this place by Mr. Hyer, because the 
Aztecs had a tradition that they originally came from a 
country to the north, which they called Aztalan. It is said 
to be derived from two Mexican words, Atl, water, and An, 
near. " The main feature of these works is an enclosure of 
earth (not brick, as has been erroneously stated), extending 
around three sides of an irregular parallelogram ;" the river 
" forming the fourth side on the east. The space thus en- 
closed contains seventeen acres and two-thirds. The comers 
are not rectangular, and the embankment or ridge is not 
straight." "The ridge forming the enclosure is 631 feet 
long at the north end, 1419 feet long on the west side, and 
700 feet on the south side ; making a total length of wall erf 
2750 feet. The ridge or wall is about 22 feet wide, and 
from one foot to five in height. The wall of earth is en- 
larged on the outside, at nearly regular distances, by mounds 
of the same material, They are called buttresses, or bas- 
tions ; but it is quite clear that they were never intended for 
either" the one or the other. They vary from sixty-one 
to ninety-five feet apart, the mean distance being eighty-two 
feet. Near the south-west angle are two outworks, con- 
structed in the same way as the main embankment. 

In many places the earth forming the walls appears to 
have been burnt. " Irregular masses of hard reddish clay, 
fiill of cavities, bear distinct impressions of straiw, or rather 
♦ U p. 181. t P. 41. 


Wild hay, with which they had been mixed before burning/' 
"This is the only foundation for calling these ' brick walls.' 
The ' bricks ' were never made into any regular form, and it 
is even doubtfid whether the burning did not take place in 
the wall after it was built." * Some of the mounds, or but- 
tresses, though forming part of an enclosure, were also used 
for sepulchral purposes, as was proved by their containing 
skeletons in a sitting posture, with fragments of pottery. 
The highest point inside the enclosure is at the south-west 
corner^ and is "occupied by a square truncated mound, 
which .... presents the appearance of a pyramid^ rising 
by successive steps like the gigantic structures of Mexico." 
"At the north-west angle of the enclosure is another rectan- 
gular, truncated, pyramidal elevation,- of sixty-five feet level 
area at the top, with remains of its graded way, or sloping 
ascent, at the south-west comer, leading also towards a ridge 
that extends in the direction of the river/' 

Within the enclosure are some ridges about two feet high, 
and connected with them are several rings, or circles, which 
are supposed to be the remains of mud houses. " Nearly the 
whole interior of the inclosure appears to have been either 
excavated or thrown up into mounds and ridges ; the pits 
and irregular excavations being quite nuiaerous over much 
of the space not occupied by moimds/' These excavations 
and ridges are, in all probability, the ruins of houses. Some 
years ago a skeleton was found in one of the mounds, wrapped 
apparently in cloth of open texture, " Kke the coarsest linen 
&bric ;" but the threads were so entirely rotten, as to make 
it quite uncertain of what material they were made. 

The last Indian occupants of this interesting locality had 
no tradition as to the history or the purpose of these earth- 

• These walls must present some faint resemblance to the celebrated yitrified 
forts of Scotland. 


Among the Northern tribes of existing Indians there do 
not appear to be any earthworks corresponding to these so- 
called Sacred Enclosures. " No sooner, however, do we -pass 
to the southward, and arrive among the -Creeks, Natchez, 
and aflBliated Floridian tribes, than we discover traces of 
structures which, if they do not entirely correspond with the 
regular earthworks of the West, nevertheless seem to be 
somewhat analogous to them.* These tribes, indeed, appear 
to have been more civilised than those of the North, since 
they were agricultural in their habits, lived in considerable 
towns, and had a systematized religion, so that, in fact, they 
must have occupied a position intermediate, as well econo- 
mically as geographically, between the powerful monarchies 
of Central America and the hunting tribes of the North. 
The "structures to which Mr. Squier alludes are described 
by him, both in his ^'Second Memoir," and also in the 
"Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley" (p. 120). 
The "Chunk Yards," now or lately in use among the Creeks, 
and which have only recently been abandoned among the 
Cherokees, are rectangular areas, generally occupying the 
centre of the town, closed at the sides, but with an opening 
at each end. They are sometimes from six to nine himdred 
feet in length, being largest in the older towns. The area is 
levelled and slightly sunk, being surrounded by a low bank 
formed of the earth thus obtained. In the centre is a low 
mound, on which stands the Chunk Pole, to the top of which 
is some object which serves as a mark to shoot at. Near each 
comer at one ond, is a small pole, about twelve feet high ; 
these are called the "slave posts," because in the "good old 
times," captives condemned to the torture were fastened to 
them. The name " Chunk Yard " seems to be derived from 
an Indian game called "Chunke," which was played in them. 
At one end of, and just outside, this area stands generally 
* Squier, Lc, p. 136.. 


a circular eminence, with a flat top, upon which is elevated 
the Great Council House. At the other end is a flat-topped, 
square eminence, about as high as the circular one just men- 
tioned; '^upon this stands the public square." 

These, and other accounts given by early travellers among 
the Indians, certainly throw much light on the circular and 
square enclosures ; some of which, though classed by Messrs. 
Squier and Davis under this head, seem to me to be the 
slight fortifications which surrounded villages, and were un- 
doubtedly crowned by stockades. We have already seen that 
the position of the ditch is in reaUty no argument against 
this view ; nor does the position of the works seem conclusive, 
if we suppose that they were intended less to stand a regular 
siege than to guard against a sudden attack. 

Sepulchral Mounds. 

The Sepulchral mounds are very numerous in the central 
parts of the XJnited States, " To say that they are innumer- 
able in the ordinary sense of the term, would be no exag- 
geration. They may literally be numbered by thousands and 
tens of thousands." They vary from six to eighty feet in 
height ; generally stand outside the enclosures : are often 
kolatedy but often also in groups ; they are usually roimd, 
but sometimes elliptical or pear-shaped. They cover gene- 
rally a single skeleton, which however is often burnt. Oc- 
casionally there is a stone cist, but urn burial also prevailed 
to a considerable extent, especially in the Southern States. 
The corpse was generally buried in a contracted position. 
Implements both of stone and metal occur frequently ; but 
while personal ornaments, such as bracelets, perforated plates 
of copper, beads of bone, shell, or metal, and similar objects, 
are very common, weapons are but rarely found; a fact 
which, in the opinion of Dr. Wilson, '^ indicates a totally 


different condition of society and mode of thought " firom those 
of the present Indian. 

Certain small tumuli found in America have been regarded 
as the remains of mud huts. Mr. Dille* has examined and 
described some small tumuli observed by him in Missouri. 
He dug into several, but never succeeded in finding anything 
except coal, char, and a few pieces of pottery, whence he 
concluded that they were the remains of mud houses.t 
The Mandans, Minatarees, and some other tribes also built 
their huts of earth, resting on a framework of wood. 

On the other hand, there are some tumuli to which it 
would seem that this explanation is quite inapplicable, and 
which are full of human remains. This was long supposed 
to be the case with the great Grave Creek Mound, which 
indeed was positively stated by Atwater, J to be full of human 
remains. This has turned out to be an error, but the state- 
ment is not the less true as regards other mounds. In con- 
junction with them may be mentioned the " bone pits," many 
of which are described by Mr. Squier.§ " One of these pits, 
discovered some years ago in the town of Cambria, Niagara 
county, was estimated to contain the bones of several thou- 
sand individuals. Another which I visited in the town of 
Clarence, Erie coimty, contained not less than four hundred 
skeletons." A tumulus described by Mr. Jefferson in his 
" Notes on Virginia," was estimated to contain the skeletons 
of a thousand individuals, but in this case the number was 
perhaps exaggerated. 

The description given by various old writers of the solemn 
"Festival of the Dead" satis£EU)torily explains these large 
collections of bones. It seems that every eight or teii years 

* Smithsonian Contributions, vol. i. p. 136. 

t Archsologia Americana, vol. i. p. 223. 

t See also Lapham, l,e, p; 80. 

i U. pp. 26, 56, 57, 68, 71, 73, 106, 107. Sqnier and Daiu, l.c, p. 118, etc. 


the Indians used to meet at some place previously chosen, 
that they dug up their dead, collected the bones together, 
and laid them in one common burial place, depositing with 
them fine skins and other valuable articles; Several of these 
ossuaries are described by Schoolcraft.* 

Sacrificial Mounds. 

" The name of Sacrificial Mounds," says Dr. Wilson, " has 
been conferred on a class of ancient monuments, altogether 
peculiar to the New World, and highly illustrative of the 
rites and customs of the ancient races of the mounds. This 
remarkable class of moimds has been very careftdly explored, 
and their most noticeable characteristics are, their almost 
invariable occurrence within enclosures ; their regular con- 
struction in uniform layers of gravel, earth, and sand, disposed 
alternately in strata conformable to the shape of the moimd ; 
and their covering a symmetrical altar of burnt clay or stone, 
on which are deposited numerous relics, in all instances ex- 
hibiting traces, more or less abundant, of their having been 
exposed to the action of fire." The so-caUed "altar" is a 
basin, or table, of burnt clay, carefully formed into a sym-- 
metrical form, but varying much both in shape and size. 
Some are round, some elliptical, and others squares or paral- 
lelograms, while in size they vary from two feet to fifty feet 
by twelve or fifteen. The usual dimensions, however, are 
from five to eight feet. They are almost always found within 
sacred enclosures ; of the whole number examined by Messrs. 
Squier and Davis there were only four which were exterior 
to the walls of enclosures, and these were but a few rods 
distant from them. 

The "altar" is always on a level with the natural soil, 
and bears traces of long continued heat ; in one instance, 

• u p. 101 


where it appears to have been formed of sand^ instead of 
clay, the sand for a depth of two inches is discoloured as if 
fatty matter of some sort had been burned on it. In this 
case a second deposit of sand had been placed on the first, 
and upon this stones a little larger than a hen's egg were 
arranged, so as to form a pavement, which strongly reminds 
us of the ancient hearths in the Danish Kjokkenmoddings. 

In a few instances, traces of timber were found above 
the altar. Thus in one of the twenty-six tumuli forming 
the "Mound City" on the Scioto River, were a nimiber of 
pieces of timber, four or five feet long, and six or eight 
inches thick. "These pieces had been of nearly uniform 
length ; and this circumstance, joined to the position in 
which they occurred in respect to each other and to the 
altar, would almost justify the inference that they had sup- 
ported some funeral or sacrificial pile."* The contents of 
these mounds vary very much. The one just mentioned 
contained a quantity of pottery and many implements of 
stone and copper, all of which had been subjected to a strong 
heat. The pottery may have formed a dozen vessels of 
moderate size. The copper articles consisted of two chisels, 
and about twenty thin strips. About fifty or a hundred 
stone arrow-heads, some flakes, and two carved pipes, com- 
pleted the list of articles found in this interesting tumulus. 
In another mound nearly two hundred pipes were buried. 
Generally speaking, the deposit is homogeneous. " That is 
to say, instead of finding a large variety of relics, ornaments, 
weapons, and other articles, such as go to make up the pos- 
sessions of a barbarian dignitary, we find upon one altar 
pipes only, upon another a single mass of galena, while 'the 
next one has a quantity of pottery, or a collection of spear 
heads, or else is destitute of remaius, except perhaps a thin 
layer of carbonaceous material. Such could not possibly be 
* Squier and Davis, Le, p. 161. 


the case upon the above hypothesis, for the spear, the arrows, 
the pipe, and the other implements, and personal ornaments 
of the dead, would then be found in connection with each 

This conclusion does not seem altogether satis&ctory ; 
and although these altar-containing mounds differ in so 
many respects firom the aboye-described tumuli, I still feel 
disposed to regard them as sepulchral rather than sacrificial. 
Not having, however, had the advantage of examining them 
for myself, I throw this out as a suggestion, rather than 
express it as an opinion. It is difficult to understand why 
'' altars" should be covered up in this manner ; I can call 
to mind no analogous case. On the oilier hand, if Professor 
Nilsson's suggestion with reference to ancient tumuli be 
correct, the long continued fire will offer no difficulty. 
Among the Buraets, for instance, the hearth is made of 
beaten earth, on which a good fire is kept blazing at all 
times.t Such a house, if used finally as a sepulchre, would 
present an altar very much like those above described ; while 
the wooden constructions and the burnt bones will all be ex- 
plicable on the hypothesis i^t we have before us a sepulchre, 
rather than a temple. 

Nor does the " homogeneousness^' of the deposits found in 
these mounds appear so decisive to me as to Messrs. Squier 
and Davis. Take, for instance, the cases in which pipes are 
found. The execution of these is so good that '* pipe- 
carving" was no doubt a profession ; the division of labor 
must have already begun. Exactly the same feeling which 
induces many savage races to bury weapons with the dead 
hunter, in order that he may supply himself with food in 
Hades as on earth ; that feeling, which among some ancient 
nations suggested the placing of money in the grave, would 
accoimt not only for the presence of these pipes, but also 
• Squier and Dayis, p. 160. f Eman. i.e, yoI. ii. p. 408. 


for their number. The hunter could use but few weapons, 
and must depend for success mainly on his strength and 
skill ; whereas the pipe-seller^ if he could dispose of a pipe 
at all in the grave, might render his whole stock-in-trade* 

I have already mentioned the great number of objects- 
found in the Grave Greek Moimd, which was undoubtedly 
sepidchral, and in which one of the skeletons was accom- 
panied by seventeen hundred bone beads, five hundred seaf- 
shells, and one hundred and fifty pieces of mica, besides 
other objects. Many flakes, arrow-heads, etc.,. have been at 
times found in tumuli, so that the mere number of objects 
seems no argument against the sepulchral nature of these 
so-called " sacrificial mounds.^ 

If, therefore, " the accumulated carbonaceous matter, like 
that formed by the ashes of leaves or grass," which suggests 
to Professor Wilson " the graceful offerings of the first-fruits 
of the earth, so consonant to the milder forms of ancient 
sacrifice instituted in recognition of the Lord of the Har- 
vest," seems to me only the framework of the house, or the 
material of the funeral pyre ; on the other hand, I avoid 
the conclusion to which he is driven,, that on " the altars of 
the mound-builders, human sacrifices^ were made ; and that 
within their sacred enclosures were practised rites not less 
hideous than those which characterised the worship which 
the ferocious Aztecs are affirmed to have regarded as most 
acceptable to their sanguinary gods." 

Temple Mounds^ 

The class oi mounds^ called by Messrs-; Sqxiier and Davis 
"Temple Mounds," "are pyramidal structures, truncated, 
and generally having graded avenues to their tops. In some 
instances they are terraced, or have successive stages. But 
whatever their form, whether round, oval, octangular, square, 


or oblong, they have inTariably flat or level tope, of greater 
or less area." These mounds much resemble the Teocallis of 
Mexico, and had probably a simOar origin. They are rare 
in the North, though examples oocnr even as fisir as Lake 
Superior, but become more and more numerous as we pass 
down the Mississippi, and especially on approaching the 
Ghilf, where they constitute the most numerous and im- 
portant portion of the ancient remains. Some of the largest, 
however, are situated in the North. One of the most re- 
markable is at Gahokia, in Illinois. This gigantic mound is 
stated to be seven hundred feet long. Jive hundred feet wide at 
the base, and ninety feet in height. Its soUd contents have 
been roughly estimated at twenty millions of cubic feet. 

Probably, however, these mounds were not used as tem- 
ples only, but alao as sites for dwellings, especially for those 
of the chiefs. We are told that among the Natchez Indians 
*' the temples and the dwellings of the chie& were raised 
upon mounds, and for every new chief a new mound and 
dwelling were constructed." Again, G(arcilego de la Vega, 
in his History of Florida, quoted by Mr. Haven,* says — 
** The town and house of the Cacique of Osachile are similar 
to those of all other caciques in Florida, and, therefore, it 
seems best to give one description that will apply generally 
to all the capitals, and all the houses of the chiefs in Florida. 
I say, then, that the Indians endeavour to place their towns 
upon elevated places ; but because such situations are rare in 
Florida, or that they find a difficulty in procuring suitable 
materials for building, they raise eminences in this manner. 
They choose a place to which they bring a quantity of earth, 
which they elevate into a kind of platform two or three pikes 
in height (firom eighteen to twenty-five feet), of which the 
flat top is capable of holding ten or twelve, fifteen or 
twenty houses, to lodge the cacique, his family, aud suite.f 
* le, p. 57. t See also Schoolcraft, fx» yol. iii. p. 47. 


Animal Mounds. 

Not the least remarkable of the American antiquities are 
the Animal Mounds, which are principally, though not ex- 
clusively, found in Wisconsin* In this district ^thousands 
of examples occur of -gigantic basso-relievos of mem, beasts^ 
birds, and reptiles, all wrought with persevering labor on the 
surface of the soil,'' while enclosures and works of defence 
are almost entirely wanting, the " ancient city of Aztalan ^' 
being, as is supposed, the only example of the fonner class. 

The "Animal Mounds" were discovered by Mr. Lapham 
in 1836, and described in the newspapers of the day, but the 
first account of them in any scientific journal was that by 
Mr. R. C. Taylor, in the American Journal of Science and 
Art, for April, 1838. In 1843 a longer memoir, by Mr. S. 
Taylor, appeared in the same journal. Professor J. Locke 
gave some account of them in a "Report on the Mineral 
Lands of the United States," presented to Congress in 1840. 
Messrs. Squier and Davis devoted to the same subject a part 
of their work on the " Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi 
VaUey;" and finally, the seventh volimie of the Smithsonian 
Contributions contains the work, by Mr. Lapham, which 
gives the most complete account of these interesting remains. 

Mr. Lapham gives a map, showing the distribution of 
these curious earthworks. They appear to be most numerous 
in the southern coimties of Wisconsin ; and extend from the 
Mississippi to Lake Michigan, following generally the courses 
of the river, and being especially nimierous along the great 
Indian trail, or war-path, from Lake Michigan, near Mil- 
waukie, to the Mississippi, above the Prairie du Chien. This, 
however, does not prove any connection between the present 
Indians and the mounds ; the same line has been adopted 
as the route of the United States military road, and may 
have been in use for an indefinite period. 


The mounds themselyes not only represent animals, such 
as men, buffidoes, elks, bears, otters, wolves, raccoons, birds, 
serpents, lizards, turtles, and frogs, but also some inanimate 
objects, if at least the American archaeologists are right in 
regarding some of them as crosses, tobacco-pipes, etc. 

Many of the representations are spirited and correct, but 
others, probably through the action of time, are less definite ; 
one, for instance, near the village of Muscoda, may be either 
"a bird, a bow and arrow, or the human figure." Their 
height varies from one to four feet, sometimes, however, 
rising to six feet, and as a '^ regular elevation of six inches 
can be readily traced upon the level prairies " of the West, 
their outlines are generally distinctly defined where they 
occupy favorable positions. It seems probable that many of 
the details have disappeared under the action of rain and 
vegetation." At present a "man" consists generally of a 
head and body, two long arms, and two short legs, no other 
details being visible. The "birds" diflfer from the "men" 
principally in the absence of legs. The so-called " lizards," 
which are among the most common forms, have a head, two 
legs, and a long tail ; the side view being represented, as is, 
indeed, the case with most of the quadrupeds. 

One remarkable group in Dale County, close to the Great 
Indian trail, consists of a man with extended arms, seven 
more or less elongated mounds, one timiulus and six quadru- 
peds. The length of the human figure is one hundred and 
twenty-five feet, and it is one hundred and forty feet from 
the extremity of one arm to that of the other. The quadru- 
peds vary from ninety to a hundred and twenty-six feet in 

At Waukesha are a number of mounds, tumuli, and ani- 
mals, including several "lizards," a* very fine "bird," and a 
magnificent "turtle." "This, when first observed, was a 
very fine specimen of the art of mound-building, with its 


graceful curyes, the feet projecting back and forward, and 
the tail, with its gradual slope, so acutely pointed, that it 
was impossible to ascertain precisely where it terminated. 
The body was fifty-six feet in length, and the tail two hun- 
dred and fifty ; the height six feet.*' This group of mounds 
is now, alas, covered with buildings. "A dwelling-house 
stands on the body of the turtle, and a Catholic church is 
built upon the tail." 

"But,*' says Mr. Lapham, "the most remarkable collec- 
tion of lizards and turtles yet discovered is on the school 
section, about a mile and a half south-east from the village 
of Pewaukee. This consists of seven turtles, two lizards, 
four oblong mounds, and one of the remarkable excavations 
before alluded to. One of the turtle mounds, partially 
obliterated by the road, has a length of four hundred and 
fifty feet, being nearly double the usual dimensions. Three 
of them are remarkable for their curved tails, a feature here 
first observed.'* 

In several places a very curious variation occurs. The 
animals, with the usual form and size, are represented not in 
relief, but in intaglio ; not by a mound, but by an excavation. 

The few " animal mounds " which have been observed out 
of Wisconsin differ in many respects from the ordinary type. 
Near Granville, in Ohio, on a high spur of land, is an earth- 
work known in the neighbourhood as the " Alligator. '* It 
has a head and body, four sprawling legs, and a curled tail 
The total length is two hundred and fifty feet ; the breadth 
of the body forty feet, and the length of the legs thirty-six 
feet. "The head, shoulders, and rump are more elevated 
than the other parts of the body, an attempt having evidently 
been made to preserve the proportions of the object copied." 
The average height is four feet, at the shoulders six. Even 
more remarkable is the great serpent in Adams County, 
Ohio. It is situated on a high spur of land, which rises 


a hundred and fifty feet above Brush Creek. "Con- 
fonning to the curve of the hill, and occupying its very 
summit, is the serpent, its head resting near the point, and 
its body winding back for seven hundred feet, in graceful 
undulations, terjninating in a triple coil at the tail. The 
entire length, if extended, would be not less than one 
thousand feet. The ^accompanying plan, laid down from 
accurate survey, can alone give an adequate conception of 
the outline of the work, which is clearly and boldly defined, 
the embankment being upwards of five feet in height by 
thirty feet base at the centre of the body, but diminishing 
somewhat toward the head and tail. The neck of the ser- 
pent is stretched out, and slightly curved, and its mouth is 
opened wide, as if in the apt of swallowing or ejecting an 
oval figure, which rests partially within the distended jaws. 
This oval is formed by an embankment of earth, without 
any perceptible opening, four feet in height, and is per- 
fectly regular in outline, its transverse a?id conjugate 
diameters bjBing ;pne hundred and sixty, and eighty feet 
' respectively.'* 

When, why, or by whom these remarkable works were 
erected, as yet we know not. The present Indians, though 
they look upon them with reverence, can throw no light 
upon their origin. Nor do the contents of the mounds 
themselves assist us in this inquiry. Several of them have 
been opened, and in making the streets of Milwaukie many 
of the mounds have been entirely removed, but the only 
result has been to show that they are not sepulchral, and 
that, excepting by accident, they contain no implements or 

Under these circumstances speculation would be useless.; 
we can but wait, and hope that time and perseverance may 
solve the problem, and explain the nature of these remark* 
able and mysterious monuments. 




There is one class of objects whicli I have not yet men- 
tioned, and which yet ought not to be left entirely unnoticed. 

The most remarkable of these is the celebrated Dighton 
Rock on the east bank of the Taunton River. Its history, 
and the various conclusions which have been derived from it, 
are very amusingly given by Dr. Wilson.* In 1783, the 
Rev. Ezra Stiles, D.D., President of Yale College, when 
preaching before the Governor of the State of Connecticut, 
appealed to this rock, inscribed, as he believed, with Phceni- 
cian characters, for a proof that the Indians were descended 
from Canaan, and were therefore accursed. Count de 
Gebelin regarded the inscription as Carthaginian. In the 
eighth volume of the " ArchaBologia," Colonel Vallency en- 
deavours to prove that it is Siberian ; while certain Danish 
antiquaries regarded it as Runic, and thought that they 
could read the name " Thorfinn," " with an exact, though by 
no means so manifest, enumeration of the associates who, 
according to the Saga, accompanied Karlsefiie's expedition to 
Vinland, in a.d. 1007." Finally, Mr. Schoolcraft submitted 
a copy of it to Chingwauk, an intelligent Indian chief, who 
"interpreted it as the record of an Indian triumph over 
some rival native tribe," but without offering any opinion as 
to its antiquity. 

In the " Grave Creek Mound" was found a small oval 
disk of white sandstone, on which were engraved twenty-two 
letters. Mr. Schoolcraft, who has especially studied this relic, 
finally concludes, after corresponding with many American 
and European archaeologists, according to Dr. Wilson,t 
that of these twenty-two letters, four corresponded "with 
ancient Greek, four with the Etruscan, five with the old 
Northern Runes, six with the ancient Gaelic, seven with the 
• Pre-hifitoric Man, ii. p. 172. f Do. vol. iL p. 180. 

WAMPUM. 227 

old Erse, ten with tlie Phcoiucian, fourteen with the Anglo- 
Saxon, and sixteen with the Celtiberic ; besides which pos- 
sibly equivalents may be found in the old Hebrew. It thus 
appears that this ingenious little stone is even more accom- 
modating than the Dighton Bock, in adapting itself to all 
conceivable theories of ante-columbian colonisation." A 
stone of such doubtful character could prove little under any 
circumstances ; but it must also be mentioned that " Dr. 
James W. Clemens communicated to Dr. Morton all the 
details of the exploration of the Grave Creek Moimd ; . . 
. . without any reference to the discovery of the inscribed 
stone. Nor was it till the excavated vault had been fitted 
up by its proprietor for exhibition, to all who cared to pay 
for the privilege of admission, that the marvellous iuscrip- 
tion opportunely came to light to add to the attractions of 
the show." 

One or two other equally doubtful cases are upon record, 
but upon the whole we may safely assert that there is no 
reason to suppose that the nations of America had developed for 
themselves anything corresponding to an alphabet. The art of 
picture- writiQg, which they shared with the Aztecs and the 
Quipa of the Peruvians, was supplemented among the North 
American Indians by the " wampum." This curious substi- 
tute for writing consisted of variously-coloured beads, gene- 
rally worked upon leather. One very interesting example 
is the belt of wampum "delivered by the Lenni Lenape 
Sachems to the founder of Pennsylvania, at the Great Treaty, 
under the elm-tree at Shachamox in 1682." It is still pre- 
served iu the collection of the Historical Society at Phila- 
delphia, and consists of "eighteen strings of wampum formed 
of white and violet beads worked upon leather thongs," the 
v^hole forming a belt twenty-eight inches long, and two-and- 
a-half broad. " On this five patterns are worked in violet 
beads on a white ground, and in the centre Penn is repre- 



sented taking the hand of the Indian Sachem." "Hie large 
number of beads found in some of the tmnnli were perhaps 
in a similar manner intended to commemorate the actions 
and virtues of the dead. 


Just as the wigwam of the recent Mandan consisted of an 
outer layer of earth supported on a wooden framework, so 
also, in the ancient septddkiral tumuli, the body was pro- 
tected only by beams and planks ; when therefore these latter 
decayed, the earth sank in and crushed the skeleton within. 
Partly from this cause, and partly from the habit of burying 
in ancient tumuU, which makes it sometimes difficult to dis- 
tinguish the primary from secondary interments, it happens 
that from so many thousand tmnuK we have only three well- 
preserved skulls which indisputably belong to the ancient 
race. These are decidedly brachycephalic ; but it is evident 
that we must not attempt to build much upon so sHght a 

No proof of a knowledge of letters, no trace of a burnt 
brick, have yet been discovered, and so far as we may judge 
from their arms, ornaments, and pottery, the mound-builders 
closely resembled some at least of the recent Indian tribes; and 
the earthworks agree in form with, if they differ in magnitude 
from, those still, or untU lately, in use. Yet this very magni- 
tude is sufficient to show that, at some early period, the great 
river valleys of the United States must have been more 
densely populated than they were when first discovered by 
Europeans. The immense number of small earthworks, and 
the mounds, " which may be counted by thousands and tens 
of thousands," might indeed be supposed to indicate either a 
long time or a great population ; but in other cases we have 
no such alternative. The Newark constructions ; the mound 
near Florence in Alabama, which is forty-five feet in height 


by four hundred and forty feet in circumference at the base, 
with a level area at the summit of one hundred and fifty feet 
in circumference; the still greater mound on the Etowah 
river, also in Alabama, which has a height of more than 
seventy-five feet, with a circumference of twelve hundred 
feet at the base, and one hundred and forty at the summit ; 
the embankments at the mouth of the Scioto river, which are 
estimated to be twenty miles in length ; the great mound at 
SeLserstown, Mississippi, which covers six acres of ground ; 
and the trimcated pyramid at Gahokia, to which we have 
already alluded ; these works, and many others which might 
have been quoted, indicate a population both large and 
stationary ; for which hunting cannot have supplied enough 
food, as it haa been estimated that in a forest country each 
hunter requires an area of not less than 60,000 acres for his 
support; and which must, therefore, have derived its sup- 
port in a great measure from agriculture. " There is not,*' 
say Messrs. Squier and Davis, "and there was not in the 
(Sixteenth century, a single tribe of Indians (north of the 
semi-civilised nations) between the Atlantic and the Pacific, 
which had means of subsistence sufficient to*enable them to 
apply, for such purposes, the unproductive labor 'necessary 
for the work ; nor was there any in such a social state as to 
compel the labor of the people to be thus applied.'' We 
know also that many, if not most of the Indian tribes, at 
that time still cultivated the ground to a certain extent, and 
th^e is some evidence that even within historic times this 
was more the case than at present. Thus De Nonville 
estimates the amount of Indian com destroyed by him in 
four Seneca villages at 1,200,000 quarters. 

Mr. Lapham* has brought forward some ingenious reasons 
for thinking that the forests of Wisconsin were at no very 
distant period much less general than at present. In the 

• u p. 90. 


first place^ the largest trees are probably not more than 
five hundred years old; and large tracts are now covered 
with " yonng trees^ where there are no traces of antecedent 
growth." Every year many trees are blown down, and fre- 
quent storms pass through the forest, throwing down nearly 
everything before them. Mr. Lapham gives a map of these 
windfalls in one district ; they are very conspicuous, firstly, 
because the trees, having a certain quantity of earth en- 
tangled among their roots, continue to vegetate for several 
years ; and, secondly, because even when the trees themselves 
have died and rotted away, the earth so torn up forms little 
mounds, which are often mistaken by the inexperienced for 
Indian graves. "From the paucity of these little 'tree- 
mounds,^ we infer that no very great antiquity can be as- 
signed to the dense forests of Wisconsin, for during a long 
period of time, with no material change of cKmate, we would 
expect to find great numbers of these little monuments of 
ancient storms scattered everywhere over the ground.** 

But there is other more direct evidence of ancient agri- 
culture. In many places the ground is covered with small 
mammillary elevations, which are known as Indian com- 
hills. " They are without order of arrangement, being scat- 
tered over the ground with the greatest irregularity. That 
these hillocks were formed in the manner indicated by their 
name, is inferred from the present custom of the Indians. 
The com is planted in the same spot each successive year, 
and the soil is gradually brought up to the size of a little hill 
by the annual additions."* But Mr. Lapham has also found 
traces of an earlier and more systematic cultivation. These 
consist " of low, parallel ridges, as if com had been planted 
in drills. They average four feet in width, twenty-five of 
them having been counted in the space of a hundred feet ; 
and the depth of the walk between them is about six inches. 
* Lapham, Le. p. 19. 


These appearances, which are here denominated 'ancient 
garden-beds/ indicate an earlier and more perfect system of 
cultivation than that which now prevails; for the present 
Indians do not appear to possess the ideas of taste and order 
necessary to enable them to arrange objects in consecutive 
rows. Traces of this kind of cultivation, though not very 
abundant, are found in several other parts of the State (Wis- 
consin). The garden beds are of various sizes,^ covering, 
generally, from twenty to one hundred acres. Some of them 
are reported to embrace even three hundred acres. As a 
general fact, they exist in the richest soil, as it is found 
in the prairies and bun oak plains. In the latter case, trees 
of the largest kind are scattered over them." 


In the "Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley " it 
is stated that no earthwork has ever been found on the first 
or lowest terrace of any of the great rivers, and that " this 
observation is confirmed by aU who have given attention to 
the subject." If true, this would, indeed, have indicated a 
great antiquity, but in his subsequent work Mr. Squier in- 
forms us that "they occur indiscriminately upon the first and 
upon the. superior terraces, as also upon the islands of the 
lakes and rivers." Messrs Squier and Davis* are of opinion 
that the decayed state of the skeletons found in the mounds 
may enable us to form " some approximate estimate of their 
remote antiquity," especially when we consider that the earth 
roimd them " is wonderfully compact and dry, and that the 
conditions for their preservation are exceedingly favorable." 
" In the barrows of the ancient Britons," they add, " entire 
well preserved skeletons are found, although possessing an 
undoubted antiquity of at least eighteen hundred years." 
Pr, Wilson f also relies much on this fact, which, in his 
• l,c, p, 168. t Ic. vol. i. p. 369. 


opinion, "fiimishes a stronger evidence of -their grfeat an- 
ticfuity than any of the proofs that have been derived either 
fiom the age of a subsequent forest growth, or the changes 
wrought on the river terraces where they most abound.^' It 
is true that the bones in Stone age graves are odflen extremely 
well pressrved ; but it is equaDy true that those in Saxon 
barrows have in many cases entirely perished. In fact^ 
the condition g£ ancient bones depends so mueh cki the 
oircnmstances in which they have been placed^ that we 
must not attribnte mueh importance to this argument. The 
e^dence derived from the forests is more reliable. Thus 
Captain Peck* observed near the Ontonagon river„ and at a 
depth of twenty-five feet^ some stone mauls and other imple- 
ments in contact with a vein of copp^. Above these was the 
fallen trunk of a large cedar^ and ^over all grew a hemlock 
tree, the roots of which spread entirely above the Mien 

tree '^ and indicated> in his estimation, a growth of 

not less than three centuries^ to which must then be added 
the age of the cedar> which indicates a still ^' longer succession 
oi centuries, subsequent to that protracted period during 
which the deserted trench Vra^. slowly filled up with accumu- 
lations of many winters/* 

The late President Hariison, m an address to the Historical 
Society of Ohio, made some very interesting remarks on 
this subject, which are quoted by Messrs. Squier and Davis.f 
"The process,*' he says, "by which nature restores the 
forest to its original state, after being once cleared^ is ex- 
tremely slow. The rich lands of the west are,, indeed, soon 
covered again, but the character of the growth is entirely 
different, and continues so for a long period. In several 
places upon the Ohio, and upon the farm which I occupy^ 
clearings were made in the first settlement of the country^ 
and subsequently abandoned and suffered to grow up. Som^ 
• Wilson, L§, vol. i. p. 256. f U p. SOS. 


of these new forests are now sure of fifty years' growth, but 
they have made so Kttle progress towards attaining the ap- 
pearance of the immediately contiguous forest, as to induce 
any man of reflection to determine that at least ten times 
fifty years must elapse before their complete assimilation can 
be effected. We find in the ancient works all that variety 
of trees which give such unrivalled beauty to our forests, in 
natural proportions. The first growth on the same kind of 
land, once cleai^ed and then abandoned to nature, on the con- 
trary, is nearly homogeneou8> often stinted to one or two, at 
most three kinds of timber. If the ground has been cul- 
tivated, the yellow locust will thickly spring up ; if not 
cultivated the black and white walnut will be the prevailing 

growth Of what immense age, th^i, must be 

the works so often referred to, covered- as they are by at 
least the second growth, after the primitive forest state was 

We get another indication of antiquity in the "garden 
beds," which we have already described. This system of cul- 
tivation has long been replaced by the simple and irregular 
" comhills ;" and yet, according to Mr. Lapham,* the garden 
beds are much more recent than the moimds, across which 
they sometimes extend in the same manner as over the 
adjoining grounds. If, therefore, these moimds belong to the 
same era as those which are covered witii wood, we get thus 
indications of three periods; the first, that of the mounds 
themselves ; the second, that of the garden beds ; and the 
third, that of the forests. 

But American agriculture was not imported from abroad; 
it res\dted from, and in return rendered possible, the gradual 
development of American semi-civilisation. This is proved 
by the fact, that the grains of the Old World were entirely 
absent, and that American agriculture was founded on the 

• le. p. 19. 


maize, an American plant. Thus, therefore, we appear to 
have indications of four long periods. 

1. That in which, from an original barbarism, the Ameri- 
can tribes developed a knowledge of agriculture and a power 
of combination. 

2. That in which for the first time, mounds were erected, 
and other great works imdertaken. 

3. The age of the " garden beds," which occupy some at 
least of the mounds. Hence it is probable that these par- 
ticular "garden beds" were not in use until after the 
mounds had lost their sacred character in the eyes of the 
occupants of the soil; for it can hardly be supposed that 
works executed with so much care would be thus desecrated 
by their builders. 

4. The period in which man relapsed into partial bar- 
barism; and the spots which had been first forest, then, 
perhaps, sacred monuments, and thirdly cultivated ground, 
relapsed into forest once more. 

But even if we attribute to these changes all the im- 
portance which has ever been claimed for them^ they will not 
require an antiquity of more than three thousand years. I 
do not, of course, deny that the period may have be«a very 
much greater, but^ in my opinion at least, it need not be 
greater. At the same time there are other observations, 
which, if they shall eventually prove to be correct, would 
indicate a very much higher antiquity. 

One of these is an account* by Dr. A. C. Koch of a mas- 
todon found in Gasconade County, Missouri, which had 
apparently been stoned to death by the Indians, and then 
partially consumed by fire. The fire, he says, was evidently 
" not an accidental one, but, on the contrary, it had been 
kindled by human agency, and, According to all appearance, 
with the design of killing the huge creature, which- had been 
* Trans, of the Academy of ficience of St. Louis. 1857. P. 61. 


found mired in the mud and in an entirely helpless condition. 

AU the bones which had not been burnt by the fire had kept 
their original position^ standing upright and apparently quite 
undisturbed in the clay; whereas those portions, which had 
been exposed above the surface, had been partially consumed 
by the fire. . 

There were, also, foimd mingled with these ashes and bones, 
and partly protruding out of them, a large numbe,r of broken 
pieces of rock, which had evidently been carried thither 
from the shore of the Bourbense river, to be hurled at the 
animal by his destroyers ; for the above-mentioned layer of 
clay was entirely void of even the smallest pebbles : whereas, 
on going to the river, I found the stratum of clay cropping 
out at the bank, and resting on a layer of shelving rocks of 
the same kind as the fragments ; from which place, it was 
evident they had been carried to the scene of action. . 

I found, also, among the ashes, bones, and rocks, several 
arrow-heads, a stone spear-head, and some stoneaxes." 

In a second case the same writer assures us that he found 
several stone arrow-heads mingled with the bones of a mas- 
todon. " One of the arrow-heads lay underneath the thigh- 
bone of the skeleton, the bone actually resting in contact 
upon it ; so that it could not have been brought thither 
after the deposit of the bone; a fact which I was careful 
thoroughly to investigate." 

In the vaUey of the Mississippi, Dr. Dickeson, of Natchez, 
found the 08 innominatum of a man with some bones of 
the Mastodon ohioticus, which had fallen from the side of 
a cliff undermined by a rivulet ; but, as Sir C. Lyell has 
already pointed out, it is perfectly possible that this bone 

236 DiL douleb's calculation. 

may have been derived from one of the Indian graves, whicli 
are very numerous in this locality. Again, Count Pourtalis has 
found some human bones in a calcareous conglomerate, esti- 
mated by Agassiz to be ten thousand years old ; and finally, 
Dr. Douler obtained, from an excavation near "New Orleans, 
some charcoal and a human skeleton, to which he is inclined 
to attribute an antiquity of no less than fifty thousand years. 
None of these cases, however, can be regarded as entirely con- 
clusive ; and on the whole, though the idea is certainly much 
less improbable than it was some years ago, there does not 
as yet appear to be any satisfactory proof that man co-existed 
in America with the mammoth and mastodon. 

If, however, the fects above recorded justify the conclusion 
that parts, at least, of North America once supported a nu- ' 
merous and agricultural population, then we cannot but 
ask. What fatal cause destroyed this earlier civilisation ? 
Why were these fortifications forsaken — ^these cities in ruins ? 
How were the populous nations which once inhabited the rich 
American valleys reduced to the poor tribes of savages which 
the Europeans found there P Did the North and South once 
before rise up in arms . against one another ? " Did the 
terrible appellation of ' The Dark and Bloody Land,' appUed 
to Kentucky, commemorate these ancient wars?'* Absit 
omen. Let us hope that our kinsmen in America may yet 
pause ere they, in like manner, sacrifice a common prosperity 
to a mutual hatred. 




rE principal species of mammalia, whicli have either 
become entirely distinct, or very much restricted in 
their geographical distribution, since the appearance of man 
in Europe, are — 

The cave-bear (Uraus fpekem). 

The cave-hyasna {Hytma spelwa). 

The cave-tiger {Felts ^peksa). 

The mammoth {Elephas primigeniuB). 

The wooUy-haired rhinoceros {Rhinoceros tichorinus). 

The hippopotamus {Hippopotamus major). 

The Irish elk {Megaceros hibemicus). 

The musk ox {Ocibos moschaius). 

The reindeer {Cervus tarandus). 

The aurochs {JBisan Europcem). 

The urus {Bos primigenius). 
The first seven of these appear to be entirely extinct, but 
as it is now evident that their disappearance was due to a 
gradual change of circiunstances, rather than to any sudden 
cataclysm, or general destruction of life, it is also very im- 
probable that their extinction was sim\iltaneous ; and, acting 
on this idea, M. Lartet has attempted* to construct a palaeon- 
tological chronology. 

The remains of the cave-bear are abundant in Central 

« Ann. des Sci. Nat. 1861, p. 217. 


Europe, and in the Southern parts of Russia. It is doubtful 
whether it has yet been discovered north of the Baltic or 
south of the Alps, but it appears to have crossed the Alps, 
and is recorded by Don Casciano de Prado as occurring in a 
cave near Segovia. No trace of it has, however, yet been 
found by Mr. Busk and Dr. Falconer, among the numerous 
remains from Gibraltar. The oldest specimen yet recorded 
appears to be that mentioned by Owen, as having been found 
in the pliocene deposits of Boston in Norfolk, associated with 
the remains of Trogontherium, PalcsospalaXy etc.* It is also 
included in the lists of species found near Abbeville, but 
M. Lartet thinks there nxust be some mistake about this, 
as he has been imable to find a single bone of this species 
in any of the collections from the Somme vaUey ; and of all 
the quaternary mammalia, he regards the cave-bear as having 
been the one which was the first to perish. Subsequent in- 
vestigations have proved, however, that it does occur, though 
sparingly, in the river-drift gravels. 

The cave-hysDna, and cave-tiger, are found associated with 
the Ursua spelceus in the caverns. They have also been dis- 
covered by M. Delesse, with the aurochs and the woolly- 
haired rhinoceros, in a bed which M. Delesse refers to the 
lower layers of the Diluvium. They do not appear to have 
been as yet met with in the upper layers of the river-drift 
gravels, or in the peat bogs. 

On the other hand, M. Lartet hints that the lions of 
Thessaly, which, according to Herodotus, attacked the beasts 
of burden attached to the army of Xerxes,t may possibly 
have belonged to this species. Nay, more, he quotes the 
opinion of Dr. Falconer, that the large Felis of Northern 
China and the Altai mountains has been too hastily referred 

* History of British Fossil Mammals and Birds, p. 106. 
t See also Mr. A. Newton's interesting Memoir on the Zoology of Ancient 
Europe. Gam. Phil. Soc, Mar. 1862. 


to the Felia tigris, and that it may eventually prove to be 
the lineal descendant and living representative of the 
F. spekea. 

The geographical range of the mammoth was very ex- 
tensive. Its remains are found in North America, from 
Behring's Straits to South Carolina, and in the old con- 
tinent, from the furthest extremity of Siberia, to the extreme 
west of Europe ; it crossed the Alps, and established itself 
in Italy, but it has not yet been discovered south of the 
Pyrenees. Neither the mammoth nor the woolly-haired 
rhinoceros have been found in any stratum anterior to the 
river-drift gravels. M. Lartet, however, follows Murchi- 
son, De Vemeuil, and Keyserling in believing that these 
animals lived in Siberia long before they found their way 
into Europe ; that, in fact, they belonged to the tertiary fauna 
of Northern Asia, though they did not make their appear- 
ance in Europe until the quaternary period. So far then as 
Europe is concerned, these two species seem to have made 
their appearance at a later date, and they perhaps survived 
a more recent period than the Uraus spelwus. 

They are, indeed, very characteristic of the river-drift de- 
. posits, and are found also in the loess of the Rhine and its 
principal tributaries, but they have not yet been met with in 
the peat bogs. They never occur in the Kjokkenmoddinffs, 
the Lake-habitations, or the tumuli, nor is there the slightest 
tradition which can be regarded as indicating, even in the 
most obscure manner, a recollection of the existence ii^ 
Europe of these two gigantic Pachyderms. 

The magnificent Irish elk, or Megaceros hibernicm, which 
attained a height of ten feet four inches, with horns mea- 
suring eleven feet from tip to tip, appears to have had a 
much more restricted range. Its remains have been found 
in Germany as far as Silesia, in France down to the Pyrenees, 
and it appears even to have crossed the Alps. It seems, 


however, to have been most abundant in the Brit^h Isles, 
and especially in Ireland, It has been found at Walton, in 
Essex, and at Happisburgh, in strata which are considered to 
belong to the Norwich Crag, and must originally, therefore, 
have belonged to the tertiary fauna. It is reported to have 
been frequently found, in peat bogs, but Professor Owen, who 
made numerous inquiries on the subject, believes that, in 
reality, the bones generally occur in the lacustrine shell marl, 
which underlies the peat or bog earth.* 

In the Niebelungen Lied of the twelfth century, a mys- 
terious animal is mentioned under the name of schelch : 

After this he straightway slew a bison and an elk, 
Of the strong nri four, and one fierce, schelch. 

It has been supposed by some writers that the schelch was, 
in fact, the Megaceroa hibemicus. There is, however, no suf- 
ficient reason for this hypothesis, and we must remember that 
the same poem, as Dr. Buckland well pointed out, contains 
allusions to giants, dwarfs, pigmies, and fire-dragons. Neither 
Caesar nor Tacitus mention the Irish elk, and they would 
surely not have omitted such a remarkable animal, if it had 
existed in their time. Moreover, though there is no longer 
any doubt that this species coexisted with man, the evidence 
of this has been obtained from the bone-caves, and from 
strata belonging to the age of the river-drift gravels. 

No remains of the Irish elk have yet been found in asso- 
ciation with bronze, nor indeed are we aware of any which 
can be referred to the later, or Neolithic age. 

The reindeer still exists in Northern Europe, in Siberia, 
and in the moimtainous districts of the Caucasus. Even so 
recently as the time of Pallas it might still be met with, on 
the wooded summits of the Oural Mountains. A very 
nearly-allied species, even if indeed it be distinct, is widely 

* Owen, le, p. 465. 


distributed in Northern America. But, as far as concerns 
Western Europe, it must be regarded as an extinct species. 
We have no evidence as to whether it crossed the A^s 
or the Pyrenees, but it was certainly abundant at one time 
in England and France, whence, however, it is unneces- 
sary to say, it has long disappeared. Even at the present 
day the reindeer, like the Laplander, is gradually retiring 
iMNrthwards, imable to resist the pressure of advancing 

Even within the last ten years a few families of Lapps 
might still be found in the neighbourhood of Nystuen, on 
the summit of the Fillefjeld, and some other places in the 
South of Norway, but none are now to be found on this 
side of the Nams^i river. The reindeer in a wild state, 
indeed, even at the present day, is generally distributed, 
though in small numbers, over the highest and wildest of 
the Norwegian fjelds, protected however by stringent game 
laws, but for which it would, probably, have ere now ceased 
to exist. 

As far as we can judge from the present evidence, the first 
appearance of the reindeer in Europe coincided with that of 
the mamoQioth, and took place at a later period than that o£ 
the cave-bear or Irish elk. It is generally found wherever 
the mammoth and woolly-haired rhinoceros occur; but, 
on the other hand, as its remains are abundant in some 
of the bone-caves in which the gigantic Pachyd^nns are 
wanting, it is probable that it existed to a still later period. 
The reindeer has not, however, been found in the Kjokken- 
moddings, nor in any of the tumuli. It is also wanting in 
the Swiss Lake-villages, although we know that it was at 
one time an inhabitant of Switzerland, bones of it hav- 
ing been found in a cave at L'Echelle, between the great 
and little Saleve, near Geneva, where they were mixed 
with worked flints, ashes, and remains of the ox and horse. 



All the bones were broken in the iiBual and charactejietio 

As might naturally hare been expepted^ the reindeer has 
been occasionally found in the peat mosses of Sweden, though 
not, I belieye, as yet in those of England and .France. Nor 
is it represented on any of the ancient British or Gallic 
coins. Caesar, indeed^ mentions it as existing in the great 
Hercynian forest ; but his description is both imperfect and 
incorrect. He seems to have heard of it only at second 
hand, and never to have met with anybody who had actually 
seen one. It does not appear to have ever been esOnbited in 
the Roman circus. 

The aiirochs was common in central and southern Europe, 
and appears to plate hacls. to a period long before the 
arrival of the mammoth or woolly-haired rhinoceros. It 
existed in England at the period of the Norwich Crag, its 
remains occur in the river-drift gravels, the bone-^caveq, the 
Lake- villages of Switzerland, and in the .peat bogs, though 
none have yet been found in the shell-mounds of Denmark. 
M. Lartet thinks that it is represented on a ^coin of the 
Santones, which was shown to him by M. de ;Saulcy. It is 
stated by Pliny and Seneca to have existed in their times, 
with the urus, in the great forests of Germany. Though 
not mentioned by Caesar^ it is alluded to in the Niebelungen 
Lied, and is said to have existed in Prussia down to the year 
1775. Indeed, it still survives in .the imperial forests of 
Lithuania, where it is preserved by the Emperor of Russia, 
and also, accordiag to Nordmann and Yon Saer, in some 
parts of "Western Asia. 

The urus seems to have had a wider geographical range 
even than the aurochs. It has been found throughout 
Europe, in England, Denmark, and Sweden, in Trance and 
Germany, across the Alps and Pyrenees, it occurs in Italy 
and Spain, and even, according to M. Gervais, in Northern 

URus. 243 

Africa. In the Mufleum at Lund is a skeleton belonging to 
this species, in which one of the vertebrae still shows traces 
of a wound, made, in the opinion of Professor Nilsson, by. a 
flint arrow. Bones of this species have also been met with 
in ancient tumuli, as well as in the Lake-habitations, and the 

Ga6sar particularly mentions the urus as occurring in the. 
Hercynian forest ; it is alluded to in the Niebelungen Lied, 
and, according to Herberstein, it existed in Germany down 
to the sixteenth century, soon after which it seems to have 
become extimct, unless, indeed, it be represented by the 
celebrated wild cattle of Ohillingham, and some of our 
domestic breeds. 

Afl the practical result of this palseontological chronology, 
derived from the mammalia characteristic of the quaternary 
period, M. Lartet considers that we may establish four 
divisions in "la p^riode de I'humanit^ primitive, I'age du 
grand ours des cavernes, Vkge de T^l^phant et du rhino- 
ceros, Tage du renne, et Tftge de Taurochs." It is evi- 
dent, I think, that the appearance of these mammalia in 
Europe was not simultaneous, and that their disappearance 
has been successive. The evidence is very strong that the 
aurochs survived the reindeer in "Western Europe, and almost 
equally so that the reindeer lived on to a later period than 
the mammoth or the woolly-haired rhinoceros. But the 
chronological distinction between these two species and the 
cave-bear does not appear to be so well established. Admit- 
ting that the cave-bear has not yet been foimd in the river- 
gravels of the Somme valley, which have been so carefully 
examined, still we must remember that the animal was essen- 
tially a cave-dweller, and that its absence is, perhaps, to be 
attributed rather to the absence of caves than to the extinc- 
tion of the species. Moreover, the bones found in the 
gravel are very much broken, and some bones of the large 


^ecimens of the brown bear so closely resemble those of 
Urtm^speksm that it is not easy to distinguisb them. 

So far as conoezns the age of the aurochs^ the bone-oaves 
have not yet added anythiog to the knowledge which we 
have obtained from the study of fl» tumuli, and of the Swiss 
lake-dwellings. It would not be possible, wilhin the limits of 
the present chapter, to mention all the caves in which human 
remains have been found in association with, and apparently 
belonging to the same period as those of the extinct mam- 
malia. I will only call attention to a few of those cases 
which have been most carefully studied, and in which the. 
conclusions appear to be satisfactorily established. 

It is imnecessary to say that a great number of caves 
present evidence of having been inhabited during times long 
subsequent to those which we are now considering ; but for 
the Neolithic age, as well as for all later periods, we have, 
as has been already mentioned, other sources of information, 
and more satisfactory evidence than any which can be derived 
from the examination of caves. 

Some writers, indeed, have gone so far as to question 
altogether the value of what may be called cave-evidence. 
They have suggested that the bones of extinct animals may 
have lain in the caves for ages before the appearance of man ; 
that relics of the human period may have been introduced 
subsequently ; and that remains belonging to very different 
periods may have thus been ;mixed together. This was, 
indeed, the conclusion arrived at by M. Desnoyers, even so 
recently as the year 1845, in his article on Bone-caves.* 
Unless this argument admitted of a satisfactory answer, it 
must be conceded that the evidence derivable from cave 
contents would always be liable to grave suspicion. I 

* Recherches 66ologiques et his- Dictioimaire Uniyersel d'Hifltoire Na- 
tpriques sur lea cayemes, particuli^re- turelle. 
ment sur les cayemes k ossements. 


truat, however, to be able to show that this is not the 

Durmg the last year M. Lartet, in conjunction with 
Mr. Christy, has examined with great care a number of small 
caves and rock-shelters in the Dordogne, some of which had 
aheady attracted the attention of archaeologists.* These 
caves are particularly interesting, because, so far, at least, as 
we can judge from the present state of the evidence, they 
belong to M. Lartet's reindeer period, and tend, therefore, 
to connect the later or Polished Stone age with the period 
of the river-drifts and the great extinct mammalia ; repre- 
senting a period about which we had previously very 
Kttle information. Those which have been most carefully 
examined are ten in number, viz., Laugerie, La Madelaine, 
Les Eyzies, La Gorge d'Enfer, Le Moustier, Liveyre, Pey de 
YAz&y Combe-Granal, and Badegoule, most of which I have 
myself had the advantage of visiting. Some of these, as, for 
instance, Les Eyzies and Le Moustier, are at a considerable 
height above the stream, but others — as those at La Made- 
laine and Laugerie — ^are little above the present flood-line, 
showing, therefore, that the level of the river is now nearly 
the same as it was at the period during which these caveS 
were inhabited. 

The rivers of the Dordogne run-in deep valleys cut through 
calcareous strata ; and while the sides of the valleys in chalk 
districts are generally sloping, in this case, owing probably 
to the hardness of the rock, they are very frequently vertical; 
Small caves and grottoes frequently occur; besides which, 
as the different strata possess unequal powers of resistance 
against atmospheric influences, the face of the rock is, as it 
were, scooped out in many places, and thus *' rock-shelters" 
are produced. In very ancient times these caves and rook- 

* Be rOrig;ine et de TEnfanoe dee Arts en P^rigord. Par M. TAbbe Audicme. 


shelters were inhabited by men, who have left behind them 
abundant evidences of their presence. But as civilisation 
advanced, man, no longer content with the natural, but in- 
convenient, abode thus offered to him, excavated chambers 
for himself, and in places the whole face of the rock is honey- 
combed with doors and windows leading into suites of rooms, 
often in tiers one over another, so as to suggest the idea of a 
French Petra. In the troublous times of the middle ages 
many of these, no doubt, served as very efficient fortifications, 
and even now some of them are still in use as storehouses, 
and for other purposes. At Brant6me I saw an old chapel 
which had been cut in the solid rock, and resembled the 
descriptions given of the celebrated rock-cut temples in India. 
Apart from the scientific interest, it was impossible not 
to enjoy the beauty of the scene which passed before our eyes 
as we dropped down the Vez^re. As the river visited some- 
times one side of its valley, sometimes the other, so we had 
at one moment rich meadow lands on each side, or found 
ourselves close to the perpendicular and almost overhanging 
cliff. Here and there we came upon some picturesque old 
castle, and though the trees were not in ftdl leaf, the rocks 
were in many places green with box and ivy and evergreen 
oak, which harmonised well with the rich yellow brown of 
the stone itself. 

But to return to the bone-caves. Bemains of the cave- 
bear have been found at the Pey de 1' Az^, of the cave-hyaena 
at Le Moustier, and separated plates of elephant molars have 
occurred at Le Moustier and at Laugerie, accompanied at the 
latter place by a piece of a pelvis. As regards the two 
first species, MM. Christy and Lartet regard them as pro- 
bably belonging to an earlier period than the human remains 
found in the same caves. The presence of the pelvis has 
been regarded as an evidence of the contemporaneity of the 
mammoth with the reindeer hunters of Laugerie, and it is 


certamly difficult to see why they should have brought a 
fossil bone into their cave, more especially as the bones of 
elephants^ from the looseness of their texture, are not well 
adapted for implements. Still MM. Christy and Lartet do 
not commit themselves to any opinion, having, as they say, 
laid down '' une loi de ne proc^der dans nos inductions que 
par Evidences incontestables.'' 

As regards the Felis apelced, a metacarpal bone belonging 
probably to this species, and bearing marks of knives, was 
found in the cave of Les Eyzies* 

Still, so far as the positive zoological evidence is con- 
cerned, the antiquity of the human remains found in these 
grottoes rests mainly on the presence ,of the reindeer, as 
regards which the evidence is conclusive. The bones o^ 
this species are all broken open for the marrow; many of 
them bear the marks of knives, and at Les Eyzies a ver- 
tebra was foimd which had been pierced by a flint flake. 
MM. Christy and Lartet are quite satisfied that this bone 
must have' been fresh when it was thus transfixed; More- 
over, as we shall- presently see, there is still more conclusive 
evidence that man- and the reindeer were contemporaneous 
in this locality. 

But in its negative- aspect the zoological evidence is also 
very instructive. No remains have been found which, in the 
opinion of MM. Christy and Lartet, can be referred to do- 
mestic animals. It is true that bones of the ox and horse 
occur, but there is no evidence ttat they belonged to domes- 
ticated individuals. Semaiiis of the boar are very rare, 
and if these animals had been domesticated we might have 
expected to find them in greater abundance. The sheep and 
goat are entirely wanting, and what is still more remarkable, 
even the dog appears to be absent. At the same time the 
bones of the horse and reindeer, especially of the latter, are 
very numerous, and I do not feel so satisfied as MM. Lartet 


and Oluistjr, that some of them, at least, may not hare 
belonged to domesticated indiTiduals. 

A glance at the collections made by MM. Christy and 
Lartet, or that of M. le Yicomte de Lastic from Bruniquel, 
will show that a very large proportion of the animal remains 
consists of teeth, lower jaws, and horns. Other bones do 
indeed occur, but they form a small fraction of the whole. 
Yet we cannot attribute this to the presence of dogs, 
partly because no remains of this species have yet been dis- 
covered, partly because the bones which remain have not 
been gnawed, but principedly because dogs eat only certain 
bones and parts of bones, as a general rule selecting the 
spongy portions, and rejecting the solid shafts. 

Mr. Galton has pointed out that some of the savage 
tribes of Africa, not content with the flesh of the animals 
which they kill, pound up also the bones in mortars, and 
then suck out the animal juices contained in them. So also, 
aocording to Leems, the Danish Laplanders used to break up 
with a mallet all the bones which contained any fat or 
marrow, and then boil them until aU the fat was extracted.* 
The Esquimaux also mash up the bones for the sake of the 
marrow contained in them.t Some of the ancient stone 
hammers and mortars were no doubt used for this purpose, 
and the proportions of the different bones afford us, I 
think, indirect evidence that a similar custom prevailed 
among the ancient inhabitants of Southern France. 

Passing on now to the £int implements foimd in these 
caves, we must first call attenti<m to their marvellous 
abundance. Without any exaggeration they may be said to 
be innumerable. Of course this adds greatly to the value of 
the conclusions, but it need not surprise us, because flint is 

* Account of Danish Lapland, by Leems, Copenhagen, 1767. Translated in 
^inkerton's Voyages, Vol. i., p. 396. 
t Hall, lAk with the Esqaimavx, vol. ii. pp. 147, 176. 


80 brittle, that implements made of it must have been easily 
broken, and, in that case, the fragments would be thrown 
away as useless, especially in a chalk district, where the 
supply of flint would, of course, be practically inexhaustible. 
Many implements, no doubt, would be left unfinished, having 
been rendered useless, eiiheT by some misdirected blow, or 
some flaw in the flint. Moreover, we should naturally expect 
that in a bone-breccia of this nature, the flint-implements 
would be relatively more abundant than in a Kjokkenmod- 
ding. Each oyster famishes but a single mouthful, so that 
the edible portions evidently form a greater proportion of the 
whole, in the mammalia than in the moUusca. The Kjok- 
keninoddings, therefore, would ^ow, ccBteris paribm, more 
rapidly than the bone-breccia, and supposing the flint-im- 
plements to be equally numerous in both cases, they would, 
of course, be more sparingly distributed in the former, than 
in the latter. 

The objects of stone found in the bone caves which we are 
now considering, are flakes, both simple and worked, scrapers, 
cores, awls, lance-heada, cutters, hammers, and mortar-stones. 

The simple and worked flakes are, of course, very numer- 
ous, but they do not call for any special observations. They 
present the usual varieties of size and form. 

Though less numerous than the flakes, the scrapers* are still 
very abundant. On the whole they seem to me longer and 
narrower than the usual Danish type. Some of them were 
probably intended to be used in the hand, as both ends are 
fashioned for scraping. These may be called double-scrapers. 
Others were apparently fixed in handles, as the end opposite 
to the scraper is broken, sometimes on one side, sometimes 
on both, so as to form a tapering extremity, which may have 
been fixed in a handle either of wood, bone, or horn. Many 

* See ante, pp. 70, 71. 


of the flakes are also nipped off at one end, in the same 
manner. Perhaps, as no trace of such a handle has yet been 
discovered by MM. Christy and Lartet, wood was the material 
used for this purpose. 

Of course, where there was a manufactory of flint flakes, 
the cores or nuclei, from which they were struck, must also be 
present. I was, however, astonished at the number of them 
in these caves ; during my short visit, I myself picked out 
more than ninety. 

Awls and saws are very much less frequent, but some few 
good specimens have been found. At some of the stations, 
curious flat implements (fig. 130) are met with. From the 
constancy of their form, which, moreover, is somewhat pecu- 
liar, we may safely infer that they were applied to some 

Fio. 130. 

Flint Awl. 

definite purpose. For hammers, the reindeer hunters seem 
to have used round stones, a good many of which occur 
in the caves, and which bear unmistakeable marks of the 
purpose to which they were applied. Some of them, 
however, may have served also as heaters. The North 
American Indians, the Esquimaux, and some other savages, 
having no pottery; but only wooden vessels, which could 
not be put on the fire,^ used to heat stones, and then place 
them in the water which they wished to boil. Many of 
the stones found in these caverns appear to have been 
used in this manner. 


These, the oommonest sorts of flint implements, are found 
indiscriminately in all the grottoes, but there are some other 
types which appear to be less generally distributed. Thus, 
at Laugerie and Badegoule, fragments of leaf-shaped lance* 
heads, almost as well worked as some of those from Denmark, 
are far from uncommon. If, therefore, we were to attempt 
any classification of the grottoes, according to the periods of 
their occupation, w^ might be disposed to refer these to a 
somewhat later period than most of the others. On the con- 
trary, to judge from the flint implements, the station at Le 
Moustier would be the most ancient. Though it would per- 
haps be premature to attempt any such classification, there 
can be no doubt that Le Moustier presents some types not yet 
found in the other caves, and resembling in some respects 
those of the dsift. 

One of these peculiar forms has one sidb left unchipped, and 
appareni;ly intended to be held, in the hand, while the other 
has a cutting edge, produced Ify a number of small blows. 
Some of these instruments are of large size, and they are 
supposed' by MM. Christy and Lartet to have been used for 
cutting wood,, and perhaps also the large bones of mammalia- 
Another very interesting type is figured over-leaf (figs. 131-3). 
This specimen is. worked on both sides, but more frequently 
one of them, is left flat. MM. Christy and Lartet regard 
this type as identical with the "lance-head" implements 
found in the drift. I cannot altogether agree mth them 
in this comparison. !Not only are the Le Moustier specimens 
smaller, but the workmanship is different, being much less 
bold. Moreover, the flat surface (a) is no individual pecu- 
liarity. It is very frequently, not to say generally, present, 
and occurs also on the similar implement found by Mr. 
Boyd Dawkins in the Hyaena den at Wokey Hole, and 
figured by him in the Geological Journal, May, 1862, No. 
70, p. 119. This very interesting type seems rather to be 



derived from the " cutters" above described, in which case 
its resemblance to the drift forms would be accidental and 
insignificant MM. Christy and Lartet indeed call the 
implements of this type " lanceheads," but it may well be 

Fio. ISl. Fio. 132. 

Flo. 138. 

Flint Implement from Le Moustier. 

doubted whether they were intended for use in this manner, 
though there are specimens at Le Moustier which have all the 


appearance of haying been intended for this purpose. On the 
whole, then, although these Le Moustier types are of great 
interest, we must pause before we regard them as belonging 
to the drift forms. 

ISo polished implements have yet been found in any of these 
caverns. Yet the collection made by the late M. Mourcin, in 
the neighbourhood of Perigueux, contains, among 5026 ob- 
jects of stone, no less than 3002 polished axes, of which, 
however, many are imperfect. Doubtless, among the im- 
mense variety of forms presented by the flint implements 
from these caves, further study will distinguish other types, 
and we may fairly hope that it will throw more light on 
the purposes for which they were designed. 

The station at Moustier has not as yet produced any im- 
plements made of bone, but a good many have been obtained 
frt)m the other oaves. "They consist of square chisel-shaped 
implements ; round, sharply pointed, awl-like tools, some of 
which also may have served as the spike of a fish-hook ; har- 
poon shaped lanceheads ; plain or barbed arrow-heads with 
many and double barbes, cut with wonderM vigoiir; and 
lastly, eyed needles of compact bone finely pointed, polished, 
and drilled with roimd eyes so small and regular, that some 
of the most assured and acute believers in all the other find- 
ings might well doubt whether they could indeed have been 
drilled with stone, until their repetition by the hand of that 
practical and conscientious observer. Monsieur Lartet, by the 
very stone implements foimd with them, has dispelled their 
honest doubts."* Moreover, we must remember that the 
New Zealanders were able with their stone tools to drill 
holes even through glass.f 

So far, then, with the exception, perhaps, of the well- 
worked lanceheads of Laugerie and Badegoule, all the evi- 
dence we have yet obtained from these caves points to a 

• Trans. Ethnological Soc. N.S. yoI. iii. f Cook's First Voyage, p. 464. 


very primitive period, earKer even than tliat of the first Swiss 
Lake- villages, or Danish shell-mounds. No fragments of 
metal or of pottery have yet been found which can be re- 
ferred with confidence to the Eeindeer period. 

But there is one class of objects in these caves which, taken 
alone, would have led us to a very different conclusion. N© 
representation, however rude, of any animal or plant has yet 
been found in any of the Danish shell-mounds, or the Stone- 
age Lake- villages. Even on objects of the Bronze age, they 
are so rare, that it is doubtful whether a single well authen- 
ticated instance could be produced. Yet in these archaic 
bone-caves, many very fair sketches have been found, 
scratched on bone or stone with a sharp point, probably of 
a flint implement. In some cases there is even an attempt 
at shading. Li the Annales des Sciences Naturelles,* M. 
Lartet had already made known to us some rude draw- 
ings found in the Gave of Savign^, and in his last memoir 
he has described and figured some more objects of a similar 

In the lower station at Laugerie several of these drawings 
have been foimd ; one represents a large herbivorous animal, 
but unfortunately without the head or fordegs; a second 
also is apparently intended for some species of ox ; a third 
represents a smaller animal^ with vertical horns ; another is 
evidently intended for a horse ; and a fifth is very interest- 
ing, because, from the shape of the antlers and head, it is 
evidently intended for a reindeer. Several similar drawings 
have been obtained by M. de Lastic in a cave at Bruniquel. 

But perhaps the most remarkable specimen of all is a 
poniard, cut out of a reindeer's horn (fig. 134). The 
artist has ingeniously adapted the position of the animal to 
the necessities of the case. The horns are thrown back on 

• Ann. des Sc. Nat. 1861. Vol. xt. 


the neck, tlie fore-legs are doubled up under the belly, and 
the hind-legs are stretched out along the blade. Unfor- 
tunately the poniard seems to haye been thrown away before 

Fio. 134. 

Handle of a Poniard. 

it was qmite finished, but several of the details indicate that 
the animal was intended for a reindeer. Although it is 
natural to feel some surprise at finding these works of -art, 
still there are instances among recent savages of a certain 
skill in drawing and sculpture, being accompanied by an 
entire ignorance of metallurgy. 

In considering the probable condition of these ancient 
Cave-men, we must give them fiill credit for their love of 
art, such as it was ; while, on the other hand, the want of 
metal, of polished flint implements, and even of pottery ;* the 
ignorance of agriculture, and the apparent absence of aH 
domestic animals, including even the dog, certainly imply 
a very low state of civilisation, and a very considerable 

There is also evidence that a considerable change of cli- 
mate must have taken place. The reindeer is the m6st 
abundant animal, and evidently formed the principal article 
of food, while we know that this animal is now confined to 
arctic climates, and could not exist in the south of France. 
Again, the ibex and the chamois, both of which are now 
restricted to the snowy summits of the Alps and Pyrenees, 

* Potterj is, however, yerj rare in and is not by any means abundant in 
the remains of the Irish Crannoges, the Danish shell-inonnds. 


and a species of spermophiluSy also point to the same con- 
clusion. The presence of the two former species in some of 
the Swiss Lake-dwellings is not equally significant^ because 
there they are in the neighbourhood of high mountains; but 
the highest hills of the Dordogne do not reach to an altitude 
of much more than 800 feet. 

Another very interesting species which has recently been 
determined by M. Lartet^ is the Antilope Saigo of Pallas^ 
which now abounds on the Steppes of North Eastern Europe 
and Western Asia, in the plains of the Dnieper and the 
Yolga, round the shores of the Caspian and as far as the 
Altai Mountains. Mr. Christy tells us that the northern 
plains of Poland and the yalley of the Dnieper are the 
southern limits of this species at the present day. 

Again, the accumulation of animal remains in these 
cayes is itself, as Mr.* Christy has ingeniously suggested, a 
good evidence of change in the climate. We know that the 
Esquimaux at present allow a similar deposit to take place in 
their dwellings, but this can only be done in Arctic regions ; 
in such a climate as that now existing in the south of France, 
such an accumulation would, except of course in the depth of 
winter, soon become a mass of decomposition. 

Doubtless the persevering researches of my firiends MM. 
Christy and Lartet will ere long throw more light on the 
subject, and enable us to speak with greater confidence ; but 
so far as the present evidence is concerned, it appears to in- 
dicate a race of men living almost as some of the Esquimaux 
do now, and as the Laplanders did a few hundred years 
ago ; and a period intermediate between that of the Polished 
Stone implements and of the great extinct mammalia : ap- 
parently also somewhat more ancient than that of the shell- 
moimd builders of Denmark. But if these Cave-men shall 
eventually be shown to have been contemporaneous with the 
cave- tiger, the cave-bear, the cave-hyaena, and the mammoth. 


remains of which haye been found in doubtM association 
with them, then, indeed, they must be referred to an even 
more remote period.* 

That some of the European caves were inhabited by man 
during the time of these extinct mammalia seems to be well 

Already in the year 1828 MM. Toumal and C9iristol, in 
the south of France, had found fragments of pottery and 
human bones and teeth, intermingled with remains of extinct 
animals'; aud M. Toumal expressly pointed out that these 
had certainly not been washed in by auy diluvial catastrophe, 
but must have been introduced gradually. The presence of 
pottery, however, throws much doubt on the supposed an- 
tiquity of these remains. 

A few years later, in 1833 and 1834, Dr. Schmerlingf 
published an account of his researches in some caves near 
Li^ge in Belgium. In four or five of these he found human 
bones, and in all of them rude implements, principally flint 
flakes, were discovered, scattered in such a manner among 
the remains of the mammoth. Rhinoceros tickorkinus, cave- 
hyaena, and cave-bear, that I>r. Schmerling referred them to 
the same period. One feels a natural surprise that such 
animals as these should ever have been natives of England 
and France, ever have wandered about among our woods or 
along our streams ; but when it was suggested that they were 
contemporaries with man, surprise was succeeded by in- 
credulity. Yet these cave-researches appear to have been 
conducted with care, aud the principal results have been 
confirmed by more recent discoveries. 

* From another bone cave in the description^of thi&coUeetlon, I will.say 

fionth of France — that of Bruniquel — nothing about it here. 

M. le Vicomte de Lastic has made a f Becherches sur les ossements fos- 

large coUection, the greater part of siles d^convertes dans les cavemes de 

which is now in the British Museum. la province de liege. Par le Dr. P. C» 

As Professor Owen has undertaken the Schmerling. 



258 Kent's hole. 

The hesitation, however, with which the statements of 

Dr. Schmerling were received by scientific men arose no 

doubt partly from the fact that some of the fossil remains 

discovered by him were certainly referred to wrong species, 

and partly because, with reference to several of the extinct 

species, and especially to the mammoth, he expressed the 

opinion that the remains had been br^:^ht from a distance, 

and had very likely been washed out of some eeu'li^ bed. 

" Nous n'h^sitons point," he .fi^s, " & eiprimer ici notre 

pens^e, c'est que nous doutons fort que T^lSphant, lors de 

r^poque du remplissage de nos oavemes, habit&t nos con- 

tr^es. Au contraire, nous croyons fplufc6t que cee restes 

ont et6 amends de loiu, ou bien que ces debris ont *^te 

d^plac^s d'un terrain plus ancien etJont &t6 entrain^ dans 

les cavemes.** 

Even, therefore, though 'Dr. Schmerling might ' be quite 
right in his conclusion that the human remains had been 
"enfouis dans ces cavemes\il la mfime'^poque, et^par con- 
sequent par les m^mes causes qui y ont entrath^ une masse 
d'ossements de diffdrentes espSces'^teintes,'^stiIl it would not 
necessarily follow thatsnan had Hved- at the same; period as 
these extinct species. 

In the year W4f) '^r. Godwin "Austen communicated 
to the Geological Society s. memoir on the Geology 
of the South East of 'Devonshire,* and in his description 
of Kent's Hole, near Torquay, he says that " human re- 
mains and works of art, such as arrow-heads and knives 
of flint, occur in all ^ parts of the cave and throughout the 
entire thickness of the^ clay : and mo distinction .founded 
on condition, distribution, « or . relative position, can be ob- 
served, whereby the human • can Ibe separated from the 
other reliquiae," which included bones of the " elephant, 

* Transactioxis of the Geol. Soc. Ser. 2, vol. yi. p, 433. 


rhinoceros, ox, deer, horse, bear, hyaena, and a feline ani- 
mal of large size.'* 

The value, he truly adds, " of such a statement must rest 
on the care with which a collector n^ay have explored; I 
must therefore state that my own researches were constantly 
conducted in parts of the cave which had never been dis- 
turbed, and in every instance the bones were procured from 
beneath a thick covering of stalagmite; so far, then, the 
bones and works of man must have been introduced into 
the cave before the flooring of stalagmite had been 
formed/' These statements, however, attracted little atten- 
tion ; and the very similar assertions made by Mr. Vivian, 
in a paper read before the Geological Society, were con- 
sidered so improbable £hat the memoir containing them was 
not published. 

In May, 1858, Dr. Falconer called the attention of the 
Geological Society to a newly-discovered cave at Brixham, 
near Torquay, and a. committee was appointed to assist hiTp 
in examining it. Grants of money were obtained for the 
same object from the Boyal Society and Miss Burdett Coutts. 
In addition to Dr. Falconer, Mr. Pengelly, Mr. Prestwich, 
and Professor Bamsay were intrusted with the investigations. 
In September, 1858, a preliminary report was made to the 
Geological Society, but it is very much to be regretted that 
the results have not yet been published in extenso. 

The deposits in the cave were, in descending order — 

1. Stalagmite of irregular thickness. 

2. Ochreous cave earth with limestone breccia. 

3. Ochreous cave earth with comminuted shale. 

4. Bounded gravel. 

The organic remains belonged to the following species : — 

1. Rhinoceros tichorhinm. Teeth in considerable numbers 
and an astragalus. 


2. Bos sp. Teeth, jaws, and other bones. 

3. Equus sp, A few remains. 

4. Cervus tarandua. The reindeer — skull and horns. 
6. Cervus sp. Horns. 

6. Ursus spelcBtcs — ^the cave-bear. Lower jaws, teeth^ 

and the bones of a hind leg. 

7. Hy<9na spelcaa. Lower jaws, teeth, fragments of 

ekulls, and other bones. 

Several flint flakes were also foipid indiscriminately mixed 
with these bones, and, according to all appearance, of the 
same antiquity. They occurred at various depths, from ten 
inches to eleven feet, and some of them were in #the gravel, 
below the whole of the ochreous cave-earth. One of them 
was found close to the bones of the left hind leg of a cave- 
bear. The remains comprised not only the femur, tibia, and 
fibula, but even the kneepan and astragalus were in their 
respective places. It is evident, therefore, thg-t the limb 
must have been imbedded while in a .fresh condition, or at 
least while the bones were held together by the ligaments. 
As, then, they must have been deposited soon after the death 
of the animal, it foUows that, if man and the cave-bear were 
not contemporaneous, the cave-bear was the more recent of 
the two. 

Again, in the grotto of Maccagnone, in Sicily, Dr. Falconer 
found human traces, consisting of ashes and rude flint imple- 
ments in a breccia containing bones of the Elephas antiquus, 
of the hyaena, of a large Ursus, of a Felis (probably F. spekea), 
and especially with large numbers of bones belonging to the 
hippopotamus. The " ceneri impastate,'' or concrete of ashes 
had at one time fiUed the cavern, and a large piece of bone 
breccia was still cemented to the roof by stalagmite, but 
owing to some change in the drainage, the greater part had 
been cleared out again. The presence of the hippopotamus 
sufficiently proves that the geographical conditions of the 


country must have been very different firom what they are 
now ; but I cannot do better than quote Dr. Falconer's own 
summary of his observations in this case : 

" The vast number of Sippapotami impKed that the phy- 
sical condition of the country must have been greatly different^ 
at no very distant geological period, from what obtains now. 
He considered that all deposits above the bone breccia had 
been accumulated up to the roof by materials washed in from 
above, through sinuous crevices or flues in the limestone, and 
that the uppermost layer, consisting of the breccia of shells, 
bone-splinters> siliceous objects, burnt clay, bits of charcoal, 
and hyaena coproKtes, had been cemented to the roof by 
stalagmitic infiltration. The entire condition of the large 
fragile Helices proved that the effect had heem produced by 
the tranquil agency of water, as distinct from any tumultuous 
action. There was nothing to indicate that the different 
objects in the roof breccia were other than of contemporaneous 
origin : subsequently a great physical alteration in the con- 
tour, altering the flow of superficial water and of the sub* 
terranean springs, changed all the conditions previously 
existing, and emptied out the whole of the loose incoherent 
contents, leaving only the portions agglutinated to the roof. 
The wreck of these ejecta was visible in the patches of 
'ceneri impastati,' containing fossil bones, below the mouth 
of the cavern. That a long period must have operated in 
the extinction of the hyaena, cave-lion, and other fossil 
species, is certain, but no index remains for its measurement. 
The author would call the careful attention of cautious 
geologists to the inferences — ^that the Maccagnone Cave was 
filled up to the roof within the human period, so that a 
thick layer of bone -splinters, teeth, landshells, hyaenas' 
coprolites, and human objects, was agglutinated to the roof 
by the infiltration of water holding lime in solution. . That 
subsequently, and within the human period, such a great. 


amount of change took place in tlie physical configuration 
of the district as to have caused the cave to be washed 
out and emptied of its contents^ excepting the patches of 
material cemented to the roof and since coated with addi- 
tional stalagmite/' 

Similar proofs of great and recent geographical changes 
have been afforded by the examination of certain Spanish 
caves. In the Genista Cave at Gibraltar Mr. Busk and 
Dr. Falconer have discovered Sycma brunnea, an existing 
African species, the leopard, lynx,^ serval, and Barbary 
stag. M. Lartet has also determined molasrs of the existing 
African elephant among some bone& found in. a cave near 

M. Lartet* has described with his usual ability a very 
interesting grotto,, or smaU cave, which was discovered some 
years ago at Aurignac,. in the south of France. A peasant 
named Bonnemaison> seeiog^ a rabbit run into a hole on a 
steep slope, put his hand in, and to his surprise puUed out a 
human bone. Curiosity urged him to explore farther, and 
on removing a quantity of rubbish, he found a large block 
of stone, which almost closed up the entrance to a small 
chamber, in which were no less than seventeen human 
skeletons. Unfortunately for science, the mayor oS Au- 
rignac, hearing of these discoveries,, collected the human 
bones, had them reburied, and when M. Lartet some years 
afterwards explored the cavern, they could not be found 

After careftdly examining the locality, M. Lartet came to 
the conclusion that this small cavern had been used as a 
burial place, and from the remains of bones broken for 
marrow, and marks of fire immediately outside the cave, he 
inferred that feasts had been held there. 

» AoiL dfiB So. Nat 1861, p. 177. 

AtRlGNAO. 263 

The following is the list of species determined by M. Lartet, 
together with the approximate number of individuals belong- 
ing to each : — 

Number of indiyidual 

1. CsLYe Beej: {Ur8U8 spelcBtM) 5 — 6 

2. BrownBear (CT. arc^P) 1 

3. Badger (Meles taxm) 1 — 2 

4. Polecat (Putoriua vulgaris) 1 

6. CdiYQlAon {Felia spelcea) ., 1 

6. Wild Cat (-R ca/M«) ..^ 1 

7. 'RjdsnsL (Hyama spelcBa) 5 — 6 

8. Wolf {Canis Lupus) 3 

9. Foil {C. mlpea) 18—20 

10. Mammoth {Elq>has primigenius). 

Two molars and an astragalus 

11. BhrnocoTos (Bhifweeros iiehor/Unu&) ... 1 
12.. Horse [Equus cahaHus) 12 — 15 

13. AssP* (jB. a«m«5) 1 

14. Boar {8us scrofa). Two incisors 

15. StsLg (Cervus elaphus) .,, 1 

16. Irish Elk {Megaceros hibemicus) 1 

17.. Roe (Oicapreolus) 3 — 4 

18; Bemdeer (O. tarandtis) 10 — 12 

19. AaroohB^ (Bison Eurcpcmis) 12 — 15 

Some of these were found in the grotto, others outside ; the 
latter had been gnawed by some large camiyorous animal, no 
doubt the hyaena, coprolites of which were found among the 
ashes. On the other hand, the bones inside the cave were 
untouched, from which M. Lartet concludes that after the 
funeral feasts, hyaenas came and deyoured all that had be^ 
left by the men, but that they could not effect an entrance 
into the cave on account of the large block of stone by which 

* There must surely be some mistake about this i^edes. The query is in the 
. original. 


the entrance was closed, and which was actually found in its 
plaoe by Bonn^naison. 

In addition to the hyaena, the animals occurring in this 
list, and yet no longer existing, or known historically to have 
existed, in France, are the reindeer, cave-bear, rhinoceros, 
cave-Kon, Irish elk, and mammoth. The contemporaneity 
of the reindeer with man is very evident ; all the bones are 
broken for marrow, and many bear the marks of knives, 
besides wjiich, the greater number of the bone impl^ients 
are made out of the bones or horns of this species. That the 
rhinoceros also was contemporaneous with man is inferred 
by M. Lartet, firstly, on chemical grounds, the bones of 
this species, as well as those of the reindeer, aurochs, etc., 
having retained the same amount of nitrogen as the human 
bones from the same locality ; .and secondly, because the bones 
appear to have been' broken by man, and in some cases are 
marked by knives. Moreover, he has ingeniously pointed 
out that liiese bones must have belonged to an individual 
recently killed,* because, after having been broken by 'man, 
they were gnawed by the hyaenas, which would not have 
been the case if they had not been, fresh "land still ftdl of 
their natural juices. 

The elephant was represeinted only by sdttie detached 
plates of molars and a calcaneum. This- latter was the 
anfy gnawed bone found in. the interior of the grotto. It 
cannot be doubted that these plates were purposely sepa- 
rated, and the calcaneum appears to have been placed in 
the vault at the time of the last interments ; but there is 
no evidence that it was then in a fresh condition. Indeed, 
the fact of its being gnawed se^ns rather to point the 
other way. 

Remains of the Ursus spekeus (cave-bear) were much more 
abundant, and some of them were found in the grotto. In 
one case a whole limb appears to have been buried with the 


flesh on^ as tlie different bones were all found together. It is 
well known that food and drink were in ancient times fre- 
quently buried with the dead, and M. Lartet thinks that we 
may account in this manner for the bones of quadrupeds 
found in the grotto at Aurignac« 

In this case, then, it would seem that we have a sepulture 
bdonging to the period at which the cave-bear, the reindeer, 
ttie Irish elk, the woolly-haired rhinoceros, and the mam- 
moth, still lived in the south of France. It is, however, very 
much to be regretted that M. Lartet was not present when 
the place was first examined, for it must be confessed that if 
he had seen the deposits before they were disturbed, we 
should have been able to feel more confidence that the 
human skeletons belonged to the same period as the other 

Another instructive case is that of the Hyaena-den at 
Wokey Hole, near Wells, which has been ably explored and 
described by Mr. Boyd Dawkins.* In this case the cave was 
filled with debris up to the very roof, and* it appears that the 
accumulation of material has taken place partly by the dis- 
integration of the dolomitic conglomerate forming the roof 
and walls of the cavern, and partly by the sediment washed 
in gradually by rain and small streams. It is evident that 
the bones and stones were not brought into the cave by the 
action of water ; firstly, because none of the bones are at all 
rolled; secondly, because, though several rude flint rmple- 
m^ats were found in the cave, ow/y one single unujorhed flint 
was met with ; and, thirdly, because, in some cases, fragments 
of the same bone have been found close together, while, if 
they had been brought from a distance, it is almost incredible 
that they should have been again deposited close to one 
another. Again, there are several layers — one over the other 

♦ Geol. Journal, May, 1862, p. 115, 

266 CAVE-MEN. 

—of album grsscrun^ that is to say, the excrement of hyaenas. 
Each of these indicates, of course, an old floor, and a sepa- 
rate period of occupation ; so that the presence of, at least, 
one such floor above some of the flint implements, proves 
two things; firstly, that the hyaenas which produced the 
album graecum occupied the cave after the savages who 
used the flint instruments; and, secondly, that these im- 
plements have not been disturbed by water since the period 
of the hyaena. 

As regards the Cave-men themselves, we have, unfor- 
tunately, but very little information. Indeed, although 
fragmentary himian bones have been frequently found, there 
are, as yet, only two casejs on record in which the caves have 
Aimished us with skuUs in such a condition as to allow of 
restoration. One of these was found by Dr. Schmerling in 
the Cave of Engis, near Li^ge ; the other, Jby Dr. Fuhlrott, 
in the Neanderthal, near Diisseldorf ; .they .will be described 
in a subsequent chapter. 

It would manifestly be highly impmdentj to generalise , 
from two specime^is, even if they agreed iiuAheir characters, 
and if their antiquity were undoubted. . But it so happens 
that as regards the Neanderthal (Specimen, the evidence of 
antiquity is far from conclusive, (aid that the two skulls are 
very dissimilsTi 

On the whole, Jkherefogre, though wet cannot as yet deter- 
mine' what> variety or varieties of men then existed, we find 
ia the bone-cav^es ^sufficient evidence that man was coeval in 
Europe with the great group of q«|ateroary mammalia. We 
see, indeed, .^that^ the presence, ,in abc^aercaves, of ancient 
unplementa and hiunan remains^ associated with those of 
extinct mammalia, is no rare or exceptional phenomenon. 
ISfoT if we> look at the question from a scientific point of 
view, is there any thing in this that ought to excite our 
astonishment. Since the period at which these caves 

CAVE-MEN. 267 

were filled up, the changes which have taken place have 
resulted rather in the extinction, than in the creation of 
species. The stag, horse, boar, dog, in' short, all our 
existing forms of mammalia, were already in existence, 
and there would have been in reality more just cause for 
surprise if man »loue had been unrepresented. 




WHILE We have been straining our eyes to the East^ 
and eagerly watching excavations in Egypt and 
Assyria, suddenly a new light has arisen in the midst of us ; 
and the oldest relics of man yet discovered have occurred, 
not among, the ruins of NineVeh or Heliopolis, not on the 
sandy plains of the !N^ile or the Euphrates^ but in the pleasant 
valleys of England and France, along the banks of the Seine 
and the Somme, the Thames and the T^aveney. 

So unexpected were these discoveries, so irreconcileable 
with even the greatest antiquity until lately assigned to the 
human race, that they were long reg«uded with neglect and 
suspicion. M. Boucher de Perthes> to whom we are so much 
indebted for this great step in the history of mankind, ob- 
served, as long ago as the year 1841, in some sand con- 
taining mammalian remains, at Menchecourt, near Abbeville, 
a flint, rudely fashioned into a cutting instrument. In the 
following years other weapons were found under similar 
circumstances, and especially during the fermation of the 
Champ de Mars at Abbeville, where a large quantity o£ 
gravel was moved and many of the so-called " hatchets'* w&re 
discovered. In the year 1846 M. Boucher de Perthes pub* 
lished his Arst work on the subject, entitled " De I'Industrie 
Primitive, ou les Arts et leur Origine." In this he announced^ 

-Si^ - -• ^"■^S'i^^ 

//" /ff/f fiaqr W'*. 



that he had found human implements in beds immistakeably 
belonging to the age of the drift. In his "Antiquit^s Cel- 
tiques et Ant^diluyiennes*' (1847), he also gave numerous 
illustrations of these stone weapons, but unfortunately the 
figures were so small as scarcely to do justice to the originals. 
For seven years M. Boucher de Perthes made few converts ; 
he was looked upon as au enthusiast, almost as a madman. 
At length, in 1853, Dr. Rigollot, till then sceptical, examined 
for himself the drift at the now celebrated St. Acheul, near 
Amiens, found several weapons, and believed. Still the new 
creed met with but little favor; prophets are proverbially 
without honor in their own country, and M. Boucher de 
Perthes was no exception to the rule. At last, however, the 
tide turned in his favor. Br. Falconer, passing through 
Abbeville, visited' his collection, and made known the residt 
of his visit to Mr. Joseph Prestwich, who, with Mr. John 
Evans, proceeded to Abbeville. I have always regretted 
that I was imable to accompany my friends on this occasion. 
They examined carefully not only the flint weapons, but also 
the beds in which they were 'found. For such an investiga- 
tion our two countrymen were especially qualified : Mr. 
Prestwich, from his long examination and great knowledge 
of the tertiary and quaternary strata ; aud Mr. Evans, as 
having devoted much study to the stone implements belong- 
ing to what we mtist now consider as the second, or at least 
the more recent, Stone period. On their return to Englaad 
Mr. Prestwich communicated the residts of his visit to the 
Royal Society,* while Mr. Evaas described the implements 
themselves in the Traasactions of the Society of Anti- 

* On the Occurrence of Flint Implements associated with the Bemains of Ex- 
tinct Species, in Beds of a late Geological Period, May 19, 1859. Phil. Trans. 

t Flint Implements in the Drift. Archsologia, 1860-62. 


Shortly afterwards Mr. Prestwich returned to Amiens and 
Abbeville, accompanied by Messrs. Godwin- Austen, J. W. 
Flower, and R. W. Mylne, and in the same year Sir Charles 
Jjyell visited the now celebrated localities. In 1860 I made 
my first visit with Mr. Busk and Captain Galton, under the 
guidance of Mr. Prestwich, while Sir Roderick Murchison, 
Professors Henslow, Ramsay, Rogers, Messrs. H. Christy, 
Rupert Jones, James Wyatt, and ether geologists, foUowed 
on the same errand. M. L'Abb^ Cochet, therefore, in his 
I " Rapport adress6 £l Monsieur le SSnateur PrSfet de la Seine-' 

Inf^rieure" (1860), does no more than justice to our coun- 
trymen, when after a weU-merited tribute of praise to M, 
Boucher de Perthes and Dr. Rigollot, he -adds, ^' Mais ce sont 
u les G^ologues Anglais, en tite desqijels il &ut placer d'abord 

MM. Prestwich et Evans . , , . qui .... ont fiai par Clever & 
la dignitS de &it scientifique la dScouverte de M. Boucher 
> de Perthes."' 

I Soon after his return, Mr, Brestwich addressed a commu- 

^. nication to the Academy of Sciences, through M. Elie de 

)^ Beaumont, in which he urgedthe importance of these dis- 

<50veries, and expressed a hope that they would stimidate 

r "les g^ologues de tons les pays i, une ^tude encore plus 

^ approfondie des terrains quatemaires," The subject being 

thus brought prominently before the geologists of Paris, 

M. Gaudry, well known for his interesting researches in 

Greece, was sent to examine the weapons themselves, and 

the localities in which they were foimd. 

M. Gaudry was so fortunate as to find several flint weapons 
in situ, and his report, which entirely confirmed the state- 
ments made by M. Boucher de Perthes, led others to visit 
the vaUey of the Somme, among whom I may mention MM. 
de Quatrefages, Lartet, Collomb, Hubert, de Vemeuil, and 
G, Pouchet 

In the "Antiquit^s Celtiques," M. Boucher de Perthes 



suggested some gravel pits near Grenelle at Paris, as being, 
from their position and appearance, likely places to contain 
flint implements. M. Gosse, of Geneva, has actually found 
flint implements in these pits, being the first discovery 
of this nature in the valley of the Seine.* In that of 
the Oise, a small hatchet has been found by M. Peign^ 
Delacourt, at Pr^cy, near Creil. 

Nor have these discoveries been confined to France.^ There 
has long been in the British Museum a rude stone weapon, 
described as follows: — "No. 246. A British weapon, /owwrf 
mfh elephanfa tooth, opposite to black Mary's, near Grayes 
inn lane. Conyers. It is a large black flint, shaped into the 
figure of a spear's point." Mr. Evans tells us, .moreover, 
(/.(?. p. 22) "that a rude engraving of it illustrates a letter 
on the Antiquities of London, by Mr. Bagford, dated 
1715, printed in Heame's edition of Leland^ <Collectanea, 
vol. i. 6, p. Ixiii. From his account it seems to 'have been 
found" with a skeleton of an elephant in the presence 
of Mr. Conyers." This most interesting weapon agrees 
exactly with some of those found in the valley of the 

Mr. Evans, on his return from Abbeville, observed in the 
■■• museum belonging to the Society of Antiquaries, some speci- 
mens exactly like those in the collection of M. Boucher de 
Perthes. On examination, it; proved that they had been pre- 
sented by Mr, Frere, who found them with bones of extinct 
animals in a .giiavel.pit at Hoxne in SuflTolk, and had well 
described and figured them in the .Archaeologia for the year 
1800. This communication is of so much interest that I 

* M. L'ABb'6 Coclidt states (/.0. p. 8) Biktake al)out tliese apecimens ; at least 

that similar weapons lia^^e been foand M. Poucliet, wbo receiyed us at Eouen 

at Sotteville, near Rouen, and are de- with the greatest courtesy, was quite 

posited in the M«s4e d'Antiquit^s. unaware of any such discoyery. 
There seems, howoTer, to be some 


MR. FREKE's discovery 

have thought it desirable to reproduce his figures, reduced 
one-half (figs. 135-138). 
Again, twenty-five years ago, Mr. Whitburn, of Godahning,* 

Fio. 135. ' Fio. 136. 

Flint Implement from Hoxne. 

while examining the gravel pits between Guildford, and 
Godahning, remarked a peculiar flint, which he carried away, 
and has since preserved in his collection. .It belongs to the 
" drift " type, but is very rude. Thus, this peculiar type of 
flint implement has been actually found in association with 
the bones of the mammoth on various occasions during 
nearly a hundred and fifty years ! While, however, these 
instances remarkably corroborate the statements made by M. 

♦ Prestwich, Geol. Jour. August, 1861. 

IN 1800. 


Boucher de Perthes, they in no way detract from the credit 
due to that gentleman. 
In addition to the above-mentioned, similar hatchets have 

Fio. 137. 

Fio. 138. 

Flint Implement from Hozne. 

been already found in Suffolk, Kent, Bedfordshire, Hertford- 
shire, Wiltshire, Hampshire, and elsewhere. In the first of 



these counties^ Mr. Warren, of Ixworth, found one on a heap 
of gravel near Icklingham, which having been accidentally 
seen by Mr. Evans led to the discovery of niunerous other 
specimens. One of these specimens closely resembles the one 
represented in pi. 1, fig. 10, which was given to me by M. 
Marcotte of Abbeville, who obtained it from Moulin Quignon. 

The next discovery was made by Mr. Leech, on the shore 
between Heme Bay and Reculvers, whence many specimens 
have been obtained, six by Mr. Leech, and others by Messrs. 
Evans, Prestwich and Wyatt. In the gravel near Bedford, 
again associated with the remains of the mammoth, rhino- 
ceros, hippopotamus, ox, horse, and deer, Mr. Wyatt* has 
found flint implements resembling both of the two principal 
types found at Abbeville and Amiens. This case is very 
interesting, because it shows that the drift flint hatchets are 
subsequent to the boidder clay ; the Bedford vaUey being 
' cut through hills capped by a deposit of that period. At 
Hoxne the bed containing flint implements appear actually 
to rest on the boulder clay. 

Mr. EvaQs himself, near Abbot's Langley, in Hertford- 
shire, has picked up on the surface of a field a weathered 
hatchet with the top broken off, but otherwifie identical in 
form with the spearhead-shaped specimens from Amiens 
and Heme Bay. 

Another implement of the round pointed form has been 
discovered in Kent (Nov. 1861), on the surface of the ground 
at the top of the hiU on the east side of the Darent, about 
a mile E.S.E. of Horton Kirby, by Mr. Whitaker, F.G.S., of 
the Geological Survey ;"t and several more have since been ob- 
tained by Mr. Whitaker and Mr. Hughes. Mr. H. G. NormoQ 
found a single specimen in Kent, near Greenstreet Green, a 

♦ Flint Implements in the Drift. By J. Wyatt. Bedfordshire Architectural 
and Archaeological Society, 1862. 
t 'EyOds^ ArchsBologia, 1861, p. 18. 


locality which is interesting as haying produced remains, 
not only of the mammoth, but also of the musk ox. 

Since my first visit in 1860, I have been several times to 
the Valley of the Somme, and have examined all the prin- 
cipal pits : though I have never met with a perfect hatchet, 
I have found two implements, which were quite unmistake- 
able, though rude and fragmentary. 

But why, it may be asked, should the history of this 
question be thus recounted P Why should it be treated dif- 
ferently from any other scientific discovery? The answer 
is not di£S.cidt. That the statement by Mr. Frere has been 
neglected for more than half a century ; that the weapon 
found by Mr. Gonyers has lain imnoticed for more than double 
that time ; that the discoveries by M. Boucher de Perthes 
have been ignored for fifteen years ; that the numerous cases 
in which caves have contained the remains of men together 
with those of extinct animals have been suppressed or ex- 
plained away:* are facts which show how deeply rooted 
was the conviction that man belonged altogether to a more 
recent order of things ; and, whatever other accusation may 
be brought against them, geologists can at least not be said 
to have hastily accepted the theory of the coexistence of the 
human race with the now extinct Pachydermata of Northern 

Though, however, the distinguished geologists to whom I 
have referred, have all, with one exception, expressed them- 
selves more or less strongly as to the great antiquity of these 
curious weapons, still, I do not wish that they shoidd be 
received as judges ; I only claim the right to summon them 
as witnesses. 

* It is not yet ten years since a com- Vivian, that worked flints occurred in 

munication from the Torquay Natural £enf s Hole with remains of extinct 

History Society, confirming the state- species, was rejected as too improbable 

ments made long before by Mr. Grodwin for publication. 
Austen, the Bey. Mr. M'Enery and Mr. 


The questions to be decided may be stated as foflows : — 

1st. Are the so-called flint implements of human work- 

2ndly. Are the flint implements of the same age as the 
beds in which they are found, and the bones of the extinct 
animals with which they occur P 

3rdly. What are the conditions under which these beds 
were deposited ? and how far are we justified in imputing to 
them a great antiquity P 

To the first two of these questions an affirmative answer 
would be given, almost unanimously, by those geologists who 
have given any special attention to the subject. Fortunately, 
however, for the sake of the discussion, there is one exception ; 
Blackwood's Magazine for October, 1860, contains an able 
article in which the last two questions are maintained to be 
still unanswered, and in which, therefore, a verdict of " Not 
Proven " is demanded. Not, indeed, that there is any dif- 
ference of opinion as to the weapons themselves. "They 
bear," admits the writer (p. 438), "unmistakeably the indica- 
tions of having. been shaped by the skill of man." " For more 
than twenty years," says another competent witness — ^Prof. 
Kamsay, " I have daily handled stones, whether fashioned by 
nature or art, and the flint hatchets of Amiens and Abbeville 
seem to me as clearly works of art as any Sheffield whittle."* 
But best of all, an hour or two spent in examining the 
forms of ordinary flint gravel, would, I am sure, convince 
any man that these stones, rude though they be, are unde- 
niably fashioned by the hand of man. 

StiU, it might be supposed that they were forgeries, made by 
ingenious workmen to entrap unwary geologists. They have, 
however, been found by Messrs. Boucher de Perthes, Henslow, 
Christy, Flower, Wyatt, Evans, myself, and others. One seen, 
though not found by himself in situ, is thus described by 
♦ Athenaeum, July 16, 1869. 


Mr. Prestwich : " It was lying flat in the gravel at a depth of 
seventeen feet from the original surface, and six and a half 
from the chalk. One side sKghtly projected. The gravel 
aromid was undisturbed, and presented its usual perpendicular 
face. I carefully examined the specimen, and saw no reason 
to doubt that it was in its natural position, for the gravel is 
generally so loose, that a blow with a pick disturbs and brings 
it down for some way around ; and the matrix is too little 
adbesive to admit of its being built up again as before with the 

same materials I found also afterwards, on taking out the 

flint, that it was the thinnest side which projected, the other 
side being less finished and much thicker."* But evidence of 
this nature, though interesting, is unnecessary ; thejlinh speak 
for themselves. Those which have lain in siliceous or chalky 
sands are more or less polished and have a beautiful glossiness 
of surface, very unlike that of a newly-broken flint. In 
ochreous sand, "especially if argillaceous, they are stained 
yeUow, whilst in ferruginous sands and clays they assume a 
brown colour," oad in some beds they become white and 
pordblanous. In many cases, moreover, they have incrusta- 
tions of carbonate of lime and small dendritic markings. 
Freshly-broken chalk flints, on the contrary, are of a dull 
black or leaden color ; they vary a little in darkness but not 
in color, and do not present white or yellow faces ; moreover, 
the new surfaces are dead, and want the glossiness of those 
which have been long exposed. It is almost unnecessary to 
say, that they have no dendritic markings, nor are they 
incrusted by carbonate of lime. 

Now the forgeries — ^for there are forgeries — difier from the 
genuine implements by just those characters which distinguish 
newly-broken flints from those which have lain long in sand 
or gravel, or exposed to atmospheric agencies. They are 
black ; never white or yellow ; their surfaces are not glossy, 
• PhU. Trans. 1860, p. 292. 



but dull and lustreless, and they liave no dendritic markings 
or incrustations. Nor would it be possible for an in- 
genious rogue to deceive us by taking a stained flint and 
fashioning it into a hatchet ; because the discoloration of the 
flint is quite superficial, seldom more than a quarter of an 
inch in thickness, and follows the outline of the present 
surface, showing that the change of color was subsequent to 
the manufacture ; while if such a flint was tampered with, 
the fraud would be easily detected, as each blow' would 
remove part of the outer coating, and expose the black flint 
inside, as may be seen in pi. 1, fig. 11. 

Moreover, it must be remembered, that when M. Boucher 
de Perthes' work was published, the weapons therein de- 
scribed were totally unlike any familiar to archsBologists. 
Since that time, however, not only have similar implements 
been found both in England and France, but, as already 
mentioned, it has since come to light that similar weapons 
were in two cases actually described imd figured in England 
many years ago, and that in both these instances they were 
found in association with the bones of extinct animals.* On 
this point, therefore, no evidence could be more conclusive. 

We may, then, pass on to the second subject, and consider. 
Whether the Flint implements are as old as the beds in 
which they occur, and as the remains of extinct mammalia 
with which they are associated. 

It has been suggested by some writers, that though they 
are reaUy found in the mammaliferous gravel, they may be 
comparatively recent, and belong really to the Neolithic or 
later Stone age, but have gradually sunk down from above 
by their own weight, or perliaps have been buried in artificial 
excavations. There are, however, no cracks or fissures by 
which the hatchets could have reached their present positions, 
and the strata are "altogether too compact and immoveable 
to admit of any such insinuation or percolation of surface 


objects.* Nor could any ancient excavations have been made 
and .filled in again without leaving evident traces of the 
change. Moreover, we may in this case also appeal to the 
flint implements themselves, which, as we have already seen, 
agree in color and appearance with the gravel in which they 
occur ; and it seems, therefore, only reasonable to infer that 
they have been subjected to the same influences. Moreover, 
if they belonged to tiie later Stone period, and had found 
their way by any accident into these gravels, then they ought 
to correspond with the other flint implements of the Stone 
period. But this is not the case. The flakes, indeed, oflfer no 
peculiarities of form. Similar splinters of flint, or obsidian, have 
been used from the want of metal by savage tribes in almost 
all ages and aU countries. The other implements, on the con- 
trary, are very characteristic. All those hitherto discovered 
are made of flint, whereas many other minerals, such, for in- 
stance, as serpentine, jade, clayslate, etc., were used in the later 
Stone age. Their forms are also peculiar; some are oval 
(pi, 1, fig. 11), chipped up to an edge all round, and from two 
to eight or nine inches in length. They suggest the idea of 
slingstones, but some of them at least seem too large for such 
a purpose. A second type is also oval, but somewhat pointed 
at one end (pL 1, fig. 10, and figs. 136, 136). Others again 
figs. 137, 138) have a more or less heavy butt end and are 
pointed at the other. Mr. Evans seems to regard these f as 
having served as spear or lance heads. He treats as a mere 
variety of this type those implements in which the cutting 
end is rounded off but not pointed. Some of these were 
evidently intended to be held in the hand, and probably 
served a different purpose ; they may, I think, fairly be con- 
sidered as a fourth type, though it must be confessed that all 
these types run very much into one another, and in any 
large collection many intermediate forms may be found. The 
• Blackwood, l,e. f l.e, 1860, p. 11. 


smaller end is, in all cases, the one adapted for cutting, 
while the reverse is almost invariably the case in the oval 
celts of the Neolithic Stone age (figs. 71 and 72). 

AgaiQ, the flint implements of the drift are never polished 
or ground, but are always left rough. We may safely esti- 
mate that three thousand at least have been already found 
in the drift gravels of England and France, and of this large 
number there is not one which shows a trace of polishing or 
grinding ; while we know that the reverse was almost always 
the case with the celts of the later Stone period. It is true 
that the latter is not an invariable rule ; thus, in Denmark 
there are two forms of so-called "axes" which are left rough 
— ^namely, the small triangular axes of the Kjokkenmoddings 
(figs. 81-83) which are invariably so, and the large square- 
sided axes with which this is often the case. But these two 
forms of implements resemble in no other way those which 
are found in the drift, and could not for a moment be mis- 
taken for them. It is not going too far to say, that there is 
not a single well-authenticated instance of a "celt" being 
found in the drift, or of an implement of the drift type being 
discovered either in a tumidus, or associated with remains of 
the later Stone age. 

It is useless to specidate upon the use made of these rude 
yet venerable weapons. Almost as well might we ask, to what 
use could they not be applied P Numerous and specialised 
as are our modern instruments, who woidd care to describe 
the exact use of a knife P But the primitive savage had no 
such choice of weapons ; we see before us perhaps the whole 
contents of his workshop ; and with these implements, rude as 
they seem to us, he may have cut down trees, scooped them 
out into canoes, grubbed up roots, attacked his enemies, killed 
and cut up his food, made holes through the ice in winter, 
prepared firewood, etc. When, however, we shall have con- 
sidered the physical evidence as to the then condition of the 


country, and the contemporary animals, we shall be better 
able to form an idea of the habits of these our ancient and 
long lost progenitors. 

If we except the Moulin Quignon jaw, of which the au- 
thenticity is, to say the least, very doubtful, no bones of 
men have up to the present time been found ia the strata 
containiag the flint implements. This, though it has ap- 
peared to some so iuexplicable as to throw a doubt on 
the whole question, is, on consideration, less extraordinary 
than it might at first sight appear to be. If, for instance, 
we turn to other remains of human settlements, we shall 
find a repetition of the same phenomenon. Thus in the 
Danish refuse-heaps, where worked flints are a thousand 
times more plentiful than in the St. Acheul gravel, human 
bones are of the greatest rarity. At this period, as in the 
Drift age, mankind lived by hunting and fishing, and 
could not, therefore, be very numerous. In the era, how- 
ever, of the Swiss Lake-habitations, the case was different. 
M. Troyon estimates the population of the "Pfahlbeuten '* 
during the Stone age as about 32,000 ; in the Bronze 
era, 42,000. On these calculations, indeed, even their 
ingenious author would not probably place much reliance : 
still, the number of the Lake- villages already known is 
very considerable ; in four of the Swiss lakes only, more 
than seventy have been discovered, and some of them were 
of great extent : Wangen, for instance, being, according to 
M. Lohle, supported on more than 40,000 piles. Yet, if we 
exclude a few bones of children, human remains have been 
obtained from these settlements in five cases only. The num- 
ber of fiint implements obtained hitherto from the drift of the 
Somme valley, is not supposed to have greatly exceeded 3000 ;* 

* One of the tumuli in the Missis- implements. This, howeyer, mast have 
jippi Valley is estimated to have alone heen a yery exceptional case, 
contained nearly four thousand stone 


the settlement at Concise alone (Lake of Neufchatel) has 
supplied about 24,000, and yet has not produced a single 
human skeleton.* Probably this absence of bones is in 
part attributable to the habit of burying or burning; the 
instinct of man has long been in most cases to bury his dead 
out of his sight ; still, so far as the drift of St. Acheul is 
concerned, the difficulty will altogether disappear if we 
remember that no trace has ever yet been found of any animal 
as small as a man. The larger- and more solid bones of the 
elephant and hippopotamus, the ox, horse, and stag f remain, 
but every yestige of the smaller bones has perished. No one 
supposes that this scanty list fairly represents the mammalian 
fauna of this time and place. When we find the remains of the 
wolf/ boar, roedeer, badger, and other animals which existed 
during the drift period, then, and not till then, we may per- 
haps begin to wonder at the entire absence of human skeletons. 
We must also remember that when man lived on the . 
produce of the chase there must have been a very large 
number of wild animals to each hunter. Among the Lap- 
landers, 100 reindeer is the smallest number on which a 
man can subsist, and no one is considered rich who does not 
possess at least from 300 to 600. But these are domesti- 
cated, and a large supply of nourishment is derived from their 
milk. Li the case of wild animals we may safely assume 

* Bapport k la CommiBBion des Mu- used them in preference to all others^ 

B^GRf October, 1861, p. 16. nay almoBt exclusiyely, m the manii- 

t The bones of the stag owe their factnre of those instruments which 

preservation perhaps to another cause. could be made of bone — (Faun« der 

Prof. Riitimeyer teUs us that among Pfahlbauten,p. 12). How common the 

the bones from the Pfahlbauten none bones of the stag are in quaternary 

are in better condition than those of strata, geologists know, and we have 

the stag; this is the consequence, he here, perhaps, an explanation of the 

says, of their "dichten Gefiige, ihrer fact. The antler of the reindeer is also 

H'arte und Sprodigkeit, so wie der preferred at the present day by the 

grossen Fettlosigkeit," peculiarities Esquimaux in the manufacture of their 

which recommended them so strongly stone weapons. (Sir £. Belcher, Trans, 

to the men of the Stone age, that they Ethn. Soc. vol. i, p. 139.) 

scARcmr OF hxtmak bones. 283 

that even a larger number would be necessary. Again, the 
Hudson's Bay territory is said to comprise about 900,000,000 
acres. The number of Indians is estimated at 139,000. 
Allowing one wild animal to each twenty acres, this would 
give about 300 animals to each Indian; and again, if we 
consider the greater longevity of man, we must multiply this 
by six, or even more. Thus, then, it seems evident that the 
bones of animals are likely to be many hundred times more 
common than those of man in these gravels. 

As yet we have but partly answered the second of the two 
questions with which we started. Even admitting that the 
flint hatchets are coeval with the gpravel in which they occur, 
it remains to be shown that the bones of the extinct animals 
belong also to the same period. This has been doubted by 
some geologists, who have suggested that they may have 
been washed out of earlier strata. 

Taking the river-drifk gravels as a whole, the following are 
the mammalia, bones of which have been foimd in them : 
The mammoth, Elephasprimigenitis, Blum. 
„ antiquus, Falconer. 
Rhinoceros tichorhinus, Cuv. 

„ megarhinus, Christol. 

Hippopotamus major, Nesti. 
The musk ox, Ombos moschatus, Blain. 
The urns, Bos primigenius, Boj. 

The aurochs. Bison prisms, Boj. 

JEquus/ossilis, Owen. 
Cervus euryceros, Aldr. 
„ elaphus, Linn. 
The reindeer, „ iarandus, Linn. 

Ursus spekstM, Blum. 
Felis spekea, Owen. 
Hycena spekea, Guv. 


Most of these species are now extinct. Some few, as the 
Bos primigenius and Bison prisctcs, have come down to historic 
times; the reindeer, even now, abounds in the north; but 
only one, the stag, still occurs wild in Western Europe. If 
these bones, then, belonged to a period earlier than that of 
the gravel, where, we may ask, are the remains of the ani- 
mals which did exist at that time P Moreover, the bones, 
though sometimes much worn and broken, are at others, and 
even according to Mr. Prestwich, "as a general rule* either 
not rolled at all, or are slightly so." 

Secondly, these species, and particularly the mammoth and 
the woolly-haired rhinoceros, are the characteristic and com- 
monest species of these beds, not only in the Valley of the 
Somme, but in all the drift gravels of England and France ; 
while if they belonged in reality to an earlier period, they 
would not occur so constantly, and they would be accompanied 
by other species characteristic of earlier times. 

Thirdly, the materials forming the drift gravels of the 
Somme Valley have all been obtained from the present area 
of drainage, and there are in this district no older beds, from 
which the remains of these extinct mammalia could possibly 
have been derived. There are, indeed, outliers of tertiary 
strata, but the mammalian remains found in them belong to 
other, and much older species. 

Fourthly, as regards the rhinoceros, we have the express 
testimony of M. Baillon, that on one occasion all the bones 
of a hind leg were found in their natural positions, at 
Menchecourt near Abbeville, while the rest of the skeleton 
was found at a little distance. In this case, therefore, the 
animal must h^ve been entombed before the ligaments had 
decayed away. 

Finally, as regards the same animal, M. Lartet assures 

» Phil. Trans. U. p. 300. 


US* that some of the bones bear the marks of flint im- 
plements ; nay more than this, he has even satisfied himseK 
"by comparative trials on homologous portions of exist- 
ing animals, that incisions, presenting such appearances, 
could only be made in fresh bones, still retaining their 
cartilage." • 

There seems, then, no more reason for supposing that the 
bones of the extinct mammalia were washed out of earlier 
strata into the drift gravels, than for attributing such an 
origin to the implements themselves ; and we may, I think, 
regard it as well established, that the mammoth and woolly- 
haired rhinoceros, as well as the other mammalia above- 
mentioned, co-existed with the savages who used the rude 
" drift hatchets," at the time when the gravels of the Somme 
were being deposited. 

The second of the three questions with which we started 
(p. 276), may therefore be answered in the affirmative. 

Must we, then, carry man back very far into the past, or 
may we retain our date for the origin of mankind by 
bringing the extinct animals down to comparatively re- 
cent times? The absence of all tradition of the elephant 
and rhinoceros in Europe carries us back far indeed in 
years, but a little way only, when measured by geological 
standards, and we must therefore solve this question by 
examining the drift gravels themselves, the materials of 
which they are composed, and the positions which they 
occupy, so as to determine, if possible, the conditions under 
which they were deposited, and the lapse of time which 
they indicate. 

In this third division of the subject I shall again follow 
Mr. Prestwich, who has long studied the quaternary beds, and 
has done more than any other man to render them intelligible. 

• Geological Jour. vol. xvi., p. 471. 




Fzo. 1S9. 



Fig. 139 gives a section across the 
valley of the Somme at Abbeville, taken 
from Mr. Prestwich's first paper.* We 
should find aknost the same arrangement 
and position of the difiPerent beds, not 
only at St. Acheul, but elsewhere along 
the valley of the Somme, wherever the 
higher beds of gravel have not been 
removed by subsequent action of the 
river. Even at St. Val^ry, at the pre- 
sent mouth of the river, I found a bed 
of gravel at a considerable height above 
the level of the sea. This would seem 
to show that at the period of these high 
level gravels, the English Channel was 
narrower than it is at present, as indeed 
we know to have been the case even in 
historical times. So early as 1605 our 
countryman Yerstegan pointed out that 
the waves and tides were eating away 
our coasts. Sir C. LyeUf gives much 
information on this subject, and it ap- 
pears that even so lately as the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth, the town of Brighton 
was situated on the site now occupied 
^ by the Chain Pier. 

Mr. Prestwich has pointed out % that 
I a section, similar to that of the Somme> 
^ is presented by the Lark, Waveney, 
Ouse, etc., while it is weU shown also 
along the banks of the Seine. Probably, 

'*'^rso'rj^t*Ab»."' indeed, it holds good of most of our 

• Phil. Trans. 1860. t See Principles of Geology, p. 316. 

J Phil. Trans. 1864. 

ST. ACHEUL. 287 

rivers, that along the sides of their valleys sire patches of old 
gravels left by the stream at various heights, before they had 
excavated the channels to their present depth. Mr. Prest- 
wich considers that the beds of sand and gravel can generally 
be divided into two more or less distinct series, one continuous 
along the bottom of the valleys and rising little above the 
water level — ^these he calls the low level gravels ; the other, 
which he terms the upper or high level gravels, occurring 
in detached masses at an elevation of from fifty to two him- 
dred feet above the vaUey. They seem to me to be only the 
two extremes of a single series, once continuous, but now 
generally presenting some interruption. A more magnified 
view of the strata at St. AcheuL, near Amiens, is shown in 

Fio. 140. 

,* *V» i?> • •-♦ • w •-. 

Section at St. Acheol. 

fig. 140. The upper layer of vegetable soil having been 
removed, we have 

1. A bed of brick earth (a) from four to five feet in thick- 
ness, and containing a few angular flints. 

2. Below this is a thin layer of angular gravel (J), one to 
two feet in thickness. 

3. Still lower is a bed of sandy marl (c), five to six feet 
thick, with land and fresh water shells, which, though very 
delicate, are in most cases perfect. 

4. At the bottom of all these, and immediately overlying 
the chalk, is the bed of partially rounded gravel (d) in which 


288 ST. ACHEUL. 

principally the flint implements are found. This layer also 
contains many well-rolled tertiary pebbles. 

In the early Christian period this spot was used as a 
cemetery : the graves generally descend into the marly sand, 
and their limits are very distinctly marked, as in fig. 140/; 
an important fact, as showing that the rest of the strata have 
lain undisturbed for 1500 years. Some of the coffins were 
of hard chalk (fig. 140 e), some of wood, in which latter case 
the nails and clamps only remain, every particle of wood 
having perished, without leaving even a stain behind. 
Passing down the hill towards the river, all these strata are 
seen to die out, and we find ourselves on the bare chalk; 
but again at a lower level occurs another bed of gravel, 
resembling the first, and capped also by the bed of brick 
earth which is generally known as loess. This lower bed of 
gravel is that called by Mr. Prestwich the lower level gravel. 

These strata, therefore, are witnesses ; but of what ? Are 
they older than the valley, or the valley than they ? are they 
the result of causes still iu operation, or the offspriug of 
cataclysms now, happily, at an end ? 

If we can show that the present river, somewhat swollen 
perhaps, owing to the greater extension of forests in ancient 
times, and by an alteration of climate, has excavated the 
present valley, and produced the strata above enumerated; 
then " the suggestion of an antiquity for the human family 
so remote as is here implied, in the length of ages required 
by the gentle rivers and small streams* of eastern Prance to 
erode its whole plain to the depths at which they now flow, 
acquires, it must be confessed, a fascinating grandeur, when, 
by similitude of feature and geology, we extend the hypo- 
thesis to the whole north-west frontiers of the continent, and 
assume, that from the estuary of the Seiue to the eastern 
shores of the Baltic, every internal feature of valley, dale 
and ravine — ^in short, the entire intaglio of .the surface — ^has 


been moulded by running waters^ since the advent of the 
human race/** 

But, on the other hand, it has been maintained that the 
pliant &ctB may be read as ''expressions of violent and 
sudden mutations, only compatible with altogether briefer 
periods/' The argument of the Paroxysmist, I still quote 
from Blackwood, would probably be something like the 
following : — 

" Assuming the pre-existing relief, or excavation rather, of 
the surface to have approximated to that now prevailing, he 
will account for the gravel by supposing a sudden rocking 
movement of the lands and the bottom of the sea of the 
nature of an earthquake, or a succession of them, to have 
launched a portion of the temporarily uplifted waters upon 
the surface of the land.'' 

Let us, however, examine the strata, and see whether the 
evidence they give is in reality so confused and contradictory. 

Taking the section at St. Acheul and commencing at the 
bottom, we have first of all the partially rounded high-level 
gravel, throughout which, and especially at the lower part, 
the flint implements occur. 

These beds but rarely contain vegetable remains. Large 
pieces of the oak, yew, and fir have, however, been determined 
at Hoxne. The mammalia, also, are but few ; the mammoth, 
the Elephaa antiquiis, with species of JBos, Cervas, and JEquas 
are the only ones which have yet occurred at St. Acheul, 
though beds of the same age in other parts of England and 
France have added the Rhinoceros tichorhinus, and the Cervu8 
iarandtM. The mollusca, however, are more numerous ; they 
have been identified by Mr. J. Q-. Jeffireys, who finds in the 
upper level gravel thirty-six species, all of them land or 
freshwater forms, and all belonging to existing species. It 
is hardly necessary to add, that these shells are not found in 
* Blackwood's Magazine, October, I860. 



the coarse gravel, but only here and there, where quieter 
conditions, indicated by a seam of finer materials, have pre- 
served them £rom destruction. Here, therefore, we have a 
conclusive answer to the suggestion that the gravel may 
have been heaped up to its present height by a sudden ir- 
ruption of the sea. In that case, we should find some marine 
remains ; but as we do not, as all the fossils belong to aninials 
which live on the land, or inhabit fresh waters, it is at once 
evident that this stratum, not being subaenal^ must be a 
freshwater deposit. 

But the gravel itself tells us even more than this: the 
river Somme flows through a country in which there are no 
rocks older than the chalk, and the gravel in its valley con- 
sists entirely of chalk flints and tertiary debris.* The Seine, 
on the other hand, receives tributaries which drain other 
formations. In the valley of the Tonne we find fragments of 
the crystalline rocks brought from the Morvan.t The Aube 
runs through cretaceous and Jurassic strata, and the gravels 
along its valley are entirely composed of materials derived 
from these formations. The valley of the Oise is in this 
respect particularly instructive : " De Maquenoise & Hirson { 
la valine ne pr^sente que des fragments plus ou moins 
roul^s des roches de transition que traverse le cours de 
la riviere. En descendant i, EtriSaupont, on y trouve des 
calcaires jurassiques et des silex de la craie, formations 
qui ont succ^d^ aux roches anciennes. A Gxiise, le d^pdt 
erratique « .... est compost de quartzites et de schistes 
de transition de quelques gr^s plus recents, de silex de 
la craie, et surtout de quartz laiteux, dont le volume varie 
depuis celui de la t£te jusqu'd celui de grains de sable .... 
An deU les fragments de roches anciennes diminuent gra- 
duellenaent en volume et en nombre." At Paris the 

♦ Butenx, U. p. 98. f D'ArcWac, Progree de la Geologic, p. 168. 

X D'Arohiac, l.e, p. 166, 


granitic debris brought down by the Yonne fonns a notable 
proportion of the gravel ; and at Pr^cy, near Creil on the 
Oise, the fragments of the ancient rocks are abundant^ 
but lower down the Seine at Mantes, they diTniuish very 
much in quantity, and at Bouen and Pont de TArche I 
saw none, though a longer search would doubtless have shown 
fragments of them. This case of the Oise is however in- 
teresting, not only on accoimt of the valuable evidence con- 
tained in the above quotation ; but because, though the river 
flows, as a glance at the map will show, immediately across 
and at right angles to the Somme, yet none of the ancient 
rocks which form the valley of the Oise have supplied any 
debris to the valley of the Somme : and this, though the two 
rivers are at one point within six miles of one another, and 
separated by a ridge only eighty feet in height. 

The same division occurs between the Seine and the Loire : 
*' Bien que la ligne de partage des eaux de la Loire et de la 
Seine, entre St. Amand (Nidvre) et Artenay, au nord d' Orleans, 
soit k peine sensible, aucun debris de roches venant du centre 
de la France, par la valine de la Loire n'est pass^ dans le 
bassin de la Seine.* 

In the Vivarais near Auvergne, "Les d^pdts diluviens 
sent composes des m^mes roches que ceUes que les rivieres 
actueUes entratnent dans les valines, et sent les debris des 
seides montagnes de la Lozin, du Tanargue et du M^zdne, 
qui entourent le bassin du Vivarais." f 


"Le diluvium des valines de TAisne et de I'Aire ne ren- 
ferme que les debris plus ou moins roul^s des terrains que 
ces rivieres coupent dans leur cours." J 

Finally, Mr. Prestwich has pointed out that the same 
thing holds good in various English rivers. The conclusion 

• lyArchiac, le, p. 164. f D'Archiac, le, p. 160. 

\ Malbofl. Bull. Oeol. toI. iii. p. 631. 


deduced by M. D'Archiac from the condderation of these 
observations, and specially from those concerning the valley 
of the Seine, is ''Que les courants diluviens ne venaient 
point d'une direction unique mais qu'ils convergaient des 
bords du bassin vers son centre, suivant les depressions pr^ 
existantes, et qtie leur Siivation ou leur force de transport ne 
suffiaait pas pour /aire passer les Mbris quHls charriaient d'une 
de ces valines dans V autre.'' ♦ 

Considering, however, all these facts, remembering that 
the constituents of these river-drifk gravels, are, in all cases, 
derived from beds now in situ along the valley, that they 
have not only followed the lines of these valleys, but have 
done so in the direction of the present waterflow, and 
without in any case passing across from one river system 
to another, it seems quite unnecessary to call in the assistance 
of diluvial waves, or indeed any other agency than that of 
the rivers themselves. 

There are, however, certain facts in the case which haye 
been regarded by most geologists as fatal to this hypothesis, 
and which prevented M. D'Archiac, and we may add the 
French geologists generally, from adopting an explanation so 
simple and so obvious. These difficulties appear to have 
been two-fold; or at least the two principal were, firstly, 
the large sandstone blocks which are scattered throughout 
the river gravels of Northern and Central France; and, 
secondly, the height at which the upper level gravels stand 
above the present water line. We will consider these two 
objections separately. 

It must be admitted that the presence of the sandstone blocks 
in the gravels appear at first sight to be irreconcileable with 
our hypothesis. In some places they occur frequently, and are 
of considerable size ; the largest I have myseK seen is repre-. 
sented in the section, fig. 141, taken close to the railway 
• U. p. 163, 



station at Joinville. It was 8 ft. 6 in. in length, with a width 
of 2ft. Sin. and a thickness of 3ft. 4 in. Even when we 
remember that at the time of its deposition the yalley was 
not excayated to its present depth, we must still feel that a 

Hg. 141. 


body of water with power to move such masses as these must 
have been very different from any floods now occurring in 
those valleys, and might fairly deserve the name of a 
cataclysm. But whence could we obtain so great a quan- 
tity of water? We have already seen* that the gravel of 
the Oise, though so near, is entirely imlike that of the 
Somme, while that of the Seine, again, is quite different from 
that of any of the neighbouring rivers. These rivers, there- 
fore, cannot have drained a larger area than at present ; the 
river systems must have been the same as now. Nor would 
the supposition, after aU, account for the phenomena. We 
should but fall from Scylla into Charybdis. Around the 
blocks we see no evidence of violent action ; in the section at 
Joinville, the grey subangular gravel passed under the large 
block above-mentioned, with scarcely any traces of disturbance. 
But a flood which could bring down so great a mass would cer- 
tainly have swept away the comparatively light and moveable 
gravel below. We cannot, therefore, account for the phe- 
nomena by aqueous actioji, because a flood which would 
deposit the sandstone blocks would remove the underlying 
gravel, and a flood which would deposit the gravel would 


not move the blocks. The Deus ex machinll has not only 
been called in most unnecessarily^ but, when examined, turns 
out to be but an idol after all. 

Driven, then, to seek some other explanation of the diffi- 
culty, Mr. Prestwich falls back on that of floating ice. 
Here we have an agency which would satisfactorily explain 
all the difficulties of the case. The "packing" and pro- 
pelling action of ice would also account for some irregulari- 
ties in the arrangement of the beds which are very difficult 
otherwise to understand. We are, indeed, irresistibly re- 
minded of the figure given by Sir Charles Lyell* f5pom a 
view taken by Lieut. Bowen, of the boulders drifted by ice 
on the shores of the St. Lawrence. Sir C. Lyell*s work 
is in the hands of almost every geologist, and it wHl, 
perhaps, therefore, be unnecessary for me to quote the 
accompanying description, accurately as it portrays what 
must, we think, have be^i taking place in the valley of the 
Somme thousands of years ago, just as it does in that of the 
St. Lawrence at the present time. Nor is it the physical evi- 
dence only, which points to an arctic climate during the period 
now under consideration ; the fauna also tells the same tale. 
The mollusca, indeed, do not afiPord much evidence, but 
though mainly the same as those now living in the country, 
they have northern tendencies, 34 out of 36 species being 
at present found in Sweden,t while 29 occur in Lombardy. 
These latter, however, are principally species having a very 
wide range, and we shall see still more clearly that the 
leaning of the molluscan fauna is towards the north, if we 
remember that out of 77 Finland species, 31 have been 
found in the upper level gravels, while of 193 Lombard 
species only 29 have as yet occurred. 

The evidence derived from t^ie mammalia is more con- 
clusive. The presence of the reindeer is itself a dear indi- 

• FrinoiplQi, 1863, p. 220. f Proo. Boy, Soc., 1862, p. 44. 


cation of a cold climate^ and the circiuastances attending the 
discovery of the tichorhine rhinoceros in Siberia, the fact that 
the mammoth of the Lena was enveloped in ice so soon after 
death, that the flesh had not had time to decay, as well as 
the manner in which the extinct Pachydermata were pro- 
vided against cold, clearly show that the JElephas primigenius 
and the Rhinoceros tichorhinus, unlike their congeners of to- 
day, were inhabitants rather of arctic, than of tropical, 

If we were to take the river gravels as a whole, the . 
, evidence as to climate would be still stronger, because to the 
above species we might then add the. Norwegian lemming, 
the Myodes torquatus, and last, not least, the musk ox. These 
three species, have, however, not y^t been found in the 
upper level gravels. 

Taking the &ima and flora as his guide, Mr. Prestwich 
assumes that a country where the oak, the yew, the flr, and 
the bilberry flourished, where the deer, ox, horse, and rein- 
deer abounded, and where the rivers froze so as to transport 
large boulders for considerable distances, " presents conditions 
which would probably accord with a mean winter cold of not 
less than 20^, while it may have been as low as 10^, or even 
lower. This would be from 19° to 29°* below " our present 
temperature. While, however, the evidence of a more severe 
climate seems to be conclusive, we are hardly as yet in a 
condition to estimate with any degree of probability the 
actual amount of change which has taken place. 

It must always be borne in mind that the temperature of 
Western Europe is at present exceptionally mild ; if we go 
either to the east or west, to Canada or Siberia, we find 
countries under the same latitude as London and Paris, 
suflering under a far more severe climate. 

The river St. Lawrence, to which I have already pointed 
• Prestwich, Phil. Trans. 1864, p. 281. 


as throwing so much light on the transport of the blocks 
now in question, is actually in a lower latitude than the Seine 
or the Somme. Moreover, geologists are agreed that at the 
period of the boulder clay, a period immediately preceding 
that now under consideration, the cold in Western Europe 
must have been far more intense than it is at present. The 
subject has been discussed in an excellent paper by Mr. 
Hopkins* (then President of the Geological Society), and it 
is admitted (p. 61) that many of our rivers have probably 
followed their present directions *'ever since the glacial 
period.'* Mr. Prestwich's hypothesis involves therefore in 
reality no change in our views as to the climate of Western 
Europe. He only supposes that, in this early period of our 
rivers, the temperatuie resembled that which had preceded, 
more than that which now prevails; or, rather, perhaps, 
that, in this intermediate period, the climate had neither 
the extreme severity of the glacial era, nor the exceptional 
mildness of modem times. 

But though thus explaining the manner in which the 
sandstone blocks may have been transported, these considera- 
tions throw no light on the change of conditions which must 
have taken place to produce an alteration of climate so great 
as that which is supposed to have taken place. 

In Mr. Hopkins' memoir on the subject, the principal 
causes which have been suggested for this change of climate 
are the following: — 

Firstly. A variation in the intensity of solar radiation. 

To this theory Mr. Hopkins sees no d priori objection; but 
he does not feel disposed to attach much weight to it, because 
it is *^ a mere hypothesis framed to accoimt fo^ a single and 
limited class of facts, and unsupported by the testimony of 
any other class of allied, but independent phenomena.'' 

It is, however, open to the objections stated with gteat 
^ Geol. Journal, 1852, p. 56. 


force by Professor Tyndall,* who argues that the ancient 
glaciers indicate the action of heat as much as of cold. 
" Cold," he says, "will not produce glaciers. You may haye 
the bitterest north-east winds here in London throughout the 
winter, without a single flake of snow. Cold must have the 
fitting object to operate upon, and this object — ^the aqueous 
vapouj* of the air — ^is t!ic direct product of heat. Let us put 
this glacier question in another form : the latent heat of 
aqueous vapour, at the temperature of its production in the 
tropics, is about 1,000^ Fahr., for the latent heat grows 
larger as the temperature of evaporation descends. A pound 
of water thus vapourised at the equator, has absorbed one 
thousand times the quantity of heat which would raise a 

pound of the liquid one degree in temperature It is 

perfectly manifest that by weakening the sun's action, either 
through a defect of emission, or by the steeping of the entire 
solar system in space of a low temperature, we should be 
cutting off the glaciers at their source." 

Secondly. Admitting the proper motion of the sun, it has 
been suggested that we may have recently passed from a 
colder into a warmer region of space. 

I must refer to Mr. Hopkins' memoir for his objections to 
this suggestion ; they certainly appear to "render the theory 
utterly inapplicable to the explanation of the changes of 
temperature at the more recent geological epochs." 

This hypothesis, moreover, is liable to the same fatal ob- 
jection as the first. To produce snow requires both heat and 
cold ; the first to cause evaporation, the second to produce 
condensation. In fact, what we require is a greater contrast 
between the temperature of the tropics and that of our lati- 
tudes; so that, paradoxical as it may appear, the primary 
cause of the " glacial " epoch may be, after all, an elevation 
of temperature in the tropics, causing a greater amount of 
* Heat Considered as a Mode of Motion, p. 192. 


evaporation in the equatorial regions and consequently a 
greater supply of the raw material of snow in the temperate 
regions during the winter months. 

Thirdly. The effect of an altered position of land and water. 

This cause, which has been advocated by Sir C. Lyell 
might, indeed, have the effect attributed to it ; but it seems 
scarcely applicable to the present difficulty, because the 
geography of Western Europe must have been nearly the 
same during the period imder consideration, as it is at 

Fourthly. An alteration in the earth's axis. 

The possibility of such a change has been denied by 
many astronomers. Sir J. W. Lubbock, on the contrary, has 
maintained* that it would necessarily &llow from upheavals 
and depressions of the earth's surfeice, if only they were of 
sufficient magnitude. The same view has recently been taken 
by other mathematicians. This suggestion, however, like 
the preceding, involves immense geographical changes, and 
would therefore necessarily have required an enormous lapse 
of time. 

Fifthly. Mr. Hopkins inclines to find another solution of 
the difficulty in the supposition that the Gulf Stream did 
not at this period warm the shores of Europe. "A de- 
pression of 2000 feet would," he says, " convert the Missis- 
sippi i»to a great arm of the sea, of which the present Gulf 
of Mexico would form the southern extremity, and which 
would communicate at its northern extremity with the 
waters occupying the .... great valley now occupied by 
the chain of lakes*" In this case the Gulf Stream would no 
longer be deflected by the American coasts, but would pass 
directly up this channel into the Arctic Sea ; and as every 
great ocean current must have its counter current, it is 
probable that there would be a flow of cold water from the 
♦ Geol. Jour. vol. y. p. 4. 


north, between the coasts of Norway and Greenland. The 
absence of the Gulf Stream would probably lower the 
January temperature of Western Europe ten degrees, while 
the presence of a cold current from the north would make 
a farther difference of about three or four degrees ;* an 
alteration of the climate which would apparently be sufficient 
to account for all the phenomena. This theory, Mr. Hopkins 
considers as no mere hypothesis, but as necessarily following 
from the submergence of North America, which has been 
inferred from evidence of a different nature. 

In this case, of course, the periods of great cold in Europe 
and in America must have been successive, and not syn- 
chronous; and it must also be observed, that in this sug- 
gested deflection of the Gulf Stream, Mr. Hopkins was 
contemplating a period anterior to that of the present 
rivers. For if we are to adopt this solution of the diffi- 
culty, an immense time would be required. If, when the 
gravels and loess of the Somme and the Seine were being 
deiK)sited, the Ghdf Stream was passing up what is now the 
VaUey of the Mississippi, then it follows that the formation 
of the loess in that vaUey and its delta, an accumulation 
which Sir C. Lyell has shown to require a period of about 
100,000 years, would be subsequent to the excavation of the 
Somme Valley, and to the presence of man in Western 

Thus, therefore, though the alteration of climate ap- 
parently indicated by the zoological contents and the physi- 
cal condition of the beds might, by increasing the power of 
the floods, add to the erosive action of the river, and by 
this means diminish, on the one hand, the time required for 
the excavation of the valley, still the very alteration itself 
appears, on the other, to require an even greater lapse of time. 

But though the presence o£ the sandstone blocks, and 
* Hopkins, Le, p. 85. 


the occasional contortions of the strata, are in perfect ac- 
cordance with the view of Mr. Prestwich, that the gravels 
have been deposited by the rivers, our second difficulty still 
remains — namely, the height at which the upper-level 
gravels stand above the present water-line. We cannot 
wonder that these beds have generally been attributed to 
violent cataclysms. 

M. Boucher de Perthes has always been of this opinion. 
" Ce coquillage,*' he says, " cet ^l^phant, cette hache, ou la 
main qui la fabriqua, furent done t^moins du cataclysme qui 
donna a notre pays sa configuration pr^sente." * 

M. C. D'Orbigny, observing that the fossils foimd in these 
quaternary beds are all either of land or freshwater animals, 
correctly dismisses the theory of any marine action, and ex- 
presses himself as follows : — " En effet Topinion de la plupart 
des g^ologues est que les cataclysmes diluviens ont eu pour 
causes pr^dominantes de fortes oscillations de T^corce ter- 
restre, des soul^vements de montagnes au miKeu de I'oc^an, 
d'ou seraient r^sultfees de grandes Erosions. Par consequent 
les puissants courants d'eau marine, auxquels on attpbue ces 
Erosions diluviennes, auraient dii laisser sur les continents 
des traces authentiques de leur passage, tels que de nom- 
breux debris de coquilles, de poissons et autres animaux 
marins analogues k ceux qui vivent actuellement dans la 
mer. Or, ainsi que M. Cordier Ta fait remarquer depuis 
longtemps k son cours de geologic, rien de semblable n'a ki6 
constate. Sur tous les points du globe oii Ton a ^tudi^ les 
d^pdts diluviens, on a reconnu que, sauf quelques rares ex- 
ceptions tr^s contestables, il n'existe dans ces depdts aucun 
fossile marin : ou bien ce sont des fossiles arrach^s aux 
terrains pr^existants, dont la denudation a foumi les ma- 
teriaux qui composent le diluvium. En sorte que les depdts 
diluviens semblent avoir eu pour cause des phenomdnes 
* Mem. Soc. d'Em. I'AbbeTille, 1861, p. 475. 


m^t^orologiques, et paraissent 6tre le r^sultat d'imineiises 
inondations d^eau dlouce, et non d'eau marine, qui, se pre- 
cipitant des points Aleves vers la mer, auraient d^nud^ ime 
grande partie de la surface du sol, balaye la g^n^ralite des 
itres organises et pour ainsi dire nivele, coordonn^ les bassins 
hydrographiques actuels."* 

Such catitclysms as those supposed by M. D'Orbigny, and 
many other French geologists, even if admitted, would not 
account for the results before us. We have seen that the 
transport of materials has not followed any single direction, 
but has in all cases followed the lines oip the present valleys, 
and the direction of the present waterflow ; that the rocks 
of one valley are never transported into another; that the 
condition of the loess is irreconcileable with a great rush 
of water; that the mammals and molluscs are the same 
throughout the period ; while, finally, the perfect preserva^ 
tion of many of the most delicate shells is clear proof that 
they have not been subjected to any violent action. 

We must, moreover, bear in mind that the gravels and 
sands are themselves both the proof and the results of an 
immense denudation. • In a chalk country, such as that 
through which the Somme flows, each cubic foot of flint, 
gravel or sand, represents the removal of at the very least 
twenty cubic feet of chalk, all of which, as we have already 
seen, must have been removed from the present area of 
drainage. In considering, therefore, the formation of these 
upper and older gravels, we must not picture to ourselves the 
original valley as it now is, but must, in imagination, restore 
all that immense mass of chalk which has been destroyed in 
the formation of the lower level gravels and sands. Mr. 
Prestwich has endeavoured to illustrate this by a diagram,t 

♦ C. D'Orbigny, Bui. Geo. tod ser. V. xyu. p. 66. See also -D'Archiac, le, 
t Proceed. Boy. Soc. 1862, p. 41. 


and I must once more repeat tHat this is no mere Hypothesis, 
since the mass of sand and gravel cannot have been pro- 
duced without an immense removal of the chalk. On the 
whole, then, we may safely conqlude that the upper-level 
gravels were deposited by the existing river, before it had ex- 
cavated the valley to its present depth and when consequently 
it ran at a level considerably higher than the present. 

Far, therefore, from requiring an immense flood of water, 
two hundred feet in depth, the accumulation of the gravel 
may have been effected by an annual volume of water, differ- 
ing little from that of the present river. 

A given quantity of water will, however, produce very 
different effects, according to the manner in which it passes. 
" We learn from observation, that a velocity of three inches 
per second at the bottom will just begin to work upon fine 
clay fit for pottery, and however firm and compact it may be, 
it will tear it up. Tet no beds are more stable than clay 
when the velocities do not exceed this : for the water even 
takes away the impalpable particles of the superficial clay, 
leaving the particles of sand sticking by their lower half in 
the rest of the clay, which they now protect, making a very 
permanent bottom, if the stream does not bring down gravel 
or coarse sand, which will rub off this very thin crust, and 
allow another layer to be worn off. A velocity of six inches 
will lift; fine sand, eight inches will lift sand as coarse as 
linseed, twelve inches will sweep along fine gravel, twenty- 
four inches will roU along rounded pebbles an inch diameter, 
and it requires three feet per second at the bottom to sweep 
along shivery angular stones of the size of an egg.^' * 

If, therefore, we are justified in assuming a colder climate 

than that now existing, we should much increase the erosive 

action of the river, not only because the rains would fall on 

a frozen surface, but because the rainfall of the winter months 

• Cyc. Brit. Article "EiTew," p. 274. 


would accumulate on the higli grounds in the form of ice and 
snow, and would every spring produce floods much greater 
than any which now occur. 

We now come to the light-colored sandy marl (fig. 138 c). 
It is described by Mr.^Prestwich as follows : " White siliceous 
sand and light-colored marl, mixed with fine chalk grit, a 
few large sub-angular flints, and an occasional sandstone 
block, irregular patches of flint gravel, bedding waved and 
contorted, here and there layers with diagonal seams, a few 
03hreous bands, portions concreted. Sand and freshwater 
shells common, some mammalian remains.'^ 

In the pits at Amiens this bed is generally distinct from 
the imderlying gravels, owing perhaps to the upper portion 
of the gravel having been removed ; but in several places 
(Pc&)y, Ivry, BicStre, etc.) this section is complete, the 
coarser gravel below becoming finer and finer, and at length 
passing above into siliceous sand. These sections evidently 
indicate a gradual loss of power in the water at these parti- 
cular spots ; rapid enough at first to bring down large pebbles, 
its force became less and less imtil at length it was only able 
to deposit fine sand. This, therefore, appears to indicate a 
slight change in the course of the river, and gradual exca- . 
vation of the vaUey, which, by supplying the floods with a 
lower bed, left the waters at this height with a gradually 
diminishing force and velocity. 

The upper part of the section at St. Acheul consists of 
brick earth (fig. 131 a), passing below into angular gravel, 
while between this and the imderlying sandy marl is some- ' 
times a small layer of darker brick earth. These beds, how- 
ever, vary much even in adjoining sections. Taken as a 
whole, they are regarded by Mr. Prestwich as the represen- 
tatives of that remarkable loamy deposit which is foimd 
overlying the gravels in all these valleys of Northern France, 
and which, as the celebrated " loess " of the Bhine, attains a 

304 LOKSS. 

tliickness of three hundred feet. The greateat deyelopmezil 
of it which I have seen in the north of France was in a pit 
in the Rue de la Chevalerie, near Ivry, where it was twenty- 
two feet thick ; some of this, however, may have been recon- 
structed loess brought down by raia from the higher ground 
in the immediate neighbourhood. Assuming that this loess 
is composed of fine particles deposited from standing or 
slowly-moving waters, we might be disposed to wonder at 
not finding in it any traces of vegetable remains. We know, 
however, from the arrangement of the nails and hasps that 
in some of the St. Acheul tombs wooden coffins were used, 
while the size of the nails shows that the planks must have 
been tolerably thick ; yet every trace of wood has been re- 
moved, and not even a stain is left to indicate its presence. 
We need not, therefore, wonder at the absence of vegetable 
remains in the drift. 

Such is a general account of those gravel pits which lie at 
a height of from eighty to one hundred and fifty feet above 
the present water level of the valleys, and which along the 
Somme are found in some places even at a height of two 
hundred feet. 

Let us ijLow visit some of the pits at the lower levels. At 
about thirty feet lower, as for instance at Menchecourt, near 
Abbeville, and at St. Koch, near Amiens, where the graveLs 
slope from a height of sixty feet down to the bottom of the 
valley, we find almost a repetition of the same succession ; 
coarse sub-angular gravel below^ finer materials above. So 
similar, indeed, are these beds to those already described, 
that it will be unnecessary for me to give any special de- 
scription of them. 

It seems highly probable that when the fauna and flora 
of the upper and lower level gravels shall have been more 
thoroughly investigated, they will be foimd to be almost 
identical At present, however, the species obtained from 



the lower level gravels are more numerous than those from 
the upper levels. 
Mr. Prestwich gives the following table of the Tnawimalia : 


Great Northern 

Railway, or 




St. Roch. 

Crenelle, Iviy, 


Elephas primigeniiu, Blum, . 
















Bhinoceroa tiGhorhinuB, Ckip. 

megarldiius, Christol 

TJrsus spelaeus, Blum 

Hyaena spelsea, OaM, 

Felis spelffia, Gold. 

Bison priflcnfl, Bqj, 

Equufl (possibly two species) 
Cerms enryceros, Aldr 

tarandns, Lmm, 


To this list we must add the lemming, the My odes torqtuUus^ 
and the musk ox, which has been foimd at two spots in the 
Thames valley, as well a9 at Chauny on the Oise. 

The moUusca are fifty-two in number, of which forty- two 
now live in Sweden, thirty-seven in Finland, and thirty-eight 
in Lombardy. Bearing ia mind that Lombardy is much 
richer than Finland in moUusca, this assemblage has rather 
a northern aspect. 

There are, however, three species which seem to point 
southwards. It may be fairly objected that the Hippopotamus 
major y bones of which occur in the drift, could scarcely have 
existed in a cold country. Mr. Prestwich^ indeed, suggests 
that this species may, perhaps, like its gigantic relatives, 



haye been fitted to flounslx in an arctic dunate. But there 
is some difference of opinion as to its occurrence : it has not 
yet been found in the " diluvium " of Qtexmanj,* and though 
remains of it have undoubtedly occurred in the drift-gravel 
of the Somme, there is some reason to believe that they are 
not in quite the same condition as the bones of the elephant 
and rhinoceros ; it is just possible, therefore, that they may 
belong, as Dr. Falconer has suggested, to an anterior period. 
TIntil lately, we should have regarded the tiger as an essen- 
tially tropical animal ; yet it is well known to be conmum in 
the neighbourhood of Lake Aral, in the forty-fifth degree of 
north latitude : and "the last tiger killed, in 1828, on the 
Lena, in lat. 52^^, was in a climate colder than that of 
St. Petersburg and Stockholm." t Finally, the Oyrena flii- 
minalis now lives in the Nile ; but, on the other hand, it is 
found also in the rivers of Central Asia. 

While admitting these difficulties, it is still, I think, felt 
by most PalsBontologists, that though the presence of one 
arctic species would scarcely perhaps justify any vwy decided 
inference as to climate, still that the co-existence of such a 
group as this — ^the musk ox, the reindeer, the lemming, the 
Myodes tarquattis, the Siberian mammoth, and its faithful 
companion the woolly-haited rhinoceros — decidedly indicates, 
even though it may not prove, the continued existence of a 
climate unlike, that now prevailing in Western Europe. 

Finally, the lowest portion of the valley is at present oc- 
cupied by a bed of gravel, covered by silt and peat, which 
latter is in some places more than twenty feet thick, and is 
extensively worked for ftiel. These strata have afforded to 
the antiquaries of the neighbourhood, and especially to 
M. Boucher de Perthes, a rich harvest of interesting relics 
belonging to various periods. The depth at which these 

* Sir G. Lyell, Supplement to Manual, p. 8. 
t t Lyell'B Principles, p. 77. 



objects are fband has been carefully noted bj M. Boucher 
de Pertlies. 

"Prenant," he says, "pour terme moyen du sol de la 
Yall^, une hauteur de 3 metres audessus du niveau de la 
Sonune, c'est & 30 & 40 eentimdtres de la surface qu'on 
rencontre le plus abondamment les traces du moyen-&ge. 
Ginquante centimetres plus bas, on commence i trouyer des 
dfebris remains, puis gallo-romains. On continue i suivre 
oes demiers pendant un mdtre, c'est k dire jusqu'au niveau 
de la Somme. Aprds eux, viennent les vestiges gaulois purs 
qui deseendent sans interruption jusqu'cl prSs de 2 mitres 
audessous de ce niveau, preuve de la longue habitation de ces 
peuples dans la valine. O'est & tm mitre plus has, on & 4 
mitres environ audessous de ce mime niveau, qu'on arrive au 
centre du sol que nous avons nomm^ Celtique, celui que 
foolirent les Gaulois primitives ou les peuples qui les pr6c^- 
dirent;" and which belonged, therefore, to the ordinary 
stone period. It is, however, hardly necessary to add that 
these thicknesses are only given by M. Boucher de Perthes 
" eomme terme approximatif/' 

The "Antiquit^s Celtiques'* was puUished several years 
before the Swiss archaeologists had made us acquainted with 
the nature of the Pfahlbauten ; but, £rom some indications 
given by M. Boucher de Perthes, it would appear that there 
must have been, at one time, lake-habitations in the neigh- 
bourhood of Abbeville. He found considerable platforms of 
wood, with large quantities of bones, stone implements, and 
handles closely resembling those which come from the Swiss 

These weapons cannot for an instant be confounded with 
the ruder ones from the drift gravel. They are ground to a 
smooth surface and a cutting edge, while the more ancient 
ones are merely chipped, not one of the many hundreds 
already found having shown the slightest trace of grinding. 



Yet though the former belong to the Stone age^ to a time so 
remote that the use of metal was apparently still imknown 
in Western Europe, they are separated from the earKer 
weapons of the upper-level drift by the whole period neces- 
sary for the excavation of the Somme Valley, to a depth of 
more than one himdred feet. 

If, therefore, we get no definite date for the arrival of 
man in these countries, we can at least form a vivid idea of 
his antiquity. He must have seen the Somme running at a 
height of about a hundred feet above its present leveL 
It is, indeed, probable that he dates back in Northern France 
almost, if not quite, as far as the rivers themselves. The 
fauna of the country must have been indeed unlike what it is 
now. Along the banks of the rivers ranged a savage race 
of hunters and fishermen, and in the forests wandered the 
mammoth, the two-horned woolly rhinoceros, a species of 
tiger, the musk ox, the reindeer, and the urus. 

Yet the geography of France cannot have been very 
different from what it is at present. The present rivers ran 
in their present directions, and the sea even then lay between 
the Somme and the Adur, though the channel was not so 
wide as it is at present. 

Gradually the river deepened its valley; ineffective, or 
even perhaps constructive, in autumn and winter, the melt- 
ing of the snows turned it every spring into a roaring 
torrent. These floods were probably more destructive to 
animals even than man himself ; while, however rude they 
may have been, our predecessors can hardly be supposed to 
have been incapable of foreseeing and consequently escaping 
the danger. While the water, at an elevation of one 
hundred and fifty feet above its present level, as for instance 
at Liercourt, had sufficient force to deposit coarse gravel ; at 
a still higher level it would part with finer particles, and 
would thus form the loess which, at the same time, would 


here and there receiye angular flints and shells brought down 
from the hills in a more or less transverse direction by the 
rivulets after heavy rains. 

Mr. Prestwich regards the diflference of level between the 
upper gravels and the loess as " a measure of the floods of 
that period/' If the gravel beds were complete, this would 
no doubt be the case ; but it seems to me that the upper-level 
gravels are mere fragments of an originally almost con- 
tinuous deposit, and imder these circumstances the present 
cannot be taken as evidence of the original difference. 

As the vaUey became deeper and deeper the gravel would 
be deposited at lower and lower levels, the loess always 
following it;* thus we must not consider the loess as a 
distinct bed, but as one which was being formed during 
the same time, though never at the same place as the 
beds of gravel. In fig. 142 I have given a diagram, the 

Fxo. 142. 


Diagram to show the Belations of the Lo^s and the Grayels. 

better to illustrate my meaning; the loess is indicated by 
letters with, a dash and is dotted, while the gravels are repre- 
sented as rudely stratified. In this case I suppose the river 
to have run originally on the level (1), and to have 
deposited the gravel {a) and the loess {a') ; after a certain 
amount of erosion which would reduce the level to (2), 
the gravel would be spread out at (6), and loess at {V). 
Similarly the loess {</) would be contemporaneous with the 
gravel (c). 
* See Mr. Frestwich's paper read before the Boyal Society, June 19th, 1862. 


Thnfly while in each section the lower beds would of course 
be the oldest, still the upper-level grayels as a whole would 
be the most ancient, and the beds lying in the lower parts 
of the valley the most modem* 

.For convenience I have represented the sides of ihe valley 
as forming a aeries of terraces; and though this is not 
actually the case, there aare several places in which sudi 
terraces do occur. 

It is, however, well known that rivers continually tend to 
shift their courses ; nor is the Somme any exertion to the 
rule ; the valley itself indeed is comparatively straight, but 
within it the liv^ winds cansideraUy, and wh^i in one 
of its curves, the current crosses " its general line of descent, 
it eats out a curve in the oi^x>site bank, or in the side of the 
hilU bounding the valley, from which curve it is turned back 
agaiu at an equal angle, so that it recrosses the line of 
descent, and gradually hollows out another curve lower down 
in the opposite bank," till the whole sides of the valley, or 
river-bed, "present a succession of salient and retiring 
angles."* During these wanderings from one side of the 
valley to the other, the river continually imdermines and 
removes the gravels which at an earlier period it had de- 
posited. Thus the upper-level gravels are now only to be 
foimd here and there, as it were, in patches, while in many 
parts they have altogether disappeared ; as, for instance, on 
the right side of the valley between Amiens and Pont 
R^my, where hardly a trace of the high-level gravels is to 
be seen. 

The neighbouring shores of England and France show 
various traces of a slight and recent elevation of the land. 
Baised beaches have been observed at an elevation of from 
five to ten feet at various points along the coasts of Sussex 
^nd the Pas de Calais. Marine shells also occur at Abbevifle 
* I/yell, I^cipleft, p. "206. 


about twenty-five feet above the sea-levd.* No doubt tbis 
change of level has had an important bearing on the excavar 
tion of the valley, but I cannot quite agree wiHi Mr. Prest- 
wich as to the effect which it has produced.! 

At length the excavation of the valley was completed ; the 
climate had gradually become more like our own, and whether 
from Una change, or whether peiiiaps yielding to the ir^ 
resistible power of man, the great Pachydermata became 
extinct. Under new conditions, the river, imable to carry 
out to sea the finer particles brought down from the higher 
levels, deposited them in the valley, and thus raised some- 
what its general level, checking the velocity of the stream, 
and producing extensive marshes, in which a thick deposit of 
peat was gradually formed. We have, unfortunately, no trust- 
worthy estimate as to the rate of formation of this substance, 
but on any supposition the production of a mass in some 
places more than thirty feet in thickness must have acquired 
a very considerable period. Yet it is in these beds that we 
find .the remains of the Neolithic or later Stone period. 
From the tombs at St. Acheul, from the Eoman remains 
foimd in the superficial layers of the peat, at about the 
present level of the river, we know that fifteen hundred 
years have produced scarcely any change in the configuration 
of the valley. In the peat, and at a depth of about fifteen 
feet in the alluvium at Abbeville, are the remains of the 
Stone period, which we believe from the researches in Den- 
mark and Switzerland to be of an age so great that it can 
only be expressed in thousands of years. Yet all these are 
subsequent to the excavation of the vaUey ; what antiquity, 
then, are we to ascribe to the men who lived when the 

* The higher level gravels in some croachment of the sea on the land, and 

places fringe the coast at an elevation the consequent intersection of the old 

of as much as one hundred feet ; this river beds at a higher level 

phenomenon, however, I should be dis- f Phil. Trans. 1864, p. 297. 
posed to refer principally to an en- 


Soxnme was but begiiming its great task P No one can pro- 
perly appreciate the time required who has not stood on the 
heights of Liercourt, Picquigny, or on one of the other points 
oyerlooking the valley : nor, I am sure, could any geologist 
return from such a yisit without an oyerpowering sense of 
the change which has taken place, and the enormous time 
which must have elapsed since the first appearance of man 
in Western Europe, 



IT is hardly necessary to say that the preceding chapters 
do not contain all the facts upon which those who 
believe in the great antiquity of the human race chiefly rely* 
It is, indeed, by no means only of late years, or among 
archaeologists, that the difficulties in Archbishop Usher's 
chronology have been felt to be insuperable. Historians, 
philologists, and physiologists have alike admitted that the 
short period allowed could hardly be reconciled with the 
history of some eastern nations, that it did not leave room 
for the development either of the different languages, or of 
the nimierous physical peculiarities, by which the various 
races of men are distinguished. 

Thus, Dr. Prichard says, "Many writers who have been by 
no means inclined to raise objections against the authority of 
the Sacred Scriptures, and in particular Michaelis, have felt 
themselves embarrassed by the shortness of the interval 
between the Noachic Deluge and the period at which the 
records of various nations commence, or the earliest date to 
which their historical memorials lead us back. The extrava- 
gant claims to a remote and almost fathomless antiquity, 
made by the fabulists of many ancient nations, have vanished 
before the touch of accurate criticism ; but after abstracting 
aU that is apparently mythological from the eiu'ly traditions 
of the Indians, Egyptians, and some other nations, the pro- 


bable history of some of them seems still to reach up to a 
period too remote to be reconciled with the short chronology 
of Usher and Petayius. This has been so miiyersally felt 
by all those writers who have entered on the investigation 
of primeval history that it is superfluous to dwell upon 
the subject/'* 

Baron Bunsen, one of the ablest among those who regard 
the various forms of lang^ge as having had a common 
origin^ is forced to claim for the human race an antiquity of 
at least 20,000 years. Again, the ingenious author of " The 
Cfenesis of the Earth and of Man,''t says tndy tibtat "one 
of the greatest of the difficulties that beset us when we 
endeavour to account for the commonly supposed descent of 
all mankind from a single pair, .... lies in the fact 
of our finding, upon Egyptian monuments, mostly of the 
thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries before ilie 
Ohristian era, representations of individuals of numerous 
nations, Afirican, Asiatic, and European, diflEering in phy- 
sical characteristics as widely as any equal number of nations 
of the present age that could be grouped together; among 
these being negroes, of the true Nigritian stamp, depicted 
with a fidelity, as to colour and features, hardly to be sur- 
passed by an accomplished modem artist. That such diver- 
sities had been produced by natural means in the intesrval 
between that remote age and the time of ISFoah, probably no 
one versed in the sei^ices of anatomy and ]^ysiology will 
condder credible,^^ and he concludes, therefore, that the 
human race cannot have been derived irom. a single pair. 
For, just as the philological difficulties will not, of course, 
affect those who €Mx;ept Uteraliy the account giv^i in our 
English version of the miraculous creation of languages at 
the Tower of Babel; so in the same way *'the shortness 

* Frichaxd. Besearches into the Physical History of Mankind. Vol. v., p. 663, 
tup. 117. 


of the period allowed by tiie recei'ved dhiQnologjr, for the 
dey^pment of <ihose physical Tarieties which distmgoish 
the different races of men/'* though felt as ''one of tiie 
greatest difficulties connected with the o^nioa that all 
mankind are descended from one primitive stock/' will not 
a&ct those who beUeve in ihe existence of separate species 
of men. 

But I can do no more than allude to these questions, and 
must return to the archsBological and geological considera«- 
tions which fall moi^ st^tly within the scope of my present 

I have been much struck, when standing at the feet of 
glaciers, by the great size of the terminal moraines, and the 
length of time which muist have been required for their forma- 
tion. Let us take as an mstance the Kigaard glacier in the Yus- 
tedal, on the Sognefjord. The Korwegian glaciers no doubt 
covered formerly a much larger area ihan that which they 
now occupy. They retreated as the cold diminished; but 
we have already seen that man was present in Western 
Eurc^y when the general temperature was several degrees 
lower than it is at present ; and we shall probably, therefore, 
be within the mark if we suppose that the glacier at Yustedal 
has retreated at least a mile up the valley since the period of 
the river-drift gravels, and the entrance of man into Europe. 
Kow the terminal moraine of the glacier covers the whole of 
this space with great blocks of stones, thousands and hun- 
dreds of thousands in number, and yet, although all these 
have probably been brought down in the human period, I 
could only see a few blocks on the lower end of the glacier 

As far as Denmark is concerned we must, for the present, 
rely principally on the double change which has taken place 
in the prevalent vegetation. Now the beech forests are the 
• 3Prichaard, Ic, p. 562. 



pride of the country, and, as far as tradition goes, they have 
always been so. But, as is shown by the peat-bogs, this is a 
mistake. The large mosses do not help us very much in this 
matter, but there are, in many of the forests, small and deep 
depressions, filled with peat, and called skov-mose. These, 
as might naturally be expected, contain many trees which 
grew on their edges, and at length fell into them. At the 
bottom is usually an amorphous peat, above is a layer of 
pines — a tree which does not now grow naturally in Den- 
mark. Higher up the pines disappear, and are replaced by 
oaks, and white birches, neither of which are now common 
in Denmark; while the upper layer consists principally of 
the Betula verrucosa, and corresponds to the present, which 
we may call the Beech, period. Professor Steenstrup has 
found stone implements among the stems of the pines, 
and as the capercailzie, which feeds on the young shoots of 
the pine, has been found in the Kjokkenmoddings, it seems 
likely, to say the least, that these shell-mounds belonged to 
the Pine period^ and that the three great stages of civilisa- 
tion correspond in some measure with these three periods of 
arborescent vegetation. For one species of tree thus to dis- 
place another, and in its turn to be supplanted by a third, 
would evidently reqture a great lapse of time, but one which, 
as yet, we have no means of measuring. 

Turning now from Denmark to Switzerland, there are two 
cases in which a more definite estimate has been attempted. 
We must not, indeed, place too much reliance, on them as 
yet, but if many calculations made on different data shall 
agree in the main, we may at length come to some approxi- 
mate conclusion. 

The first of these calculations we owe to M. Morlot. The 
torrent of the Tini^re, at the point where it falls into the Lake 
of Geneva, near ViUeneuve, has gradually built up a cone of 
gravel and alluvium. In the formation of the railway this 


cone lias been bisected for a length of one thousand feet, and 
to a depth, in the central part, ot about thirty-two feet six 
inches above the level of the railway. The section of the cone 
thus obtained shows a very regular structure, which proves 
that its formation was gradual. It is composed of the same 
materials (sand, gravel, and larger blocks) as those which are 
even now brought down by the stream. The amount of detritus 
does, indeed, diflfer slightly from year to year, but in the long 
run the differences compensate for one another, so that when 
considering long periods, and the structure of the whole mass, 
the influences of the temporary variations, which arise from 
meteorological causes, altogether disappear, and need not 
therefore be taken into account. Documents preserved in 
the archives of Villeneuve show that in the year 1710 the 
stream was dammed up, and its course a little altered, which 
makes the present cone slightly irregular. That the change 
wat not of any great antiquity is also shown by the fact that 
on the side where the cone was protected by the dykes, the 
vegetable soil, where it has been affected by cultivation, does 
not exceed two to three inches in thickness. On the side 
thus protected by the dykes the railway cutting has exposed 
three layers of vegetable soil, each of which must, at one 
time, have formed the surface of the cone. They are regu- 
larly intercalated among the gravel, and exactly parallel to 
one another, as well as to the present surface of the cone, 
which itself follows a very regular curve. The first of these 
ancient surfaces was followed on the south side of the cone, 
over a surface of 16,000 square feet : it had a thickness of 
four to six inches, and occurred at a depth of about four feet 
(1.14 metre measured to the base of the layer) below the 
present surface of the cone. This layer, which belonged to 
the Boman period, contained tiles and a Eoman coin. 

The second layer was followed over a surface of 25,000 
square feet ; it was six inches in thickness, and lay at a depth 


of ten feet (2.97 metres) inclxulmg the thickness of the layer. 
In it have been found seyeral fragments o£ unglazed pottery, 
and a pair of tweezers in bronze. The third layer has been 
followed for 3,500 square feet ; it was six or seven inches in 
thickness, and lay at a depth of nineteen feet (5.69 metres) 
below the present surface : in it were found some fragments 
of very rude pottery, some pieces of charcoal, sooae broken 
bones, and a human skeleton with a small, round, and very 
thick skull. Fragments of charcoal were even found a foot 
deeper, and it is also worthy of notice that no trace of tiles 
was found below the upper layer of earth. 

Towards the centre of the cone, the three layers disappear, 
since, at this part, the torrent has most force, and has de- 
posited the coarsest materials, even some blocks as mucb as 
three feet in diameter. The further we go from this central 
region, the smaller are the materials deposited, and the more 
easily might a layer of earth, formed since the last great 
inundations, be covered over by fresh deposits. Thus, at a 
depth of ten feet, in the gravel on the south of the cone, at 
a part where the layer of earth belonging to the Bronze age 
had already disappeared, two un-rolled bronze implements 
were discovered. They had probably been retained by their 
weight, when the earth which once covered them was washed 
away by the torrent. Aiter disappearing towards the centre 
of the cone, the three layers reappear on the north side, at 
slightly greater depth, but with the same regularity, and the 
same relative position. "Hie layer of the Stone age was but 
slightly interrupted, while that of the Bronze era was easily 
distinguishable by its peculiar character and color. 

Here, therefore, we have phenomena so regular and so 
well marked that M. Morlot has thought himself justified 
in applyiag to them a calculation, with some little con- 
fidence of at least approximate accuracy. Making some 
allbwances; for instance, admitting three hundred years 


instead of (me hundred and fifty, for the period since the 
^nbankment, and taking the Roman period as representing 
an antiquity of firom sixteen to eighteen centuries, he obtains 
for the age of Bronze an antiquity of from 2,900 years to 
4,200 years, for that of the Stone period from 4,700 to 7,000 
years, and for the whole cone an age of from 7,400 to 11,000 
years. M. Morlot thinks that we should be most nearly 
correct in deducting two hundred years only for the action of 
the dykes, and in attributing to the Boman layer an anti- 
quity of sixteen centuries, that is to say, in r^erring it to 
the middle of the third century. This would give an antiquity 
of 3,800 years for the Bronze age, and 6,400 years for that of 
Stone ; but, on the whole, he is inclined to suppose for the 
former an antiquity of from 3,000 to 4,000 years, and for the 
latter of from 5,000 to 7,000 years. 

Not less ingenious is the attempt which has been made by 
M. Qilli&x)n,* Professor at the College of Neuveville, to obtain 
a date for the Lake-habitation at the Pont de Thi^le. This 
stream connects the Lakes of Neufchatel and Bienne. During 
the first part of its course, the valley is narrow, and the 
bridge, dose to which the Lake-dwelling has been discovered, 
is situated at the narrowest spot. A little frirther down the 
valley suddenly expands, and from this point remains of the 
same width until it joins the Lake of Bienne. It is evident 
that the valley, as far as the bridge over the ThiMe, was once 
occupied by the lake, which has gradually been silted up by 
the action of forces still in operation, and, if we could ascer- 
tain how long it would have taken to effect this change, we 
should then know approximately the date of the remains 
found at the Pont de Thiele, which are evidently those of 
a Lake-dweUing. The Abbey of St. Jean, which stands in 
this valley, about 375 metres from the present shore of the 
lake, was founded, according to ancient docmnents, between 

* Notice sur les Habitations Laciistres du Pont de ThiMe. Porrentray, 1862« 


the years 1090 and 1106, and is therefore about 760 years old. 
It is possible that the atbey may not have been built exactly 
on the then edge of the lake ; but even if this were the case, 
the gain of land will only have been 375 metres in 750 years. 
Prof. GiUi^ron does not compare with this the whole space 
between the convent and the Lake-dwelling, because in the 
narrower part of the valley in which the latter is situated, 
the gain may have been more rapid ; but if we only go to the 
point at which the basin contracts, we shall have a distance 
of 3,000 metres, which would upon these data indicate a mini- 
mum antiquity of 6,750 years. This calculation assumes that 
the shape of the bottom of the valley was originally uniform. 
M. Morlot agrees with Prof. GiUi^ron in believing that 
this was the case, and from the general configuration of the 
valley it seems to me also to be a reasonable supposition. 
Moreover, the soundings taken by M. Hisely in the Lake of 
Bienne show that the variations in depth are but of slight 
importance. These two calculations, then, appear to indi- 
cate that 6,000 or 7,000 years ago Switzerland was already 
inhabited by men who used polished stone implements, 
but how long they had been there, or how many cen- 
turies elapsed before the discovery of metal, we have as yet 
no evidence to show. 

A still greater antiquity is obtained by Mr. Homer as the 
result of his Egyptian researches, which were undertaken at 
the joint expense of the Royal Society and the Egyptian 
government. It is well known that the valley of the Nile is 
overflowed every year, and even as long ago as the time of 
Herodotus it was inferred that Egypt had been formerly 
an arm of the sea, filled up gradually and converted into dry 
land by the mud brought down from the upper country. 

In the great work on Egypt, which we owe to the French 
philosophers who accompanied Napoleon's expedition to that 
country, an attempt was made to estimate the secular 


eleyatioii thus produced, and it was assumed to be five 
inches in a century. This general average was consistent, 
however, with great differences at different parts, and Mr. 
Homer, therefore, did not consider himself justified in 
applying this estimate to particular cases, even if he had 
been satisfied with the evidence on which it rested. He 
preferred to examine the accumulation which had taken place 
roiind monuments of known age, and selected two — namely, 
the obelisk at HeUopolis, and the statue of Barneses II. in 
Memphis. "The obelisk is believed to have been erected 
3300 years B.C., and adding 1850, the year when the observa- 
tion was made (June, 1851, Le. before the inundation of that 
year), we have 4150 years in which the eleven feet of sedi- 
ment were deposited, which is at the rate of 3.18 inches in a 
century.''* But Mr. Homer himself admits that "entire 
reliance cannot be placed on this conclusion, principally 
because it is possible that the site originally chosen for the* 
temple and city of Heliopolis was a portion of land somewhat 
raised above the level of the rest of the desert." He relies, 
therefore, principally on the evidence supplied by the colossal 
statue in Memphis. In this case the present surface is 10 
feet 6f inches above the base of the platform on which the 
statue stood. Assuming that the platform was simk 14J 
inches below the surface of the ground at the time it was 
laid, we have a depth of sediment from the present surface 
to that level of 9 feet 4 inches. Rameses is supposed by 
Lepsius to have reigned from 1394 to 1328 B.C., which would 
give an antiquity of 3215 years, and consequently a mean 
increase of 3 J inches in a century. Having thus obtained an 
approximate measure of the rate of deposit in that part of the 
Nile vaUey, Mr. Homer dug several pits to a considerable 
depth, and in one of them, close to the statue and at the 

• Homer, Phil. Trans. 1868, p. 73. 


322 MR. horneb's 

depth of 39 feet, a piece of pottery was found, wlicli upon the 
above data would indicate an antiquity of about 13,000 years. 

In many other excavations, pieces of pottery and other 
indications of man were found at even greater depths, but it 
must be confessed that there are several reasons which 
render the calculations very doubtful. For instance, it is 
impossible to ascertain how far the pedestal of the statue 
was inserted into the ground ; Mr. Homer has allowed 14| 
inches, but if it was much deeper, the rate of deposition 
would be diminished, and the age increased. On the other 
hand, if the statue was on raised ground, of course the reverse 
would be the case. 

Moreover, it has been argued that the ancient Egyptians 
were in the habit of enclosing with embankments, the areas 
on which they erected temples, statues, etc., so as to keep 
out the waters of the Nile. 

Whenever, then, says Sir Charles Lyell, "the waters at 
length break into such depressions, they must at first carry 
with them into the enclosure much mud washed from the 
steep surroimding banks, so that a greater quantity would be 
deposited in a few years than, perhaps, in as many centuries 
on the great plain outside the depressed area, where no such 
disturbing causes intervened." But the rapidity of depo- 
sition will be in proportion to the previous retardation, and 
will only tend to bring the depressed area up to the general 
level. Supposing, for instance, that the monument of 
Rameses, erected on the flat plain of Memphis 3200 years 
ago, was protected by embankments for the first 2000 years, 
and that during that time the plain outside was gradually 
raised five feet ten inches, being at the rate of three and a 
half inches in a century. When the embankment gave 
way, the space enclosed would soon be fiUed up to the 
general level, and a thickness of five feet ten inches might 
be deposited in a few years : still this exceptionally rapid 


accumulation would only be the complement of the excep- 
tional want of deposit which had preceded it ; and, conse- 
quently, when the level of the snrronnding plain had been 
attained, then although the mud covering the base of the 
statue may have been altogether deposited in the last few 
hundred years, i.e. since the embankments have been neg- 
lected, the thickness ot the deposit wiU still be a measure of 
the general elevation which has taken place on the sur- 
rounding plain since the erection of the monimient. 

Even if the embankments had remained intact to this 
day, and the monument stood now in the hollow thus pro- 
duced, Mr. Homer's argument would not be invalidated, but 
rather confirmed. The depth of the hollow would give us a 
measure of the deposit which had taken place since the 
erection of the monimient, or rather since the formation of 
the embankment. K, however, the monimient had been 
erected in an area already depressed by the action of still 
older embankments, the calculation would be vitiated, but in 
this case the rate of deposition would appear to be greater 
than it really is, and the age consequently would be imder- 
rated. There are other causes, however, which prevent me 
from accepting unreservedly the conclusions of Mr. Homer, 
although his experiments are of great importance, and much 
credit is due to the Egyptian government for the liberal 
manner in which they assisted Mr. Homer and the Boyal 
Society in this investigation. 

We have already mentioned the evidence on which M. 
Morlot has endeavoured to estimate the age of the Cone de 
la Tinidre and which gave about six thousand years for the 
lower layer of vegetable soil, and ten thousand years for 
the whole of the existing cone. But above this existing 
cone is another, which was formed when the lake stood at a 
higher level than at present, and which M. Morlot refers to 
the period of the river-drift gravels. This drift-age cone, 

-•.T^^^ ^^ ' uj ' jw ' aw! 


howGfver, is about twelve timeB as large as that now foimingi 
and would appear, therefore, on the same data, to indicate 
an antiquity of more tiban one hundred thousand years. 

In his '* Travels in North America," Sir C. Lyell has en- 
deavoured to estimate the age of the Mississippi delta, in the 
following manner : — ** Dr. Riddle," he says, " communicated 
to me, at New Orleans, the result of a series of experiments 
which he had made to ascertain the proportion of sediment 
contained in tiie waters of the Mississ^i. He concluded 
that the mean annual* amount of solid matter was to the 
water as rsVr ^ weight, or about s^^^ in volume. Since 
that period he has made another series of experiments, and 
his tables show that the quantity of mud held in suspension/ 
increases regularly with the increased height and velocity of 
the stream. On the whole, comparing the flood season with 
fliat of clearest water, his experiments, continued down to 
1849, give an average annual quantity of solid matter some- 
what less than his first estimate, but not varying materially 
from it. From these observations, and those of Dr. Car- 
penter and Mr. Forskey (an eminent engineer, to whom I 
have before alluded), on the average width, depth, and 
velocity of the Mississippi, the. mean annual difMsharge of 
water and sediment were deduced. I then assumed 528 feet, 
or the tenth of a mile, as the probable thickness of the 
deposit of mud and sand in the delta ; founding my conjec- 
ture chiefly on the depth of the Ghilf of Mexico between the 
southern point of Florida and the Balize, which equals, on 
an average, one hundred fathoms, and partly on some 
borings, six himdred feet deep, in the delta near Lake Pont- 
chartrain, north of New Orleans, in which the bottom of the 
alluvial matter is said not to have been reached. The area 
of the delta being about 13,600 square statute miles, and the 
quantity of solid matter annually brought down by the river 
3,702,758,400 cubic feet^ it must have taken 67,000 years 


for the formation of the wliole ; and if the alluYial matter 
of the plain above be 264 feet deep, or half that of the delta, 
it must haye required 33,500 more years for its acoumidation, 
even if its area be estimated as only equal to that of tiie 
delta, whereas it is, in fact, larger/' Moreover, as Sir 
Charles has himself pointed out, a very large proportion of 
the mud brought down by the river is not deposited in the 
delta, but is carried out into the Gxdf. In the " Antiquity of 
Man,''* he refers to the above-given calculation, and admits 
that the discharge of water seems to have been much under- 
rated by the earlier experimenters. Messrs. Humphreys and 
Abbot, who have recently surveyed the delta, " also remark 
that the river pushes along its bottom into the gulf a certain 
quantity of sand and gravel," which " would, they suppose, 
augment the volume of solid matter by about one-tenth." 
This, of course, would greatly diminish the time required ; 
but taking into consideration the quantity of mud which is 
carried out to sea, and which was not allowed for in the 
previous calculation, Sir Charles Lyell still regards 100,000 
years as a moderate estimate ; and he considers, that " the 
alluvium of the Somme containing flint implements and the 
remains of the mammoth and hysena," is no less ancient. 

Sir C. Lyell has alsof attempted to form an estimate of 
the duration of the glacial epoch, assuming that the different 
movements of elevation and depression proceeded at an average 
rate of 2| feet in a century. As the simplest '^series of 
changes in physical geography which can possibly account 
for the phenomena of the glacial period," he gives the fol- 
lowing: — 

"First, a continental period, towards the close of which 
the forest of Cromer flourished : when the land was at least 
500 feet above its present level, perhaps much higher, aad 

« Appendix to Third Ed. of the Antiquity of Man, p. 16. 
t Antiquity of Man, pp. 282, 286. 



its extent probably greater than that given in the map, 
fig. 41/' In this map the British Ides, including the 
Hebrides, Orkneys, and Shetlands, are connected with one 
another and with the Continent, the whole German Ocean 
being laid dry. 

"Secondly, a period of submergence, by which the land 
north of the Thames and Bristol Channel, and that of Ireland, 
was gradually reduced to such an archipelago as is pictured in 
map, fig. 40 ; and finally to such a general prevalence of sea 
as is seen in map, fig. 39, only the tops of the moimtauis beiug 
left above water. This was the period of great submergence 
and of floating ice, when the Scandinavian flora, which over- 
spread the lower grounds during the first continental period, 
may have obtained exclusive possession of the only lands not 
covered with perpetual snow. 

"Thirdly, a second continental period, when the bed of 
the glacial sea, with its marine shells and erratic blocks, was 
laid dry, and when the quantity of land equalled that of the 
first period.'* 

It is evident that such changes as these would require a 
great lapse of time. Sir Charles LyeU admits that the 
average change of 2 J feet in a century is a purely arbitrary 
and conjectural rate, that there are cases in which a change 
of as much as six feet in a century appears to have taken 
place, still it is in his opiiiion probable that the rate assumed 
in a century is, if anything, above the average, and in this I 
believe that most geologists would be disposed to agree with 

On this hypothesis the submergence of "Wales to the extent 
of 1,400 feet, would require 56,000 years ; but " taking Prof. 
Ramsay's estimate of 800 feet more, that elevation being 
required for the deposition of some of the stratified drift, we 
must demand an additional period of 32,000 years, amounting 
in all to 88,000 ; and the same time would be required for 


re-elevation of the tract to its present height. But if the 
land rose in the second continental period no more than 600 
feet above the present level, this .... would have tal^en 
another 24,000 years; the whole of the grand oscillation, 
comprising the submergence and re-emergence, having taken, 
in round numbers, 224,000 years for its completion; and 
this, even if there were no pause or stationary period, when 
the downward movement ceased, and before it was converted 
into on upward one." 

To the geologist these figures, large as they are, will have 
no appearance of improbability. All the facts of geology 
tend to indicate an antiquity of which we are but beginning 
to form a dim idea. Take, for instance, one single formation 
— our well-known chalk. This consists entirely of shells and 
fragments of shells deposited at the bottom of an ancient sea 
far away from any continent. Such a process as this must be 
very slow ; probably we should be much above the mark if we 
were to assume a rate of deposition of ten inches in a century. 
Now the chalk is more than a thousand feet in thickness, 
and would have required therefore more than 120,000 years 
for its formation. The fossiliferous beds of Great Britain as 
a whole* are more than 70,000 feet in thickness, and many 
which with us measure only a few inches, on the continent 
expand into strata of immense depth ; while others of great 
importance elsewhere are wholly wanting with us, for it is 
evident that during all the different periods in 'which Great 
Britain has been dry land, strata have been forming (as is, 
for example, the case now) elsewhere, and not with us. 
Moreover, we must remember that many of the strata now 
existing have been formed at the expense of older ones ; thus 
all the flint gravels in the south-east of England have been 
produced by the destruction of chalk. This again is a very, 
slow process. It has been estimated that a cHff 500 feet 
high will be worn away at the rate of an inch in a century. 


This may seem a low rate, but we must bear in mind that 
along any line of coast there are comparatiyely few points 
which are suffering at one time, and that eyen on these when 
a fall of cUff has taken place, the fragments serve as a pro- 
tection to the coast until they haye been gradually removed 
by the waves. The Wealden Valley is twenty-two miles in 
breadth, and on these data it has been calculated that the 
denudation of the Weald must have required more than 
150,000,000 of years. 

There can be no doubt about the interest of these calcula- 
tions, and they have also the great merit of giving definition 
to our ideas. We must not, however, attribute to them a 
value which has been distinctly disclaimed even by their 
authors. " Dans tons les cas," says M. Morlot, " il doit fetre 
bien entendu que I'auteur n'expose le present calcul que 
comme une premiere imparfaLte et hasardeuse tentative, sans 
valeur absolue en elle-mSme, tant qu'elle n'aura pas ^t^ 
v^rifi^e au moyen d'autres essais du m^me genre/' More* 
over, we must remember that these estimates are brought 
forward not as a proof, but as a measure, of antiquity. Our 
belief in the antiquity of man rests not on any isolated calcu- 
lations, but on the changes which have taken place since his 
appearance ; changes in the geography, in the fauna, and in 
the cUmate of Europe. Valleys have been deepened, widened, 
and partially filled up again; caves through which sub- 
terranean riV'ers once ran are now left dry ; even the con- 
figuration of land has been materially altered, and AMca 
finally separated from Europe. 

Our climate has greatly changed for the better, and with 
it the fauna has materially altered. In some cases, for in- 
stance, in that of the hippopotamus and of the African ele- 
phant, we may probably look to the diminution of food and 
the presence of man as the main causes of their disappearance ; 
the extinction of the mammoth, the Elq^haa antiquus, and the 


Rhinoceros iicharhinuB, may possiblj be due to the same in- 
fluences ; but the retreat of the reindeer and the muak ox are 
probably in great measure owing to the change of climate. 
These and similar facts^ though they afford us no means of 
measurement^ impress us with a vague and overpowering 
sense of antiquity. All geologists, indeed, are now prepared 
to admit that man has existed on our earth for a much longer 
period than was until recently supposed to have been the 

But it may be doubted whether even geologists yet realise 
the great antiquity of our race. 

"When speculations on the long series of events which 
, occurred in the glacial and post-glacial periods are indulged 
in," says Sir C. Lyell,* " the imagination is apt to take alarm 
at the immensity of the time required to interpret the monu- 
ments of these ages, all referable to the era of existing species. 
In order to abridge the number of centuries which would 
otherwise be indispensable, a disposition is shown by many 
to magnify the rate of change in pre-historic times» by in- 
vesting the causes which have modified the animate and the 
inanimate world with extraordinary and excessive energy. 
.... We of the living generation, when called upon to 
make grants of thousands of centuries, in order to explain 
the events of what is called the modem period,, shrink 
naturally at first from making what seems so lavish an ex- 
penditure of past time." 

Turning now to the Ethnology of the drift period, we 
have only two skulls which can be referred with any degree 
of probability to the age of the extinct mammalia. One of 
them was found by Dr. Schmerling in the Cave of Engis, 
near Liege, the other by Dr. Fuhlrott, also in a cave, in the 
Neanderthal, near Dusseldorf. 

« Address to the Brit Ass. 1864, p. 21. Bath. 



Fio. 148. 

The first of these two skulls (figs. 143, 144) might have 

been that of a 
modem Euro- 
pean, so far at 
least as form 
is concerned. 
" There is no 
mark of de- 
gradation about 
any part of its 
structure. It is, 
in fact, a fair 
average human 
skull, which 
might have be- 
longed toa philo- 
sopher, or might 
have contained 
the thoughtless 
brains of a sa- 
vage." * 

The case, he 
adds, "of the Neander- 
thal skull (figfi. 145- 
147) is very diflferent. 
Under whatever aspect 
we view this cranium, 
whether we regard its 
vertical depression, the 
enormous thickness of 
its supraciliary ridges, 
its sloping occiput, or 
The Engis skuu. its loug and Straight 

* Huxley. Man's Place in Nature, p. 166. 

Flo, lis. 

The Neanderthal Skull. 


squamosal suture^ we meet witli ape-like characters, stamping 
it as the most pithecoid of human crania yet discovered.'* It 
has been suggested that this Neanderthal skidl may have been 
that of an idiot. There is not, however, the slightest reason 
for any such hypothesis, and though the shape of the skull 
is so remarkable, the brain appears to have been of con- 
siderable size, and, indeed, is estimated by Professor Huxley 
at about seventy-five cubic inches, which is the average 
capacity of the Polynesian and Hottentot skulls. It must, 
however, be admitted that though the antiquity of this 
skidl is no doubt great, there is no satisfactory proof that it 
belonged to the period of the extinct mammalia. Moreover, 
as Mr. Busk has already pointed out,* "we have yet to 
determine whether the conformation in question be merely 
an individual peculiarity, or a typical character." 

As regards the Engis skull, there seems no reason to 
doubt that it really belonged to a man who was contempo- 
raneous with the mammoth, the cave-bear, and other extinct 
mammalia, in which case, as Professor Huxley has well 
pointed out, " the first traces of the primordial stock whence 
man has proceeded need no longer be sought, by those who 
entertain any form of the doctrine of progressive develop- 
ment, in the newest tertiaries ; but that they may be looked 
for in an epoch more distant from the age of the Skphas pri- 
migeniua than that is from us.'' 

Already M. Desnoyersf has called attention to some 
marks noticed by him on bones found in the upper pliocene 
beds of St. Prest, and belonging to the Elepha» meridionalis^ 
Rhinoceros leptorhinua, Hippapotamm majors several species of 
deer (including the gigantic Megaceroa camutoruniy Langel), 
and two species of Bos, M. Desnoyers has examined a 
considerable number of these bones, and he comes to the 
conclusion "que les entailles, que les traces d'incisions, 

* Nat Hist. Eev. 1861, p. 172. f Compter Bendus. June 8, 1863. 


d'excoriation ou de choOi que les stries transversales^ recti- 
lignes, ou sinueuses, ou elliptiques, plus aigues k une ex- 
tr^mit^ qu'a Tautre, tantdt polies, tant6t subdivis^es en 
plusieurs stries plus fines occupant la cayit^ des premieres ; 
en un mot, que des traces tout k fait analogues k celles que 
produiraient les outils de silex tranchants k point plus ou 
moins aigue, a bords plus ou moins dentel^s, se yoyaient sur 
la plupart de ces ossements/' 

Among the bones of the deer were several crania, all of 
wbich have been broken in one way, namely, by a yiolent 
blow given on the skull between, and at the base of, the horns. 
M. Steenstrup has noticed fractures of this kind in other 
less ancient skulls of ruminants, and at the present day 
some of the Northern tribes treat the skulls of ruminants in 
the same mjanner. Through the courtesy of M. Desnoyers, 
I have had the opportunity of examining some of the 
scratched bones from Saint Prest. The markings ftdly bear 
out the description given by him, and some of them at least 
appeared to me to be probably of human origin ; at the same 
time, and in the present state of our knowledge, I am not 
prepared to say that there is no other manner in which they 
might have been produced. 

Sir Charles Lyell himself thinks that we may expect to 
find remains of man in the pliocene strata, but there he 
draws the line, and says that in miocene time, "had some 
other rational being, representing man, then flourished, some 
signs of his existence could hardly have escaped imnoticed, 
in the shape of implements of stone or metal, more frequent 
and more durable than the osseous remains of any of the 

^ Without expressing any opinion as to the mental con- 
dition of our ancestors in the miocene period, it seems to me 
evident that the argument derived from the absence of 
human remains, whatever may be its value, is as applicable to 


pliocene as to miocene times. But tliose who Ixave learnt 
geology at the feet of Sir Charles Lyell, and look up to 
him as their master in the science, will be th& least able to 
agree with him on this point, for the imperfection of the 
geological record has hitherto been urged upon us almost as 
strongly by Sir C. Lyell as by Mr. Darwin. It is true that 
few of our existing species or even; genera have as yet been 
found in miocene strata ; but if man constitutes a separate 
family of mammalia, as he does in the opinion of the highest 
authorities, then, according to all pala3ontological analogies, 
he must have had representatives in miocene times. We 
need not, however, expect to find the proofs in Europe ; our 
nearest relatives in the animal kingdom are confined to hot, 
almost to tropical, climates, and it is in such coimtries that 
we must look for the earliest traces of the human race. 




ALTHOUGH our knowledge of ancient times has of' 
late years greatly increased, it is still very imperfect, 
and we cannot afford to neglect any possible source of in- 
formation. It is evident that history cannot throw much 
light on the early condition of man, because the discovery 
— or, to speak more correctly, the use — of metal has in 
all cases preceded that of writing. Even as regards the 
Age of Bronze we derive little information from it, and 
although, as we have seen, the Age of Stone is vaguely 
alluded to in the earliest European writers, their statements 
have generally been looked upon as imaginative rather than 
historical; and are, indeed, confined to a mere mention of 
the fact that there was a time when metal was unknown. 
Nor will tradition supply the place of history. At best it 
is untrustworthy and short-lived. Thus, in 1770 the New 
Zealanders had no recollection of Tasman's visit.* Yet this 
took place in 1643, less than 130 years before, and must have 
been to them an event of the greatest possible importance 
and interest. In the same way the North American Indians 
soon lost all tradition of De Soto's expedition, although 
'' by its striking incidents it was so well suited to impress the 
TnilmTi mind.^' f 

* Cook's Fint Voyage round the World. Hawkesworth's Voyages, toL ii. p. 388. 
t Schoolcraft's Indian Tribes, toI. ii., p. xii. 


I do not mean to say that tradition would never preserve 
for a long period the memory of any remarkable event ; the 
above-mentioned facts prove only that it will not always do 
so : but it is unnecessary for us to discuss this question, as 
there is in Europe no tradition of the Stone Age, and when 
arrow-heads are found, the ignorant peasantry refer them to 
the elves or fairies ; stone axes are regarded as thunderbolts, 
and are used, not only in Europe but also in various other 
parts of the world, for magical purposes. 

Deprived then, as regards the Stone Age, of any assistance 
from history, but relieved at the same time from the em- 
barrassing interference of tradition, the archaeologist can only 
follow the methods which have been so successftdly pursued 
in geology — ^the rude bone- and stone-implements of bygone 
ages beiQg to the one, what the remains of extinct animals 
are to the other. The analogy may be pursued even further 
than this. Many mamTnalia which are extinct in Europe 
have representatives still living in other countries. Our 
fossH pachyderms, for instance, would be almost unintelligible 
but for the species which still inhabit some parts of Asia and 
Africa; the secondary marsupials are illustrated by their 
existing representatives in Australia and South America; 
and in the same manner if we wish clearly to understand the 
antiquities of Europe, we must compare them with the rude 
implements and weapons still, or until lately, used by 
savage races in other parts of the world. In fact, the Van 
Diemaner and South American are to the antiquary, what 
the opossum and the sloth are to the geologist. - 

A chapter, therefore, devoted to the consideration of 
modem savages will certainly not be out of place; and 
though it would require volumes to do justice to the subject, 
still it may be possible, even in a few pages, to bring together 
a certain number of facts, which will throw light on the 
ancient remains found in Europe, and on the condition of 


the early races whicli inliabited our continent. In order, 
however, to limit the subject as much as possible, I propose, 
with one exception, to describe only the " non-metaUic 
savages '* (if such an expression may be permitted) and even 
of these, only some of the most instructive, or of those 
which have been careftdly observed by travellers. 

It is a common opinion that savages are, as a general rule, 
only the miserable remnants of nations once more civilised ; 
but, although there are some well-established cases of 
national decay, there is no scientific evidence which would 
justify us in asserting that this is generally the case. No 
doubt there are many instances in which nations, once pro- 
gressive, have not only ceased to advance in civilisation, but 
have even fallen back. Still if we compare the accounts of 
early travellers with the state of things now existing, we 
shall find no evidence of any general degradation. The 
AustraKans, Bushmen, and Fuegians lived when first ob- 
served almost exactly as they do now. In some savage 
tribes we even find traces of improvement ; the Bachapins, 
when visited by Burchell, had just introduced the art of 
working in iron ; the largest erection in Tahiti was con- 
structed by the generation living at the time of Captain 
Cook's visit, and the practice of cannibalism had been re- 
cently abandoned;* again, outriggers are said to have been 
recently adopted by the Andaman Islanders ; and if certain 
races, as for instance some of the American tribes, have* fallen 
back, tliis has perhaps been due, less to any inherent tendency 
than to the injurious efiect of European influence. Moreover, 
if the Cape of Good Hope, Australia, New Zealand, etc., had 
ever been inhabited by a race of men more advanced than 
those whom we are in the habit of regarding as the abori- 
gines, some evidence of this would surely have remained; and 

* Forster, Obseryations made during a Yoyage Bound the World, p. 327. 
See also Ellis, Polynesian Researches, yoL ii., p. 29. 


this not being the case, none of our travellers having observed 
any ruins, or other traces of a more advanced civilisation, 
there does not appear to be any sufficient reason for sup- 
posing these miserable beings to be at all inferior to the 
ancestors from whom they are descended. 

The Hottentots. 

Speaking generally, we may say that the use of metal has 
been long known throughout Europe, Asia, and Africa, while 
in America, in Australia, and in the Oceanic Islands, all im- 
plements and weapons were, until within the last three hundred 
years, made of wood, bone, stone, or other similar materials. 

The semi-civilised nations of Central America formed, 
indeed, a striking exception to the rule, since they were 
acquainted with the use of bronze. The North American 
Indians also had copper hatchets, but these were simply 
hammered into shape, without the assistance of heat. Here, 
therefore, we seem to get a glimpse of the manner in which 
our ancestors may have acquired the knowledge of metal. No 
doubt the possession of iron generally marks a great advance 
in civilisation ; still the process is very gradual, and there are 
some nations which, though provided with metal implements 
are, nevertheless, but little removed from a state of barbarism. 

Thus the Hottentots, who were not only acquainted with 
the use, but even with the manufacture, of iron, and who 
possessed large numbers of sheep and cattle, were yet in 
many respects among the most disgusting of savages. Even 
Kolben, who generally takes a favorable view of them, 
admits that they are in many respects the filthiest people in 
the world.* We might go farther, and say the filthiest 
animals; I think no species of mammal could be fairly 
compared with them in this respect. Their bodies were 
covered with grease, their clothes were never washed, and 
* Kolben's History of the Gape of Gfood Hope, toL i., p. 47. 


their hair was loaded " from day to day with such a quantity 
of soot and fat, and it gathers so much dust and other filth, 
which they leave to clot and harden in it, for they never cleanse 
it, that it looks like a crust or cap of black mortar." * They 
wore a skin over the back, fastened in front. They carried 
this as long as they lived, and were buried in it when they 
died. Their only other garment was a square piece of skin, 
tied round the waist by a string, and left to hang down in 
front. In winter, however, they sometimes used a cap. For 
ornaments they wore rings of iron, copper, ivory, or leather. 
The latter had the advantage of serying for food in bad times. 
Their huts were generally oval, about fourteen feet by 
ten in diameter, and seldom more than four or five in 
height. They were made of sticks and mats. The sticks 
were fastened into the ground at both ends, or if not long 
enough, two were placed opposite to one another, and secured 
together at the top. One end of the hut was left open to 
form the door. The mats were made of bulrushes and flags 
dried in the sun, and so closely fitted together that only the 
heaviest rain could penetrate them.t "With respect to 
household furniture," says Thunberg,J "they have little or 
none. The same dress that covers a part of their body by 
day, serves them also for bedding at night." Their victuals 
are boiled in leathern sacs and water, by means of heated 
stones, but sometimes in earthen pots.§ Milk is kept in 
leathern sacs, bladders of animals, and baskets made of 
platted rushes, perfectly watertight. These, a tobacco pouch 
of skin, a tobacco pipe of stone or wood, and their weapons, 
constitute the whole catalogue of their efiects. According 
to Kolben, they sometimes broiled their meat, sometimes 

« Kolben, l,c, p. 188. J Page 141. 

t Tbunberg, Pinkerton's Trayels, § This, boweyer, they appear to bavc 

vol. xyi., p. 33 ; Kolben, he. p. 221 ; learnt from the Europeans. 
Sparrman, yol. i., p. 195. 

'^^'^'^■■■^^■■^■iMMHHBHHBHMHHHHHBHHHHHBBhniBfc..^ J 


boiled it in blood, to wbicb they often added milk ; " this. 
they look on as a glorious dish." They were, however, both 
filthy and careless about their cookery, and the meat was often 
eaten half putrid, and more than half raw.* 

Their weapons consisted of bows and poisoned arrows, 
spears, jayelins or assagais, stones, and darting sticks or 
"kirris,'* about three feet long and an inch thick. With 
these weapons they were very skilful, and feared not 
to attack the elephant, the rhinoceros, or even the lion. 
L^ge animals were also sometimes killed in pitfalls, from 
six to eight feet deep, and about four feet in diameter. 
They fixed a strong pointed stake in the middle. ''Into this 
hole an elephant falling with his fore-feet (it is not of di- 
mensions to receive his whole body) he is pierced in the neck 
and breast with the fitake and there held securely," t for the 
more he struggled the farther it penetrated. They caught 
fish both with hooks and in nets. They also ate wild fruits 
and roots of various kinds, T^hich however they did not take 
the trouble to cultivate. 

For domestic animals the Hottentots had oxen, sheep, and 
dogs. It might have naturally been supposed that oxen were 
used in the same manner all over the world. They seem evi- 
dently adapted either for draught or for food. With the dog 
the case is different ; we ourselves use him in various ways, and 
one feels therefore the less surprise at the different services 
which he performs for different races of savages. But even 
with regard to cattle the same was the case ; besides what we 
may call their normal uses, the Yeddahs, or wild inhabitants 
of Ceylon, used oxen in hunting ; and the Hottentots trained 
some to serve as what we may call sheep-oxen, or cow-oxen, 
— ^that is to say to guard and manage the flocks and herds, — 
and others as war-oxen, a Ainction which might have been 

* Thunberg, p. 141 ; Eolben, p. 203 ; Harris, Wild Sports of Africa, p. 142. 
t Kolben, p. 250. 


considered as opposed to the whole character of the beast, but 
in which, nevertheless, they appear to have been very usefid. 

The Hottentots of late years not only used iron weapolis, 
but even made such for themselves. The ore was smelted 
in the followiag manner :* "They make a hole in a raised 
ground, large enough to contain a good quantity of iron- 
stones, which are found here and there in plenty in the 
Hottentot countries. In this hole they melt out the iron 
from the ore. About a foot and a half from this hole, upon 
the descent, they make another, something less. This is the 
receiver of the nielted iron, which runs into it by a narrow 
channel they cut from one hole ta the other. Before they 
put the ironstones into the hole where the iron is to be 
smelted out of them, they make a fire in the hole, quite up 
to the mouth of it, in order to make the earth about it 
thoroughly hot. When they suppose the earth about it is 
well heated, they fill the hole almost up with ironstones. 
They then make ^ large fire over the stones, which they 
supply from time to time with fuel, till the iron is melted 
and all of it is run into the receiver. As soon as the iron in* 
the receiver is cold, they take it out, arid break it to pieces 
with stones. These pieces the Hottentots, as they have occa- 
sion, heat in other fires, and with stones beat 'em out and shapfe 
'em to weapons. They rarely make anything else of iron.'* 

I do not describe the Hottentot customs, few of them being 
fit for publication. They are, however, extremely curious, arid 
are fully described by Thunberg,f Kolben, J Cook,§ Sparf- 
man,|J and other travellers. The Hottentots can hardly be 
said to have had any religion,^ [though they seem to have 

• Kolben, Le. p. 239. f Thnnberg, l.€. p. 141, etc. ; Kolbenj 

t l.e, pp. 141, 142. pp. 37, 93, etc. Beeckman thought 

} Pp. 113, 115, 118, 121, 153, 252. they had no religion at all. Pinker- 

§ Hawkesworth's Voyages, vol. iii., ton's Voyages, vol. ii., p. 153; so also, 

p. 791. Harris, Wild Sports of Africa, p. 160 ; 

y Vol. i., p. 357. Sparrman, vol. i., p. 207. 



had some notion of a Deity. Even Kolben admits that they 
had not "any institution of worship." The older writers, 
indeed, considered certain dances as being reKgious cere- 
monies. This was stoutly denied by the natives themselves,* 
in spite of which Kolben assures us that they tcere "acts of 
their religion,'* adding candidly, "let the Hottentots say 
what they will." They are very fond of smoking, and are 
great drunkards. It is only fair to say that Kolben gives 
them a good character for integrity, chastity, fidelity, and 
liberality, assuring us that they "are certainly the most 
friendly, the most liberal, and the most benevolent people to 
one another that ever appeared upon earth.t At the same 
time it is difficult to see how he can reconcile this statement 
with the admitted fact that as soon as any man or woman is so 
enfeebled by old age that he or she is unable to work, and can 
" no longer " — ^I am quoting from Kolben himself — " be of 
any manner of service in anything, they are thrust out of 
the society and confined to a solitary hut at a considerable 
. distance from the krnal, there, with a small stock of provi- 
sions placed within their reach, but without any one to 
comfort or assist 'em, to die either of age or hunger, or be 
devoured by some wild beast." { This, it must be remem- 
bered, was no exceptional atrocity, but a general custom, and 
applied to the rich as well as the poor, for if an old man had 
property it was taken away from him. Infanticide, again, was 
very common among them, and was not regarded as a crime. 
Qirls were generally the victims, and if a woman had twins, 
the ugliest of them was almost always exposed or buried alive. 
This was done with the consent of " the whole kraal, which 
generally allows it without taking much pains to look into 
it."§ The poverty and the hardships which they had to 
undergo may perhaps plead as some excuse for these two 

* Sparrman, vol. i., p. 212 ; Kolben, l,e, f he, p. 334. 

X I.e. p. 321. { U p. 144. 


unnatural customs. But there is another, which I will relate 
also on the authority of Kolben,* and which appears to me 
quite incompatible with the good character he ascribes to the 
Hottentots. When a boy came of age he was admitted into 
the society of men, with certain ceremonies, which, though 
ludicrous, are so disgusting that it is difficult to imagine 
how they can have originated : after this he was entirely 
excluded from the society of women ; he was not allowed to 
eat or drink with them, nor to join in any of their entertain- 
ments. But the worst has yet to follow. " A Hottentot, 
thus discharged from the tuition of his mother, may insult 
her when he will with impunity. He may cudgel her, if he 
pleases, only for his humour, without any danger of being 
called to an account for it. And these things I have often 
known done. Nor," adds Kolben, "are such unnatural ex- 
travagancies attended with the least scandal." I will say 
no more about the character of the Hottentots. 

The Bushmen resembled the Hottentots in many things, 
but were even more imcivilised. They had no knowledge 
of metallurgy, no domestic animals, and no canoes. They 
frequently stole the cattle of their more advanced neighbours, 
but always killed and ate them as quickly as possible. Their 
principal weapons were bows and poisoned arrows. 

The Veddahs. 

The Veddahs or wild tribes who inhabit the interior of 
Ceylon have been described by Knox,t Tennent,t and 
Bailey.§ They live in huts very rudely formed of boughs 
and bark, and cultivate small patches of chena, but subsist 
principally on honey and the produce of the chase. Their 
weapons consist of axes and bows and arrows. With 

• he. p. 122. t Ceylon. 

t An Historical Relation of Ceylon. j Transactions of the Ethnological 

1681. Society. New Ser. Vol. ii., p. 278. 


344 VEDDAHS. ! 

the latter they are not very skilful, as they pursue 
only the larger game, and the art of hunting consists in 
crieeping close up to their prey and taking it unawares. 
They are very good deer-stalkers, and besides excellent dogs, 
have also hunting buffaloes. These are so trained that they 
are easily guided by a string tied round the horn, and are 
used at night. The buffalo feeds, the man crouches behind 
him, and thus, unseen and unsuspected, steals upon his 

They have no pottery, and their cooking is very primitive. 
They wear scarcely any clothes^ nothing in fact but a scrap 
of dirty rag, supported in front by a string tied round the 
waist. Perhaps the women's cloth i» a trifle larger than the 
men's, but that appears to be the only diflerence. They are 
very dirty, and very small ; the ordinary height of the men 
being from four feet six to five feet one, aaid of the women 
from four feet four to four feet eight. Mr. Bailey thiiiks 
that it would be impossible to conceive more barbarous 
specimens of the human race. 

They have, however, one remarkable peculiarity whieh it 
would be imfair to omit. They are kind, affectionate, and con- 
stant to their wives ; abhor polygamy, and have a proverb that 
" Death alone can separate husband and wife." In this they 
are very unlike their more civilised neighbours.* An in- 
telligent Kandyan chief with whom Mr. Bailey visited these 
Veddahs was "perfectly scandalised at the utter barbarism of 
living with only one wife, and never parting until separated by 
death." It was, he said, "just like the wanderoos" (monkeys). 
Even in their marriage relations, however, the Yeddahs can- 
not altogether be commended, as it is — or was until quite 
lately — very usual with them for a man to marry his younger 
sister. This is the more remarkable, as marriage with an 

* It is only fair to add tliat the Kandyans are said to have much improved in 
this respect of late years. 


elder sister seems to them as horrible as it does to us. They 
do not seem to have any religion. 

The Andaman Islanders. 

The Mineopies or inhabitants of the Andaman Islands have 
been described by Dr. Mouatt* and Prof. Owen, who consider 
that they " are> perhaps,, the most primitive, or lowest in the 
scale of civilisation of the human race.*' Their huts consist 
of four posts, the two front onea wx to eight feet high, the back 
ones only one ot two feet* They are open at the sides, and 
covered with a roof of bamboo,, or a few palm-leaves bound 
tightly together. The Mineopies live chiefly on fruit, man- 
groves,, and shell-fish. Sometimes^ however, they kill the 
small pigs, which run wild in the jirngje* 

They have single-tree canoes,, hollowed ©ut with a/?-shaped 
axe, assisted probably by the action of fire. They are ac- 
quainted with the use of outriggers,, which, however, appear 
to have been of recent introduction,, as they are not alluded 
to by the earlier writers.t Their arrotrs and spears are now 
generally tipped with iron and gjass, which they obtain from 
wrecks, and which have replaced bone. Their harpoons, like 
those of so many other savages,, have a moveable head, and a 
long cord by which this may be held when fixed in the victim. { 
They are very skUful with the bow, and "make practice at 
forty or fifty yard* with unerring certainty.'* Their nets are 
made with great ingenuity and neatness. They have no 
pottery, but use either shells or pieces of bamboo to hold 
water; They kill fish by harpoons, or with small hand nets 
they take any that are left by the tide, and it is even said 
thait they are able to dive and catch them with their hands. § 

They cover themselves with mud, and also tattoo, but wear 

* Adyentures. and Researehes among the Andaman Islanders. Also in the 
Transactions of th£ Ethnological Societj. New Ser. Vol. ii., p. 42. 
t Mouatt, le. p. 317. X Mouatt, I: p. 326. { Mouatt, le, pp. 310, 333. 


no clothes. Indeed they appear to be entirely without any 
sense of shame, and many of their habits are like those of 
beasts. They have no idea of a Supreme Being, no religion, 
nor any belief in a future state of existence. After death, 
the corpse is buried in a sitting posture. When it is sup- 
posed to be entirely decayed, the skeleton is dug up, and 
each of the relations appropriates a bone. In the case of a 
married man, the widow takes the skull and wears it sus- 
pended by a cord roimd her neck.* 

They have no dogs, nor any domestic animals, unless, 
indeed, their poultry may be regarded as such. 

The Australians. 

The natives of Australia were scarcely, if at all, farther 
advanced in civilisation than those of the Andaman Islands. 
The "houses" observed by Captain Cook "at Botany 
Bay, where they were best, were just lugh enough for a 
man to sit upright in; but not large enough for him to 
extend himself in his. whole length in any direction : they 
were built with pliable rods about as thick as a man's finger, 
in the form of an oven, by sticking the two ends into the 
ground, and then covering them with palm leaves and broad 
pieces of bark ; the door is nothing but a large hole at one 
end." Further north, where the climate was warmer, the 
huts were even less substantial, and being completely open 
on one side, scarcely deserve even the name of huts, and 
were little more than a protection against the wind. Finally, 
the natives observed by Dampier near C. Lev^que, on the 
north-west coast, seem to have had no houses at all. Boimd 
their dwelling-places Captain Cook observed " vast heaps of 
shells, the fish of which we supposed had been their food." t 
Captain Grey also describes similar shell-mounds, J some of 

• Mouatt, l.e, p. 327. t First Voyage, vol. iii., p. 698. 

X he* vol. i., p. 110. See also King's Australia, vol. i., p. 87. 

FOOD. 347 

which covered quite half an acre, and were as much as ten 
feet high. They seem, however, 'to have been first noticed 
by Dampier.* 

The food of the Australian savages diflfers much in different 
parts of the continent. Speaking generally, it may be said 
to consist of various roots, fruits, fimgi, shellfish, frogs, 
insects, birds' eggs, birds, fish, turtles, kangaroo, dog, and 
sometimes of seal and whalcf They are not, however, so 
far as I am aware, able to kill whales for themselves, but 
when one is washed on shore it is a real godsend to them. 
Fires are inmiediately lit, to give notice of the joyful event. 
Then they rub themselves all over with blubber, and 
anoint thdu* favourite wives in the same way ; after which 
they cut down through the blubber to the beef, which they 
sometimes eat raw and sometimes broil on pointed sticks. 
As other natives arrive they " fairly eat their way into the 
whale, and you see them climbing in and about the stinking 
carcase, choosing titbits." For days "they remain by the 
carcase, rubbed from head to foot with stinking blubber, 
gorged to repletion with putrid meat — out of temper from 
indigestion, and therefore engaged in constant frays — suffer- 
ing from a cutaneous disorder by high feeding — and alto- 
gether a disgusting spectacle. There is no sight in the 
world," Captain Grey adds, "more revolting than to see a 
young and gracefully-formed native girl stepping out of the 
carcase of a putrid whale." The AustraKans also mash up 
bones and suck out the fat contained in them, as already 
described (p. 248). They are excessively fond of fatty 

In a cave on the north-eastern coast, Mr. Cunningham 
observed certain "tolerable figures of sharks, porpoises, 
turtles, lizards, trepang, starfish, clubs, canoes, water- 

• Pinkerton's Voyages, vol. ii., p. 473. 
t Grey's Explorations in North- West and Western Australia, p. 263. 


gourds, and some quadrupeds whict were probably in- 
tended to represent kangaroos and dogs."* It is, however, 
doubtful whether these are the work of the present natives. 
The Alfouras do not claim them, but on the contrary ascribe 
them to diabolical agency. Moreover, they are, according to 
Mr. Oldfield, " quite imable to realise the most vivid artistic 
representations. On being shown a large colored engraving 
of an aboriginal New Hollander, one declared it to be a ship, 
another a kangaroo, and so on ; not one of a dozen identify- 
ing the portrait as having any connection with himself." f 

The Australians observed by Cook and Dampier were en- 
tirely destitute of clothing, and their principal ornament 
consisted of a bone, five or six inches long, and half an inch 
thick, thrust through tie cartilage of the nose. They did 
not tattoo. On. the north-west coast, King observed some 
of the natives^ with a very peculiar decoration. At every 
three inches between the upper part of the chest and the 
navel, the body was scarified in horizontal bands, the cica- 
trices of which were at least an inch in diameter and raised 
half an inch &om the body.J Some of them fastened to 
their hair,, by means of gimi, teeth of kangaroos or of men, 
dogs' tails^ fish bones„ bits of wood, and other objects which 
they regarded as^ ornamental. Frequently they wore pieces 
of opossum^ or kangaroo-skin — not for decency, however, 
but for warmth, and. while hunting as a protection from 
thorns.. According to D'Urville, however, the natives of 
New South Wales did not think it decent that yoimg 
children should go quite naked. § 

On the north-eastern coasts they use canoes niade from 
the trunkft of trees> each canoe being formed from a single 

* King, vol. ii., p. 26 ; Grey, vol. i., p. 269. 

t Oldfield on tlie Aborigines of Australia. Transactions of tlie Ethnological 
Society. New Ser. Vol. iii. 
} U. p. 42. § Voyage de T Astrolabe, vol. i., p. 471. 


trunk, probably hollowed by fire. " They are about fourteen 
feet long, and being very narrow, are fitted with an out- 
rigger."* Further south they were nothing but a piece of 
bark, tied together at the ends and kept open in the middle 
by small bows of wood. The western tribes had no canoes,t 
owing, according to King, J to the absence of large timber. § 
Instead of a boat they use a log of wood, on which they sit 
astride, with a bit of bark in each hand as a paddle. Some 
tribes fasten four or five mangrove stems together so as to 
make a kind of very small float or raft. The tribe observed 
by Dampier were even worse off in this respect ; they had 
"no boats, canoes, or bark logs." Yet they dwelt on the 
shore, lived principally on fish, and swam about from island 
to island. The absence of canoes is very remarkable in a 
people whose habits were so aquatic, and whose food was 
derived almost entirely from the sea. 

Their implements Bre very simple. They have no know- 
ledge of pottery, and carry water in a small vessel made 
of bark. They are quite ignorant of warm water, which 
strikes them with great amazement. || Some of them carry 
"a small bag, about the size of a moderate cabbage-net, 
which is made by laying threads loop within loop, some- 
what in the manner of knitting used by our ladies to make 
purses. This bag the man carries loose upon his back by 
a small string which passes over his head ; it generally con- 
tains a lump or two of paint and resin, some fishhooks and 
lines, a shell or two, out of which their hooks are made, a 
few points of darts, and their usual ornaments, which in- 
cludes the whole worldly treasure of the richest man among 

* Freycinet. Voyage antour du Monde, yoL ii., p. 706. 
t Cook's First Voyage, yoI. iii., p. 643. 
j l.e, vol. i., pp. 38, 43, 49 ; vol. ii., pp. 66, 69. 

§ In hifl view, however, of Careening Bay, the eountry i^pean to be well 
wooded. II D'Urville, vol. i., p. 461. 


Fio. 148. A very similar inventory is given by Capt. Grey, 
who adds, however, a flat stone to pound roots with.* 
They have also stone hatchets, hammers, knives, pieces 
of flint, and sticks to dig up roots. The hammer 
is used for killing seals or other animals, and for 
breaking open shell-fish. The handle is from twelve 
to fifteen inches long, pointed at one end, and having 
on each side at the other a hard stone fastened on 
by a mass of gum. The knives have a similar 
handle, and at the end a few splinters of quartz or 
flint, arranged in a row and stuck on with gum in 
the same manner. 

The natives of Botany Bay had fish-hooks, but no 
nets ; on the contrary, Capt. Grey, in describing 
those of Western Australia, mentions nets, but not 
hooks; and, according to Dampier, the natives 
of the north-west had "no instruments to catch 
great fish." Those seen by King were also 
without hooks or nets.t Throughout the conti- 
nent they were ignorant both of slings and bows 
and arrows. On the other hand they had spears, 
clubs (fig. 148), shields, and two very peculiar 
instruments, namely, the throwing stick and the 
boomerang (fig. 149). The spear, however, is their 

I'lffrlH national weapon. These " are about ten feet long, 
and very slender, made of cane or wood, tapering to 
a point, which is barbed. They are light, and one 
would scarcely be inclined to believe that they could 
be darted with any force : nor could they, without 
the aid of the wummera, a straight flat stick, three 
feet in length, terminating in a socket of bone or 
hide, into which the end of the spear is fixed. The 
wummera is grasped in the right hand by three 
• l.e. p. 266. t l,e. vol. ii., p. 137 



Fio. 149. 

fingers, the spear lying between the fore-finger and thumb. 
Previous to throwing it, a tremulous or vibratory motion 
is given to it, which is supposed to add to the accuracy of 
the aim : in projecting the spear, the wummera is retained 
in the hand, and the use of this simple contrivance adds 
greatly to the projectile force given to 
the spear. They are well practised in 
the use of these weapons."* Indeed, 
Capt. Grey tells us that he has often 
seen them kill a pigeon with a spear 
at a distance of thirty yards, and Capt. 
Cook says that " at a distance of fifty 
yards these Indians were more sure of 
their mark than we could be with a 
single bullet."t The very long Austra- 
lian spears are not thrown with the 
wummera, but by the strength of the 
arm alone. They have also several other 
kinds of spears ; one of them, used for 
striking turtle, has a moveable, barbed, 
blade, which is attached by a string to 
the butt end of the spear; when the 
turtle is struck, the shaft becomes de- 
tached from the point, which remains 
fixed in the body, while the shaft serves, 
partly to impede the motions, and partly 
as a float to indicate the position of | 
the turtle. A similar weapon is used by 
the Esquimaux, the Mincopies, the Booirerang. 

Brazilian Indians, and other savages. But the inost extra- 
ordinary weapon, and one quite peculiar to Australia, is the 
boomerang. This is a curved stick, generally roimded on one 
side, flat on the other, about three feet long and two inches wide, 
♦ United States Explor. Exped., vol. L, p. 191. f Cook, l.e, p. 642. 


by three-quarters of an ineli thick. At first sight it looks 
something like a very rude wooden sword. It was used both 
in the chase and in war. " It is grasped at one end in the 
right hand; and is thrown sickle- wise> either upwards into 
the air, or downwards so as to strike the ground at some 
distance from the thrower. In the first case it flies with a 
rotary motion, as its shape would indicate ; after ascending 
to a great height in the air, it suddenly returns in an 
elliptical orbit to a spot near its starting point. On 
throwing 'it downwards on the ground, it rebounds in a 
straight line, pursuing a ricochet motion until it strikes the 
object at which it is thrown- Birds and small animals are* 
killed with it, and it is also ufied in killing ducks. The 
most singular curve described by it is when thrown into the 
air, above the angle of 46^ ; its flight is always then back- 
wardsy and the native who throws it stands with his back, 
instead of his face, to the object he is desirous of hitting." * 
Mr. Merry, a gentleman who resided for some time in Aus- 
tralia, informs me that on one occasion, in order to test the 
fikiQ with which the boomerang could be thrown, he offered a 
reward of sixpence for every time the boomerang was made 
to return to the spot from which it was thrown. He drew 
a circle of five or six feet on the sand, and although the 
boomerang was thrown with much force, the native suc- 
ceeded in making it faU within the circle five times out 
of twelve- Mr. 01dfield,t on the contrary, speaks much less 
favorably of the bocMnerang. It is, he says, but little used 
in war, nor do the natives " ever attempt to kill a solitary 
bird or beast by means of" it. On the other hand, in 
swampy localities where waterfowl " congregate largely, the 
boomerang is of essential use ; for a great number of them 
being simultaneously hurled into a large flock of waterfowl, 
^isures the capture of considerable numbers." 

• United States Explor. Exped., U. f Trans. Ethn. Soc, N. S. vol. iii., p. 264. 


They obtain fire by rubbing together two pieces of wood. 
The process, however, being one of considerable labor, par- 
ticularly in damp weather, great care is taken to prevent the 
fire, when once lighted, from becoming extinguished. For 
this reason they often carry with them a cone of banksia, 
which bums slowly like amadou.* 

The Australians observed by Captain Cook had " no idea 
of traffic, nor," he says, "could we communicate any to 
them: they received the things which we gave them, but 
never appeared to imderstMid our signs when we required a 
return. The same indifference which prevented them from 
buying what we had, prevented them also from attempting 
to steal : if they had coveted more, they would have been 
less honest."! In other parts, however, they are more ad- 
vanced in this respect. Yarious kinds of pigments, feathers, 
shells, implements, and especially flints, are the principal 
articles of barter. 

Polygamy is permitted ; but a man who takes more than 
two wives is looked upon as a selfish and imreasonable per- 
son. If a married man dies,. his brother inherits the wife, 
who " goes to her second husband's hut three days after the 
death of her first." This custom does not say much for the 
strength of their affections. 

They have no religion, nor any idea of prayer ; but most 
of them believe in evil spirits, and all have great dread of 
witchcraft. In fact, they have a remarkable superstition 
that no one ever dies a natural death. 

Captain Wilkes J describes an Australian funeral as follows. 
Almost immediately after death the corpse was arranged in 
a sitting posture, the knees bent up close to the body, the 
head pressed forwards, and the whole body closely tied up in 
a blanket. An oval grave was then dug, about six feet 

• D'Urville, vol. i., p. 194. f l,e. p. 635. 

% l.c. vol. ii., p. 196. Fitzroy, Le, vol. ii., p. 628. 


354 BURIAL. Kui^ssa. 

long^ three, wide, and five 4eep, At the bottom waa a bed of 
leayes, covered with an opoasi^a-skiA cloak, and with a stuffed 
bag of kangaroo-skia for a pillow ; on this th& body was laid 
with its implements and weapons. Above the corpse were 
strewn leaves and brandbtesiy and the hole waa then filled up 
with stones. Finally, the earth which had been removed 
was put over the whole, making a mound eight or nine feet 
high. According to D'tTryiJle, the natives of New South 
Wales bury the young, and burn the oli* Other tribes 
dispose of their dead ijx other ways ; but none of them were 
addicted to cannibalism 9M a matter of habit or choice, al- 
though they were not unJfeequently driven to it by th^ 
Bcarcily of other food. 

No single fact^ perhaps, gives ua a more vivid idea of the 
mental condition of these miserable savages, than the obser- 
vation that they cannot coxmt their own fingers^-not even 
those of one hand. Mr. Orawfurdt has examined the nu- 
merals of thirty Australian languages, ''and in no instance 
do they appear to go beyond the number four." Mr. Scott 
Nind, indeed, haa given an account of the Australians of 
King George's Sound to which a vocabulary is annexed* 
containing the numerala, which are made to reach the 
number five. The term for this last unit, however, turns 
out to be only the word "many," In &ct, the word "five" 
conveys to them the idea of a great number^ as a " himd^red " 
or a "thousand" does to us. 

The Tasmaniani'. 

The inhabitants of Van Dieman's Land were quite as 
wretched as those of Australia. According to Captain Cook's 
accoimt they had no houses, no clothes, no canoes, no in- 
strument to catch large fish, no nets, no hooks ; they lived 

* Vol i., p. 472. t TtwaMHiaoM of Ethn. Soo., ISTew Series, toL iL, p. 84. 


on muflselfl, cockles, and periwinkles, and their only weapon 
was a straight pole, sharpened at one end.* Mr. Dove in- 
forms Tis that they are entirely without any "moral views 
and impressions/' Indeed, he scarcely appears to regard 
them as rational beings.f They have no means of expressing 
abstract ideas; they have not even a word for a "tree." 
Although fire was well known to them, some tribes, at least, 
appear to have he&i ignorant whence it was originally ob- 
tained, or how, if extinguished, it could be re-lighted. "In. 
all their wanderings," says Mr. Dove, " they were particularly 
careful to bear in their hands the materials for kindling a&re. 
Their memory supplies them with no instances of a period in 
which they we^e obliged to draw on their inventive powers 
for the means of resuscitating an element so essential to their 
health and comfort aer flajne. How it came originally into 
thdr possession is unknown. Whether it may be viewed as 
the gift of nature, or the product of art and sagacity, they 

caniiot recollect a period when it was a desideratum 

It was the part of the females especially to carry a firebrand 
in their hands, which was studiously refreshed from time to 
time as it became dull and evanescent." f 

Feegee Inlanders. 

The islands of the Pacific contain two very distinct races 
of m^i — ^the Negrito and the Polynesian. My space does 
not permit me to enter into the interesting questions of their 
relationships and affinities. 

The inhabitants of the Feegee Islands have been described 

by many writers as negroes. They are darker than the 

Polynesians. The jaws are larger, and the hair, though not 

exactly woolly, is frizzled. They are a powerful race, but not 

so graceful as the Polynesians. Their language is, however, 

* Third Voyage, vol. i., p. 100. f Tasmanian Jour, of Nat. ScL, Yol. L, p. 249. 
X Tasmanian Jonr. of Nat. Sci. vol. 1., p. 20Oi 


more Polynesian than Negrito. Their institutions, customs, 
and manners, were partly Polynesian, partly Negrito.* It 
is remarkable that they did not use the consonants " b," " d," 
or "g" without placing "m" or "n" before them, as for 
instance Mbau, Nduandua, Ngata. It is well kuown how 
frequent these soimds are in Negro names. 

The food of the Feegee Islanders consisted of fish, turtle, 
shell-fish, crabs, human flesh whenever it could be obtained, 
.taro, yams, mandrai, bananas, and cocoa-nuts, in addition to 
which the higher classes occasionally indulged in pigs and 
fowls. They drank ava habitually, and at all their cere- 

Their weapons consisted of spears, slings, clubs, bows and 
arrows. The spears were from ten to fifteen feet long, and 
were generally made of cocoa-nut wood ; the end was pointed 
and charred ; sometitnes, though not often, a sharp bone was 
used for the point. They had several kinds of clubs, all 
made of iron wood. That most esteemed was about three 
feet long, with a heavy knob at the end. Another kind 
was somewhat shovel-shaped, and might rather be called 
a short sword. The ula was a short heavy club, about 
eighteen inches long, with a large and heavy knob. It was 
used as a missile, and the natives threw it with great 
accuracy and force. These were their principal weapons, the 
bows and arrows being weak and light. They were, how- 
ever, used in war, as well as in killing fish. The fortified 
towns of the Feegeeans had an earthen "rampart, about six feet 
thick, fa^ed with large stones, surmoimted by a reed fence or 
cocoa-nut trunks, and surrounded by a muddy moat." f 

Their houses were oblong, from twenty to thirty feet long, 
and fifteen feet high. They were made of cocoa-nut wood 
and tree fern, and were sometimes very well built. They had 

* Latham. Varieties of Man, p. 226. 
t WilliamB. Figi and the Figians, vol. i., p. 48. 


two doorways on opposite sides, from three to four feet high 
and four feet wide. The sides were made of posts about 
three feet apart, and filled in with wickerwork. The roof 
had a steep pitch' ; the rafters were generally of palm 
wood, tJ^atched with wild sugar cane, under which they 
placed fern leaves. A mat served as a door, and a few flat 
stones near the middle of the house acted as the fireplace. 
The houses were seldom divided by partitions, but the two 
ends were raised about a foot, and, were covered with layers 
of mats on which the natives slept. 

Their temples were pyramidal in form and were often 
erected on terraced mounds, like those of Central America.* 
They also venerated certain upright stones,t resembling those 
which we regard as Druidical. The Feegeeans, says Mr. 
Hazlewood, "consider the gods as beings of like passions 
with themselves. They love and hate ; they are proud and 
revengeful, and make war, and kill and eat each other; 
and are, in fact, savages and cannibals like themselves." 
"Cruelty," says Captain Erskine,J "a craving for blood, 
and especially for human flesh as food, are characteristic of 
the gods." Yet the Feegeeans looked upon the Samoans 
with horror because they had no religion, no belief in any 
such deities, nor any of the sanguinary rites which prevailed 
in other islands. 

The Feegee canoes were very well constructed. They 
were generally double, of unequal size, the smaller one 
serving as an outrigger. The larger ones were sometimes 
more than a hundred feet in length. The two canoes 
were connected by a platform, generally about fifteen feet 
wide and projecting two or three feet beyond the sides. 
The bottom of each consisted of a single plank ; the 

« B. Seemann. In the Vacation Tourist for 1861, p. 269. 

t Figi and the Figians, vol. i., p. 220. 

% Journal of a Cruise in the Western Pacific, p. 247. 


sides were fitted by doyetailmg, and closely united by 
lashings passed through flanges left on each of the pieces. 
The joints were closed by the gum of the bread-firuit tree. 
The sails were large, and made of mats. The mast was gene- 
rally about half the length of the canoe, and the yard and 
boom usually twice a» long as the. mast. Their principal tool 
was an adze, formerly of stone, but now generally of iron. 
For boring holes they used the long spines of the echina, 
pointed bones, and, when •they could get them, nails. Small 
teeth, such as those of rats and mice, were used for carving ; 
and their knives were made of the outside of a piece of 
bamboo, shaped into form while green. After being dried 
it was charred, and thus became very hard and sharp, so 
that it might be used in surgical operations. They differed 
from the Polynesians in using earthenware pots for cooking. 
These were graceful and well made, though the potter's wheel 
was unknown. The pottery was all made by women. Their 
tools were very simple, consisting of a small round flat stone 
to fashion the inside, and a flat mallet or spatula for the 
surface, which they made almost as round as if it had been 
turned in a lathe. Forks appear to have been long in use 
among the Feegeeans; a remarkable fact, if we remember 
that they were unknown in Northern Europe until the seven- 
teenth century. 

The Feegeeans have several kinds of games. They are 
fond of swinging, and of throwing stones or fruits at a mark. 
They have also a game resembling skittles^ Hieir dances, 
like those of so many other nations, are anything but decorous. 
Their musical instruments are the conch-shelly the nose-flute, 
pipes, a Jew's-harp made of a strip of bamboo, and several 
sorts of drums. They are also fond of poetry. 

Their agricultural implements have been described by 
Mr. Williams. The digging-sticks are made of a young 
mangrove tree. They are about the size of an ordinary hay 

AGillCtrLTURE. WOMEN. 859 

fork, and the lower end ''is tapered off on one side, after the 
shape of a quill toothpick. In digging this flattened side is 
kept downwards. When preparing a piece of ground for 
yams, a number of men are employed^ diyided into groups of 
three or four. Each man being ibmished with a dig^ging- 
stick, they drive them into the ground so as to Aldose a 
circle of about two feet in diameter^ When, by repeated 
strokes, the sticks reach the depth of eighteen inches, they 
are used as levers, and the mass of soil between them is thus 
loosened and raised."* The clods are then broken up by boys 
with short sticks. Weeding " is* CMComplished by meato of 
a tool used like a Dutch hoe, the workman squatting so as to 
bring the handle nearly level with the ground. The blade 
used formerly to be made of ai bone from the back of a tu^le, 
or a plate of tortoise-shell, or the vialve of a large oyster, or 
large kind of pinna. In the windward islands they use a 
large dibble, eight feet long, about eighteen Inches in cir- 
oumfiKrence, and tapering to a point. They had also pruning 
knives of** tortoise-shell lashed to the end of a rod ten feet 
long. They are skilful in basket-making, and have gobd 
strong nets, made of creepers or of sinnet. 

The wom^i were kept in great subjection. "The men 
frequently tie thetn up and flog them. Like other property, 
wives might be sold at pleasure, and the usual price is a 
musket. Thos6 who purchase them may do with them as 
they please, even to knocking them on the head.** Erskine, 
however, gives a more satisfactoiy accoimt of the position 
held by the women; and it appears that they are on 1Sb:6 
whole more chaste than is the case in some of the other 
Pacific Islands; which is saying something for them, buft 
certainly not much. 

Although but scantily clothed, the Feegeeans are said to 
have been very particular about their garments and their 
* Fi^ md the FigiiEUis, vol. i., p. 6Z, 


paint. They were specially proud of their hair, and if it was 
short they wore a wig as a substitute. Some of these wigs 
were beautifully made. The men wore " tapa/* which is a 
kind of cloth obtained, from the inner bark of the paper- 
mulberry, and made into a sash, from three to one hun- 
dred yards in length. Six or ten . yards is, however, the 
usual quantity, and it is passed between the legs and round 
the waist.* The women are not permitted to use "tapa," 
and their dress is more scanty than that of the men ; con- 
sisting, indeed, only of the " liku,*' a kind of band, made of 
the bark of hibiscus, and fastened round the waist. It ends 
in a fringe, which is worn short by the girls, but longer 
after marriage. Nevertheless, though almost naked^ the 
Feegeeans are said to have been very modest, and if any one 
were foimd entirely without clothes. Captain Wilkes thinks 
that the offender would be immediately put to death. 

Tattooing is confined to the women, who are ornamented 
in this manner on the fingers, the comers of the mouth, and 
oddly enough^ on those parts of the body which are covered 
by the "liku.*' The process is very painM, but submission 
to it is regarded as a religious duty.f 

The graves of the common people are onlyjnarked by a 
few stones, but over those of chiefs they build small houses 
from two to six feet high, or in some cases erect large cairns 
of stone ; these also are sometimes '* set up to mark Hie spot 
where a man has died." J The body is buried in a sitting 
posture. The usual sign of mourning is to crop the hair or 
beardf or both. Very often also they bum the skin into 
blisters, and cut off the end-joints of the small toe and little 

Among the Feegeeans, parricide is not a crime, but a 
custom. Parents are generally killed by their children. 

* Figi and the Figians, vol, i., p. 166. f I^* p. 160 ; Wilkes, l.e, p. 366. 
X Figi and the Figians, vol. i., p. 192. 

BrmAL. 361 

Sometimes the aged people make up their minds that it is 
time to die ; sometimes it is the children who give notice to 
their parents that they are a burden to them. In either 
case^ the Mends and relatives are summoned, a consultation 
takes place, and a day is fixed for the ceremony, which com- 
mences with a great feast. The missionaries have often 
witnessed these horrible tragedies. On one occasion a yoimg 
man invited Mr. Hunt to attend his mother's funeral, which 
was just going to take place. Mr. Hunt accepted the invita- 
tion, but when the funeral procession started, he was sur- 
prised to s^ no corpse^ and accordingly made enquiries, when 
the young savage " pointed out his mother,* who was walking 
along with them, as gay and lively as any of them present, 
and apparently as much pleased. . . . He added that it 
was from love for his mother that he had done so ; that in 
consequence of the same love, they were now going to bury 
her, and that none but themselves could or ought to do so 

sacred an office she was their mother, and they 

were her children, and they ought to put her to death.'' In 
such cases the grave is dug about four feet deep, the relatives 
and friends begin their lamentations, take an affectionate 
parting, and bury the poor victim aUve. It is surprising 
after this to hear that Mr. Hunt regarded the Feegeeans 
as being kind and affectionate to their parents, but in fact 
" they considered this custom so great a proof of affectioii, 
that none but children could be found to perform it." 
The fact is that they not only believe in a future state, 
but are persuaded that as they leave this life so they will 
rise again.f l^iey have, therefore, a powerful motive for 
quitting this world before they are weakened by old age ; 
and so general was this belief, so powerful the influence 
which it had upon them, that in one town containing several 
himdred inhabitants, Capt. Wilkes did not see one man over 
♦ Wilkes, le. p. 96. f Figi and the Figians, yoI. i., p. 183. 


forty years of age ^ and on asking for tlie old people was 
informed that they were all buried. Again, during the first 
year of Mr. Hunt's residence at Somo-somo, there was only 
one instance of natural death; all the aged and diseased 
having been strangled or buried alive. 

When a chief died it was usual to " send with him '^ some 
of his women and some slaves. At the death of Ngavindi, 
Mr. Calvert went to Mbau hoping "to prevent the strangling 
of women, but was too late. Three had been murdered. Tha- 
kombau proposed to strangle his sister,^ the chief wife of the 
deceased, as was the usual custom ; but the Lasakau people 
begged that she might be spared, and that her child might 
become their chief. Ngavindi's mother ofiered herself as a 
substitute,, and was strangled.. The dead ehief lay in state, 
with a dead wife by his side, on a raised platform ; the corpse 
of hi& mother oa a bier ast hia feet, and a murdered servant 
on a mat in the mid»t o£ the house. A large grave was dug 
in the fiHmdation ei & heuse near by,, in which the servant 
was^ laid first,, and upon her the other three corpses, wrapped 
and wound up together.**^* In these case» the wives gene- 
rality die voluntarily, believing that thus only can they hope 
to< ge« to heaven. Horrible as are these facts, they at least 
show h«w strong must be the belief felt in a future state of 

Stfll„1iL0ugh we may allow the goodness of the motive to 
Gxtennata scmie of these atrocities, it must be allowed that 
human life* was but little regarded in Feegee. Not only 
in£Miticide„ bat also human sacrifices, were very common, 
and in fact scarcely anything was imdertaken without the 
Istter.. When the king launched a canoe, ten or more men 
wexe slaugMeredi on the deck, in order that it itiight be 
washed witk hunum blood. But there is even worse to be 
told. The Feegeeans^were most inveterate cannibals, and so 
* Figi and the Figians, vol. ii., p. 301. 


fond were they of human flesh, that " the greatest praise they 
can bestow on any delicacy is to say that it is as tender as a 
dead man/' Nay, they were even so fastidious as to dislike 
the taste of white men,* to prefer the flesh of women to that 
of men, and to consider the arm aboTe the elbow, and the 
thigh as the best joints ; and so greedy^^ that human flesh was 
reserved for the men, being considered too good to be wasted 
upon the women. When the king gaTe a feast human flesh 
always formed one ni the dishes^ and though the bodies 
of enemies slain in battle were always eaten^ they did not 
afford a sufficient supply, but slaires were fattened up for the 
market. Sometimes they roasted them aliTe and ate them at 
once, while at others they kept bodies until they were far 
gone in decay. Ea TJndre->undre^ Chief of Raki-raki^ was 
said to haTe eaten nine hundred persons himself, permitting 
no one to share them with him.t 

It was not from any want of food that the Feegeeans were 
cannibals. On one occasion they offered to the God of War 
^^ten thousand yams (weighing from six to twelve pounds 
each),, thirty turtles, forty roots of yaquona (some very large), 
many hundreds, of native puddings (two tons), one hundred 
and flfty giant oysters^ fifteen water-melons, cocoa-nuts, a 
large number of violet land crabs, taro, and ripe bananas.^' j; 
At a public feast Mr. Williama once saw '' two hundred men 
employed for nearly six hours in collecting and piling cooked 
food. There were six mounds of yams, taro, vakalolo, pig8> 
and turtlea: these contained about fifty tons of cooked yams 
and taro> fifteen tons of sweet pudding, seventy turtles, five 
cartloads of yaquona,, and about two hundred tons of un- 
cocked yams. One pudding, at a Lakemba feast, measured 
twenty-one feet in circumference." Yet so habitual has 
cannibalism become, that they have no word for a corpse 

* So also did the Australiaiis^ tiie t Fig>andtheFigian8,Yol.i.,p.21S. 

Tcmgaos, and the New Zealanders. % -'^* "^^^ ^'> P* ^^* 

364 , MURDER. 

winch does not include the idea of something edible. Human 
flesh is known as "puaka balava," or "long pig/'* "On 
contemplating the character of this extraordinary people/' 
says Ersldne,t "the mind is struck with wonder and awe at 
the mixture of a complicated and carefully-conducted political 
system, highly finished manners, and ceremonious politeness, 
with a ferocity and practice of savage vices which is probably 
unparalleled in any other part of the world." "Murder," 
says Mr. Williams, " is not an occasional thing in Figi, but 
habitual, syst^natic, and classed among ordinary transac- 
tions." J Elsewhere he tells us that no Feegeean ever feels 
safe with a stranger at his heds,§ and that to be "an ac- 
knowledged murderer is the object of the Figian's restless 
ambition." || On the Island of Vanua Levu, even among the 
women, there were "few who had not in some way been 
murderers." If To this they are trained up from infancy. 
" One of the first lessons taught the infant is to strike its 
mother." At Somo Some, Mr. Williams saw mothers leading 
their children " to kick and tread upon the dead bodies of 
enemies."** No wonder that imder these circumstances " a 
happy and imited household is most rare." Indeed it is 
nearly impossible, for by an arrangement, which seems 
almost incredible, " brothers and sisters, first cousins, fathers 
and sons-in-law, mothers and daughters-in-law, and brothers 
and sisters-in-law are severally forbidden to speak to each 
other, or to eat from the same dish." ft Yet amid so much 
that is horrible, there is still something in the Feegeean 
which redeems his character from utter atrocity. If he hates 

♦ Erskine, /.c.p. 260. Other mam- f Ersldne,7.<?. p. 272. 

malia, when introduced into the South % Figi and the Figians, vol. i., p. 134. 

Sea Islands, received names indicatiye of §/.<;. p. 133. 

their similarity to this their principal || I.e. p. 112. 

quadruped : thus the horse was called % l.e, p. 180. 

the " man-carrying pig" in Tahiti, the ♦♦ I.e. p. 177. 

sheep was the *<hog with teeth on its ft I.e. p. 136. 
forehead" (Forster, I.e. p, 384). 


deeply, lie also loves truly ; if his revenge never dies, his 
fidelity and loyalty are strong and enduring. Thakombau 
was a thorough Feegeean. Almost to the last he opposed 
the missionaries. He was not only heathen, but anti- 
christian. At length being converted, he called his people 
together, and, says Mr. Calvert, "What a congregation he 
had ! — ^husbands, whose wives he had dishonoured ! widows, 
whose husbands he had slainj sisters, whose relatives had 
been strangled by his orders ! relatives, whose friends he 
had eaten ! and children, the descendants of* those he had 
murdered, and who had vowed to avenge the wrongs inflicted 
on their fathers !''* Yet even this man — an adulterer, a 
parricide, and a cannibal ; whose hands were stained with a 
hundred murders— had still something noble and loveable 
about him ; so much so indeed that, in spite of his crimes, 
he secured the affection, the friendship, even the respect, of 
a man so excellent as Mr. Calvert. 

n^e Maories. 

The New Zealanders are the most southemly representatives 
of the great Polynesian family. Their principal food consisted 
of fern roots, which they scorched over the fire, and then 
beat with a stick, till the bark and dry outside fell off; the 
remainder being a soft substance, rather clammy and sweet, 
not unpleasant to the taste, but mixed with niunerous stringy 
fibres which are very disagreeablcf In the northern dis- 
tricts were large plantations of yams and sweet potatoes. 
They also cultivated gourds, which were used for vessels, as 
they had no pottery. Their only instrument for tillage was 
" a long narrow stake sharpened to an edge at one end, with 
a short piece fastened transversely at a little distance above 

^ Figi and the Figians, Le> toI. ii., f Dieffenbach's New Zealand, toI. 

p. 857. ii., p. 11. 


it, for the eonvemenee of pressing it down with the foot/' 
Their acnimal food consisted principally of £sh and shell-fish, 
and Captain Cook observed large sheU-mounds near their 
houses. They sometimes also, ^though rarely, killed rails, 
penguins, shags, and other birds. They obtained fire from 
two pieces of wood, in the usual manner.* A "New Zealand 
stone adze is represented in figs. 82-84, p. 73. 

The only quadrupeds in the .islands were dogs and rats. 
They had no hogs, and the dogs were k«pt entirely for food. 
It is remarkaUe that although in many ways so much farther 
advanced in civilisatiiHoi than the Nootka Columbians, and 
although animal food was so much in demand, they seem to 
have devised no way of kaUiotg the whales whieh frequented 
their coasts. They were, however, skilfol in fishing, havrug 
excellent lines, hooks made of bone and shell, and very 
large nets which were made of the leaves of a kind 
of flax, spUt into strips of the proper breadth and tied 
together. In making the lines the leaves are " scraped by 
a shell, which removes the ujqper or green part, and leaves 
the strong, white fibres, that nm longitudinally along the 
imder side.'' f This kind of cordage has even been pre- 
ferred to that made of European hemp. 

Of these leaves also they made most of their clothes, for 
though acquainted with the manufacture of bark-cloth, it was 
very scarce, and worn only as an ornament. The leaves were 
split into three or four slips, which were interwoven into a 
kind of stuf^ something between netting and cloth. Dog's- 
wool was also used for the same purpose.}: The dress was 
alike in both sexes, and consisted of two parts ; one piece of 
their rude cloth (if so it may be called) was tied over the 
shoulders and reached to the knees, being fastened in front 

* D'Urville, yol. ii., p. 479. 

t Fitzroy's Voyage of the Adyenture and Beagle, vol. iii, p. 599. 

J D'Urville, toI. ii., p. 600. 


by a piece of string or a bone bodkin ; the other piece was 
wrapped round the waist, and reached nearly to the ground. 
This garment^ howeyer, waa worn by the men only on par- 
ticular occasions. 

For ornament they wore combs of wood or bone> feathers, 
necklaces, bracelets, and anklets of bones and shells, and 
ear-rings made of albatross-down. Many of them had also 
small grotesque figures of jfide, which were suspended from 
the neck and were regarded as very precious^ The New Zea- . 
landers were also tattooed with great dexterity and elegance ; 
not only on the body, but even on the face, the general 
effect of which was in many cases far from unpleasant. The 
process, however, was extremely painful, so much so, indeed, 
that it could not be supported all at once> but was sometimes 
spread over several months, or even years^ ISie lips and the 
comers of the eyes were the part that hurt most. To have 
shrunk from it would, however, have been a great disgrace. 

Their houses were about eighteen or twenty feet long, 
eight or ten broad, and five or six high. The sides sloped 
quite down to the ground, differing in this respect from those 
of Tahiti, which are left open at the sides. This was done, 
however, not for the sake of privacy, but to keep out the 
wind and r^in. The sides were made of sticks, closely 
thatched with grass and hay, and the door was at one end, 
just high enough to admit a man on all fours. Another hole 
served both for window and chiamey. The roof was often 
carved, and they frequently attached to the end of the ridge 
pole a monstrous representation of the proprietor.* 

Their villages were all fortified. They chose the strongest 
natural situations, and fortified them with a pallisade about 
ten feet high. The weaker sides were also defended "by 
a double ditch, the innermost of which has a bank, and 
an additional pallisade." The stakes were driven obKquely 
* Dieffenbach, l.c. p. 69. 


into the ground, so that they projected over the ditch, 
which "from the bottom to the top or crown of the 
bank is fonr-and-twenty feet. Close within the innermost 
pallisade is a stage, twenty feet high, forty feet long, and 
six broad ; it is supported by strong posts, and is intended 
as a station for those who defend the place, from which they 
may annoy the assailants by darts and stones, heaps of which 
lay ready for use. Another stage of the same kind com- 
mands the steep avenue from the back, and stands also 
within the pallisade."* Within the pallisades they had 
reduced the groimd " not to one level, but to several, rising 
in stages one above the other, like an amphitheatre, each of 
which is enclosed within its separate pallisade.'' These 
different platforms communicated only by narrow passages, so 
that each one was capable of separate defence ; and they were 
Fio. 150. provided with large stores of dried fish, fern- 

roots, etc. As the natives, when first dis- 
covered^ had no bows and arrows, nor even 
slings, in fact no "missile weapon except the 
lance, which was thrown by hand," such posi- 
tions as these must have been ahnost impreg- 
nable. Their principal weapon was the 
patoo patoo (Fig. 150) which was fastened to 
the wrist by a strong strap, lest it should be 
wrenched from them. They had no defen- 
sive armour, but besides their weapons the 
chiefs carried a " staff of distinction." 

Their canoes were well built and re- 
sembled those of the other islands. Many 
of them, however, were broad enough to sail 
without an outrigger. The two ends were 
Patoo Patoo. ofteu ingeniously carved. 
The dead were wrapped in native cloth, and either buried 
♦ Cook's First Voyage, p. 343. t For8ter*s Observations, l,c. p. 326, 


iaa a caDtraoted posture^ or exposed for ,a while an email 
square platforms; when the flesh ^bad decayed awa^i ithe 
bones were washed, and finally tdeposited in a fsauHX isox^ji^ 
box, which was ;geiierally .debated on a colunoi in or iveof 
the yilln^.^ In some diatdotsy howeyer^ they were n«ua% 
thrown into .the .sea, except indeed those rtibat :were iSioi in 
battle. These were ^nerally eaten bf their enemies. iStoae 
of the ohjects used by the dead during hia last illness were 
ever employed again ;t they were {^erally broken or buried 
with the deceased. In one case a moa'a egg lias been found 
in the hands of a dead Maori,, who waahuried as usual in a 
sitting posture. The egg was perfect,, j: and may have ibew 
intended to serYe as food for the. dead. 

Their prinoi^ musical rnatrusokent was the flute, of which 
they had three or four ;irarieties- Bllrvaie § also obseryed 
among iJxem a kind .of lyre, with three or four strings, ^h^ 
used large shells, too, as a kind of itvumpet. They were veiy 
fond of suigiog, of poetry, and .of dances. The latter wisre 
of two kinds, warlike and amoroiuk 

In character the New Zealanders were proud, jejdpus, 
irritable, cruel, and implacable ; l^ut at the same time sen- 
sible, generous^ sincere, hospitable, and affectionate. Like 
other Polynesians, the Maories were much given to in- 
fanticide. |i The girls before marriage were allowed great 
freedom. When once married, however, the woiwein wea^e 
faithful and affectionate to their husbands, by whom, on the 
other hand, they were generally treated with both kindness 
and respect. On the whole, it must be admitted that the 
position .of the women among the Kew.iZealajiders was S^x 
from unsatisfactory. The Maories were perpetually at wjar 
during life, and hoped to continue so after .death. Heaven 

♦ Dieffenbach, l,e. p. 63 ; Eitzroy, /.<?. p. 675. t D'Unriile, vol. ii., p. 636. 
% Zoologist, February, 1866, p. 9464. § l,e, yoI. ii., p. 601. 

Jl Dieff«sbaeh, Lp. p. 16. 



they regarded as a place where there would be continual feasts' 
of fish and sweet potatoes ; where they would be always fight- 
ing, and always yictorious. Whether they can be said to have 
had a religion, or not, depends upon the meaning we attach 
to the word. They believed in the immortality of the soul, 
but not in the resurrection of the body^ an article of faith 
which, as Mr. Marsden tells us, the missionaries could not 
induce than to accept. They had no idea of an Almighty 
God, but believed in a spirit named Atoua, who was a cruel 
cannibal like themselves. When any one was ill, Atoua was 
supposed to be devouring his inside, and they endeavoured 
to frighten him away by curses and threats.*. This we may 
regard as a kind of negative worship ; but on other occasions 
they certainly offered human and other sacrifices, in the vain 
hope of appeasing his wrath. They did not worship idols, 
but many of the priests seem to have really thought that 
they had been in actual communication with the Atoua ; and 
some of the early missionaries were inclined to believe that 
Satan may have been permitted to practise a deception upon 
them, in order to strengthen his power. However extra- 
ordinary this may appear, the same was the case in Tahiti. 
"In addition," says Mr, Ellis, "to the firm belief which 
many who were sorcerers, or agents of the infernal powers, 
and others who were the victims of incantation, still main- 
tain, some of the early missionaries are disposed to think 
this was the fact."t Even Mr. Ellis himself was of the 
same opinion. With such low ideas of the Divinity, it is 
perhaps not sxirprising that some of the chiefs were looked 
upon as gods, even during life. Watches and white men 
also were at first regarded as deities ; the latter not perhaps 
unnaturally, as being armed with thimder and lightning. 

The cannibalism of the New Zealander was a very different 
habit from that of the Feegeean. No doubt he enjoyed his 

« Missionary Register, Nov. 1819. f Polynesian Besearches, vol. ii., p. 226. 


meals of human flesh ; all people appear to have done so> 
who have once overcome the natural horror which must, one 
would suppose, have been at first experienced. But the 
cannibalism of a New Zealander was a ceremony,- not a meal ; 
the object was something very different from mere sensual gra- 
tification ; it must be regarded as a part of his religion, as a 
sort of unholy sacrament. This is proved by the fact that after 
a battle, the bodies which they preferred were not those of 
plump young men, or tender damsels, but of the most celebrated 
chiefs, however old and dry they might be,* In fact, they 
believed that it was not only the material substance which 
they thus appropriated, but also the spirit, the ability, and the 
glory of him whom they devoured. The greater the number 
of corpses they had eaten, the higher they thought would 
be their position in the world to come. Under such a creed 
there is a certain diabolical nobility about the habit^ 
which is, at any rate, fer removed from the grovelling sen- 
suality of a Feegee. To be eaten was, on the other hand, the 
greatest misfortune that could happen to a New Zealander ; 
since he believed that the soul was thus destroyed as well as 
the body. The chief who could both kill and devour his enemy 
had nothing more to fear from him either in this world or 
the next ; on the contrary, the strength, ability, and prestige 
against which he had had to contend, were not only con- 
quered, but, by this dreadful process, incorporated with, and 
added to his own. 

In other cases slaves were killed and eaten in honor of 
the gods. The New Zealanders declared that criminals alone 
were thus treated. Even if this was the case, the custom was 
horrible enough; but religious persecutions have scarcely 
ceased in Europe even now, nor is it so very long since the 
fire and the stake were regarded as necessary for the preser- 
vation of Christianity itself. E'hongui evidently considered 
♦ D'Urville, yoI. ii., p. d47. 

872 TAHITI. 

that the whole analogy of nature was in favor of canmbalisin. 
He was fiurprised at the horror of it felt by D'lJrville. Big 
fish^ he saidy eat little fish; insects devour ina^dcts; large 
birds feed upon small ones; it is in accordance with the 
whole analogy of nature that men should eat their enemies^* 


Tahiti^ the Queen of Islands, has excited the wonder 
and admiration of almost all those by whom it has been 
visited. In some respects the Tahitians were surpassed by 
other South Sea Islanders ; the Feegeeans, for instance, being 
as we have seen, acquainted with pottery, — ^but on the whole 
they may be taken as representing the highest stage in civil- 
isation to which man has in any country raised himself before 
tiie discovery or introduction of metallic implements. It is 
not, indeed, at all probable that any inhabitants of the great 
continents were so far advanced in civilisation during their 
Stone age. Doubtless, the Society Islanders would not have 
remained without metal, if the coimtry had afforded them 
the means of obtaining it. On the other hand, the ancient 
inhabitants of Europe were confined to the use of stone- 
weapons only until they became acquainted with the su- 
periorily of, and acqidred the art of working in copper, 
bronze, or iron ; and it is evident that a nation would in all 
probability discover the use of metal, before attaining the 
highest pitch of civilisation which, without such aid, it 
would be possible for mankind to attain. 

The tools of the Tahitians when first discovered were made 
of stone, bone, shell, or wood. Of metal they had no idea. 
When they first obtained nails, they mistook them for the 
young shoots of some very hard wood, and hoping that life 
might not be quite extinct, planted a number of them care- 
ftdly in their gardens-f 

• Yol. ii., p. 648. t ^Uis, Polynesian Kesearclies, p. 298. 




and a stone was 

Fio. 151. 

In a very short time, however, the earlier weapons were 
entirely replaced by those of iron; and in hifi last voyage 
Captain Cook tells us* that "a stone hatchet is, at present, 
as rare a thing amongst them, as an iron one was eight years 
ago; and a chisel, of bone or stone is not to be seen/' 
The stone axes, or rather 
adzes, were of various 
sizes ; those intended, for 
cutting down trees weigh 
dx or seven pounds, the 
little ones which were used 
for carving, only a few 
ounces. All of them re- 
quired continual sharps 

always kept in readiness 
for this purpose. The na^ 
tives were^ very skilful in 
the use of their adzes, 
neverthieless to feU a tree 
was a work of several 
days. The chisels, or 
gouges, were of bone, 
generally that of a man's 
arm between the wrist 
and elbow. Pieces of cor- 
ral were used as rasps, 
and splinters of bamboo 
for knives. For cultiva- 
ting the ground they had 
instrum^its of hard wood, 
about five feet long, narrow, with sharp edges and pointed. 

Stona Axe in wooden handle. 

• Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, toL ii., p. 1 37. 



These they used as spades or hoes.* They had fish-hooks made 
of mother-of-pearl, and every fisherman made them, for him- 
self. They generally served for the double purpose of hook 
no. 152. and bait. "The shell f is first cut into 

square pieces, by the edge of another 
shell, and wrought into a form cor- 
responding with the outline of the book 
by pieces of coral, which are sufficiently 
rough to perform the office of a file ; a 
hole is then bored in the middle, the 
drill being no other than the first stone 
they pick up that has a sharp comer; 
this they fix into the end of a piece of 
bamboo, and turn it between the hands 
like a chocolate mill ; when the shell is 
perforated and the hole sufficiently wide, 
a small file of coral is introduced, by the 
application of which the hook is in a 
short time completed, few costing the 
artificer more time than a quarter of an 
hour. From the bark of the Poerou, a 
specieJB of Hibiscus, they made ropes and 
lines, from the thickness of an inch to the 
size of a small packthread; with these they 
make nets for fishing." They had also a kind of seine net, 
made " of a coarse broad grass, the blades of which are like 
flags : these they twist and tie together in a loose manner, 
till the net, which is about as wide as a large sack, is from 
sixty to eighty fathoms long ; this they haul in shoal-smooth 
water, and its own weight keeps it so close to the ground 
that scarcely a single fish can escape." They also used 
certain leaves and fruit which, when thrown into the 

* Wilson, Missionary Voyage to the South Pacific, p. 245. 
t Cook's Voyage Round the World, toI. i., p. 483 ; toI. IL, p. 218. 

South Sea Fish-hook. 


water, inebriated the fish to such a degree, that they might 
be caught by the hands.* Their ' fishing-lines were made 
of the bark of the Erowa, a kind of nettle which grows in 
the mountains, and were described as ^' the best fishing-lines 
in the world," better even than our strongest silk lines: 
They also used the fibres of the cocoa-nut for making threads, 
with which they fastened together the yarious parts of their 
canoes. They were very dexterous in making basket and 
wicker-work, "of a thousand difierent patterns, many of 
them exceedingly neat ; " they also made many sorts of mats 
from rushes, grass, and bark, which were woven with great 
neatness and regularity, although entirely by hand and with- 
out any loom or machinery, f But their principal matiu- 
facture was a kind of cloth, made from bark, and of which 
there were three varieties, obtained respectively from th^ 
paper-mulberry, which was the best, the bread-fruit tree, and 
a kind of fig. This last, though less ornamental, was more 
useful than either of the others, because it resisted water, 
which they did not. All three kinds of cloth were made in 
the same way, the difference between them being only in the 
material. When the trees were of a proper size, that is to 
say about six or eight feet high, and somewhat thicker than a 
man's thumb, they were puUed up and the roots and branches 
were cut off. The bark being slit up longitudinally, it peeled 
off readily, and was then soaked for some time in running 
water. After this the green outside bark was carefully scraped 
off with a shell, and the strips were laid out in the evening to 
dry, being placed one by the side of another *'till they dre 
about a foot broad, and two or three layers are also laid one 
upon the other.'* By the morning a great part of the water 
had drained off or evaporated, and " the several fibres adhere 
together, so as that the whole may be raised from the ground 

• Forster, Observations made during a Voyage Konnd the World, p.- 463^; 
EUis, Yol. ii., p. 288. f, Ellis, yol. ii., pp. 179, 180. 

376 D«B88. 

in oniB piece/' It was' then placed on the smooth aide' of a 
long piece of wood, and beaten by the women-serrants with 
a; wooden znatrmnenty shaped like a square razor^strap, and 
about a foot long. The fbur sides of tiiiis instrument were 
"marked, lengdiways, with Small grooves or furrowSi of 
diifiSBrent degrees of fineness; those on one side being of a 
width and depth snflScieoat te receive a smaQ packthread, and 
the others finer in a rqgolar gradation, so that the last are 
not more than equal to sewing silk." They beat the cloth 
first with the coarsest «ide and afterwards with the othem, 
ending with tlie finest: under this treatment it expanded 
greatly, and might be made almost as thin as jc muslin* The 
diffittrent pieces «f bark by this treatm^t were so' closely 
fastened together, that the cloth m%ht be washed and wrung 
out without any fear «f tearing ; but even if it were acci- 
dewtally broken, it was repaired wit&dut diffiotdty, By pasting 
on a^ patch with a gluten' prepared :&om the root of the pea ; 
thier Was <lone so nicely that it ceuld not be discovered. This 
cloth was cool and agreeable to the touch, being even softer 
thaii our broadcloth. It is hardly necessary to say that the 
fineaiess was regulated according to the purpose for which it 
wa# intended. The two first kindis were easily Ueached, aind 
th^Mi dyed of various colon, generally red' an^ yellow. Both 
of these were vegetable oolors, and not very fast. 

They had various strange and complicated dresses for great 
occfafidoni^, but their ordinary clothes were yety simple, and 
consisted of two parts. One of them was a piece of cloth 
trtth a hole '*in the middle to put the head through," and 
long enough to reach from the shoulder to the knee. The 
other Was wrapped round the waist so as to ha<ig down like a 
petticoat, as low as the knee ; this was called the I^arou. Fre- 
quently also they wore a piece of cloth tied round the head like 
a turban. The dress of the Queen is thus described by Ellis : * 

♦ U p. 148. 


" She was attired in a light, loose, and flowing dresff of 
beautifully wHte native cloth, tcstefully fastened oa the 
left shoulder, and reaching to the ancle ; her hair vms rather 
lighter than that of the natives in g^ieral ; tnd on her 
head she wore a light and elegant native bonnet, of green 
and yellow cocoa-nut leaves; each ear was perforated, and 
in the pierforation two or three flowers of the fragrant Cape 
jessamine were inserted," The dress of Ae men was very 
similar, but instead of tiie petticoat, they brought the cloth 
between the Icjgs ; this was called the Mara In hot weather* 
and at noon botin sexes wetft ahiost naked, wearing only the 
cloth round the waist. Besides the turbans and head-dresses 
of leaves, they sometimes wore long plaits of human hair, 
which they wound about the head in such a manner as 
to produce a very pretty ^ect. They were very clean 
both in their persons and their clothes; constantly washing 
three times a day^ Ornaments were worn by the men 
as much as by the women, and consisted of. feathers, 
flowers, pieces of sheik, and pearls. Tattooing also was 
almost universal ; and a person not properly tattooed would 
'^be as much reproached and shimned, as if with us he 
should go about the streets naked." f They anointed their 
heads frequently with perfuntied cocoa-nut oil, but had no 
combs, which in so hot a country must have been much 
wanted. Notwithstanding this, the hair of the grown-up 
people was very neatly dressed. 

Their houses were used prineii)ally as dormitories. They 
were made of wood, and were generally about twenty-four 
feet long, eleven wide, and nine feet high. They had no 
side walls, but the roof reached to within about three feet 
and a half of the ground. Palm leaves took the place of 
thatch, and the floor was generally covered with soft hay. 

* The Sand^ch Idanders had small square fans of mat or wioker-work^ with 
handles of the same or of wood. t Wilson, Lc, p. 355. 


The canoes resembled those of the Feegeeans, but are said 
to have been scarcely so well built. To prepare the planks 
was no easy task, but the great difficulty was to fasten them 
together. This was effected by " strong thongs of plaiting, 
which are passed several times through holes that are bored 
with a gouge or auger of bone."* The length of the canoes 
varied from ninety feet to ten, " but the breadth is by no 
means in proportion ; for those of ten feet are about a foot 
wide, and those of more than seventy are scarcely two."t 
These larger ones were not, however, used singly, but were 
fastened together side by side, in the manner already de- 
scribed. A canoe without an outrigger seemed to them an 
impossibility, f The labor of constructing these canoes must 
have been very great ; nevertheless, the South Sea Islanders 
possessed large numbers of them. On one occasion Captain 
Cook saw more than three hundred in one place; and, 
without counting the smaller vessels, he estimated the whole 
naval force of the Society Islands at one thousand seven 
hundred war canoes, manned by sixty-eight thousand men.§ 

Their principal musical instrument was the drum ; it was 
made from a piece of solid wood, hoUowed out, and covered over 
with shark's skin. They had also a kind of trumpet made of 
a large shell, with a hole at the small end into which they 
fEistened a bamboo cane about three feet long. Their flutes 
were of bamboo, and were blown with the nose. They had 
various kinds of games, some of which appeared to have 
resembled our hockey and football. They were also very 
fond of dancing. 

They were quite ignorant of pottery, but had large dishes 
made of polished wood. The shells of cocoa-nuts were used 
as water-bottles and cups. They were scraped thin, polished, 

* Cook's First Voyage, p. 225 ; J Ellis, le, vol. ii., p. 56. 

Forster, l.e. p. 459. § Cook'iB Second Voyage, vol. L, 

t Cook's First Voyage, p. 221. p. 849. 


6ften very ingeniously carved, and kept extremely clean. 
Ctenerally the natives of Tahiti sat cross-legged on mats 
spread on the floor ; but the chiefs had often four-legged 
stools. Chairs and tables were unknown. They slept 
also on mats and used a wooden pillow, very much resem- 
bling a small stool. The upper side was curved, like the 
seat of the stool, to admit the head. Each house also con- 
tained a light post, planted in the floor, and with several 
projections, from which the various dishes, calabashes of 
water, baskets of food, etc., were hung.* 

Their weapons were formidable, though simple. They 
consisted of slings, pikes headed with stone, and long clubs 
made of hard, heavy wood. With the former they were very 
skilftd. Their slingstones were of two kinds, "either smooth, 
being polished by friction in the bed of a river, or sharp, 
angular and rugged; these were called o/ai ara — ^faced or 
edged stones." f ^e have already mentioned (p. 76) that 
two sorts of slingstones, closely corresponding to these, were 
used by the ancient inhabitants of Europe. It would be 
interesting to know the relative advantage of the two classes, 
which surely cannot have been used for exactly the same 
purposes. They had also bows and arrows ; which, however, 
were not sufficiently strong to be used in warfare. The bow 
strings were made of Boava bark.} The Society Islanders 
are said to have been cruel in war, but according to 
Captain Cook " they are seldom disturbed by either foreign 
or domestic troubles." Though not cowards, they regard it 
as " much less disgraceful to run away from an enemy with 
whole bones, than to fight and be wounded." § 

" Of tame animals they had only hogs, dogs, and poultry ;|| 
neither was there a wild animal in the island, except ducks, 

• EUifl, le, Tol. ii., p. 184. § Wilson, l,e. p. 368. 

t Ellis, l.e. vol. ii., p. 49. || Wallis* Voyage Round the World ; 

{ Wilson, he* p. 368. Hawkeswprth's Voyages, toL L, p. 482. 

380 FOOD. FIBS. 

pigeons, panoquetB, mth a few other birds, and rats, there 
being no other quadruped, nor any serpent/'*. The do^ 
were kept entirely for food, and Captfdn Cook assures \m that 
^' a South Sea dog was little inferior to an English lamb ; their 
excellence is probably owing to their being kept up, and fed 
wholly on vegetables/' The natives preferred dog to pork. 
From the sea they obtained excellent fish and shell-fish. They 
had also bread-fruit, bananas, phmtains, yams, cocoa-nuts, pota- 
toes, the sugar cane, a fruit not unlike an apple, and several 
other plants which served for fruit, and required veiy little 
culture. The bread-fruit tree supplied them with abundance 
of fresh fruit for eight i^nths, and during the other four 
they used ^' mahie," which is a kind of sour paste^ prepared 
from the fermented ripe fruit. It is probable that nine- 
tenths of their diet consisted of vegetable food; and the 
common people scarcely ever tasted either pork or dog, 
although the hogs appear to have been very abundant. 

They obtained fire by friction. When the wood was quite 
dry the process did not take longer than two minutes, butt in 
wet weather it was very tedious. Having no pottery, they 
did not boil their food. It is impossible, says Wallis, " to 
describe the astonishment they expressed when they saw the 
gunner, who, while he kept the market^ used to dine on 
shore, dress his pork and poultry by boiling them in a pot ; 
having, as I have before observed, no vessel that would bear 
the fire, they had no idea of hot water." t Captain Cook 
also expressly states that ^'they have but two ways of ap- 
plying fire to dress their food, broiling and baking." $ 
Mr. Tylor, however> has pointed out§ that they were ac- 
quainted with the use of boiling stones, and that they 
could not therefore have been entirely ignorant of hot 
water. In order to bake a hog, they made a small pit 

« Cook's Voyage Round the World, p. 187. t U. vol. i., p. 484. 

X Second Voyage, vol. ii., p. 197. § Early History of Mankind, p. 266. 


in the ground, wHcli they paved with large stones, over 
which they then lighted a fire. When the stones were 
hot enough, they took out tiie embers, raked away the 
ashes, and covered the stones with green cocoa-nut 
leaves. The animal which was to be dressed, haviag been 
cleaned and prepared, was wrapped up in plantain leaves, 
and covered with the hot embers, on which again they placed 
bread-fruit and yams, which also were wrapped up in plan- 
tain leaves. Over these they spread the rest of the enibers, 
and some hot stones, finally covering the whole with earth. 
The meat thus cooked is described as being tender and full 
of gravy ; in fyust both Wallis and Cook considered that it 
was " better in every respect than when it is dressed in any 
other way.'* For sauce they used salt water, without which 
no meal was ever eaten, and a kind of thick paste made from 
the kernels of cocoa-nuts. At their meals they drank either 
water or cocoa-nut juice. The Sandwich Islanders were 
very fond of salt meat, and had regular salt-pans on the 

The only intoxicating liquor was the ava, an incision 
made from the root, stalks, and leaves of a kind of pepper, 
which however, fortunately for th^oi, was entirely forbidden 
to the women and seldom permitted to the lower classes. 
In some of the other islands this liquid was prepared in a 
very disgusting way. The roots were broken in pieces, 
cleaned, chewed, and then placed in a wooden bowl, mixed 
with a certain quantity of water, and stirred up with the 
hands. In Tahiti, however, the chewing was dispensed with. 
Tlie wooden bowls out of which the chiefs drank their ava 
were often very fair specimens of carving. In the Sand- 
wich Islands they are described as having been "usually 
about eight or ten inches in diameter, perfectly round, and 
beautifully polished. They are supported by three, and 
• Third Yoyage, vol. iii., p. 101. 

382 A chief's dinner. 

sometimes four^ small human figxires, in yarious attitudes. 
Some of them rest on the hands of their supporters^ extended 
over the head ; others on the head and hands ; and some on 
the shoulders." These figures are said to have been "ac- 
curately proportioned and neatly finished, and even the 
anatomy of the muscles, in supporting the weight, well 

Captain Cookf gives an interesting description of the 
manner in which the chiefs dined. They had no table, and 
each person ate alone and in silence. Some leaves were spread 
on the ground to serve as a tablecloth, and a basket was set by 
the chief containing his provision, which, if fish or flesh, was 
ready dressed and wrapped in leaves. Two cocoa-nut shells 
were put by the side, one containing salt water and the other 
fresh. He first washed his hands and mouth thoroughly 
with the fresh water, and this "he repeats almost continually 
through the meaL He then takes part of his provision out 
of the basket, which generally consists of a small fish or two, 
two or three bread-fruits, fourteen or fifteen ripe bananas, or 
six or seven apples." He began by eating some bread-fruit, 
at the same time breaking one of the fishes into the salt 
water. He then took up the bits of fish in his fingers, in 
such a manner as to get with it as much salt water as 
possible, and very frequently he took a mouthful of the salt 
water, either out of the cocoa-nut or in his hand. Sometimes 
also he drank the juice of a cocoa-nut. When he had done 
his bread-fruit and fish, he began his plantains or apples, 
after which he ate some more bread-fruit, beaten into a sort 
of paste and generally flavored with some banana or some 
other fruit. For a knife he used either a shell or o, piece of 
split bamboo, and in conclusion he again washed his hands 
and mouth. They were quite imacquainted with forks, and 

• Third Voyage, vol. iii., p. 148. f First Voyage, vol. ii., p. 200. 


Captain WaUis* tells us that, during his visit, one of the 
natives who "tried to feed himself with that instrument, 
could not guide it, but by the mere force of habit his hand 
came to his mouth and the victuals at the end of the fork 
went away to his ear." Nor do they use plates. Poulaho, 
Chief of the Friendly Islands, dining one day on board the 
ship, was so much struck by the pewter plates, that Captain 
Cook gave him one. He did not, however, intend to employ 
it in the usual manner, but said that " whenever he should 
have occasion to visit any of the other islands, he would 
leave this plate behind him at Tongataboo, as a sort of 
representative in his absence." t 

Captain Cook was much surprised to find that a people 
who were so sociable, and who enjoyed so much the society 
of women, never made their meals together. Even brothers 
and sisters had each their own basket, and when they wished 
to eat would go out, " sit down upon the ground, at two or 
three yards distance from each other, and turning their faces 
different ways, take their repast without interchanging a 
single word." They ate alone, they said, "because it was 
right," but why it was right they were unable to explain. 
We must, however, remember that these islanders were 
together much more than we are. We enjoy a sociable 
meal, because our numerous avocations keep us apart so 
much at other times ; but among a people whose wants 
were supplied with so little exertion on their part, who were 
all day long together, and had no rooms into which they 
could retire and be alone, it must have been a great thing to 
have some way of escaping from their friends and being 
quiet, without giving offence. As there were no stated times 
for meals, a man who wished to be alone need only to take 
out his basket of provisions, and he might be sure that he 

• Voyage Round the World, p. 482. f Third Voyage, vol. i., p. 326. 


would not be disturbed. This custom^ therefore^ seems to 
haTO been both ingenious and conyenient.* 

Although they usually went to bed soon after dark, still the 
natiyes of Tahiti were not entirely without candles; for 
which they used the "kernels of a kind of oily nut, which 
they stick coie oTer another upon a skewer that is thrust 
through the middle of them." These candles burned a con- 
siderable time and are said to baye given a pretty good Ught. 
The Society Islanders had no knowledge of medicine as dis- 
tinct from witchcraft ; but some wonderful stories are told of 
their skill in surgery. I will give perhaps the most extra- 
ordinary. "It is related/' says Mr. Ellis, "although," he 
adds, with perfect gravity, " I confess I can scarcely believe 
it, that on some occasions, when the brain has been injured 
as well as the bone, they have opened the skull, taken out 
the injured portion of the brain, and, haying a pig ready, 
have killed it, taken out the pig's brains, put them in the 
man's head, and covered them up."t 

The nostrils of the female infants were often pressed or 
spread out during infancy, because they looked on a flat nose 
as a mark of beauty. In the same way the boys sometimes 
had their forehead and the back of their head pressed up- 
wards, so that the upper part of the skull appeared in the 
shape of a wedge. This was supposed to make them look 
more formidable in war. { 

The dead were not buried at once, but were placed on a plat- 
form raised several feet above the ground, and neatly railed 
in with bamboo. The body was covered with a cloth, and 

• Since the above was written, J dinner or breakfast was brought to me. 

haye met with the following passage in This gave me a few moments' relief 

Burohell : " I had sufficient reason for from the fatigue of incessant oonversa- 

admiring one of the customs of the tion." Trayels in Southern Africa, vol. 

Bachapins ; that, notwithstanding they ii., p. 408. 
never at any other time left me alone, f l.e, vol. ii., p. 277. 

they always retired the moment my j Ellis, Le, vol. i., p. 343. 


sheltered by a roof. By the side are deposited the weapons 
of the deceased and a supply of food and water. When the 
body has entirely decayed, the bones are collected, carefully 
cleaned and buried, according to the rank of the deceased, 
either within or without a "morai."* The largest moral 
seen by Captain Cook was the one prepared for Oamo and 
Oberea, who were the then reigning sovereigns. This was 
indeed the "principal piece of architecture in the island. 
It was a pile of stonework, raised pyramidically, upon an 
oblong base, or square, two hundred and sixty seven feet 
long, and eighty-seven wide. It was built like the small 
pyramidal mounts upon which we sometimes fix the pillar of 
a sun-dial, where each side is a flight of steps ; the steps, 
however, at the sides, were broader than those at the ends, 
so that it terminated not in a square of the same figure with 
the base, but in a ridge, like the roof of a house : there 
were eleven of these steps, each of which was four feet high, 
so that the height of the pile was forty- four feet ; each step 
was formed of one course of white coral stone, which was 
neatly squared and polished ; the rest of the mass, for there 
was no hollow within, consisted of round pebbles, which, 
from the regularity of their figure, sieemed to have been 
wrought."! A very similar account of this structure has 
been more recently given by Wilson, J who makes the size 
and height a little greater ; and when it is considered that 
this was raised without the assistance of iron tools to shape 
the- stones, or of mortar to fasten them together, it is im- 
possible not to be struck with admiration at the magnitude 

• In some cases the head is not iii., p. 6). In the Friendly Islands, 

buried with the other bones, but is D'Hrville saw a similar mausoleum 

deposited in a kind of box. built with blocks of stone, some of 

t Cook's Voyage Round the World, which were twenty feet long, six or 

Yol. ii., p, 166. Similar but somewhat eight broad, and two in height. They 

smaller morais were observed in the were neatly squared., /.c. vol. i?., p. 106. 
Sandwich Islands (Third Voyage, yol. J /.<?. p. 207. 



of the enterprise, and the skill with which it appears to have 
been carried out. It is, perhaps, the most important monu- 
ment which is known to have been constructed with stone 
tools only, and renders it the less unlikely that some of the 
large tumuli and other ancient monuments of Europe may 
belong to the Stone age. When a chief died, his relations 
and attendants cut and mangled themselves in a dreadful 
manner. They ran spefirs through their thighs, arms, and 
cheeks, and beat themselves about the head with clubs " till 
the blood ran down in streams." They also frequently cut 
off the little finger on these occasions; a curious custom, 
which is common also in the Friendly Islands. 

In Tiarrabou, Captain Cook saw a rude figure of a man, 
made of basket-work and about seven feet high. This was 
intended as a representation of one of the inferior gods, but 
was said to be the only one on the island ; for the natives, 
though, they worshipped numerous deities, to whom also 
human sacrifices were sometimes offered, yet were not 
idolaters. EUis, however, saw among them many rude 
idols.* Captain Cook found their religion "like that of 
most other countries, involved in mystery, and perplexed 
with apparent inconsistencies."! They believed in the im- 
mortality of the soul, and in "two situations of different 
degrees of happiness, somewhat analogous to our heaven and 
hell," but far from regarding them as places of reward and 
punishment, thought that the happiest lot was of coxirse 
intended for the chiefs and superior classes, the other- for 
the people of inferior. rank. J Indeed, they did not suppose 
that their actions here in the least influenced their future 
state ; so that their religion did not act upon them by pro- 
mises or threats, and "their expressions of adoration and 

• Ellifl, l,e. vol. i., p. 526 ; Wilson, l.e, p. 242. 

t See also Forster, Le, p. 539. 

I Cook's First Voyage, toI. ii., p. 239 : Ellis, toI. L, p. 518. 



reverence, whether by words or actions, arise only from a 
humble sense of their own inferiority, and the ineflFable ex- 
cellence of divine perfection." However mistaken they may 
have been on many points, however wrong many of their 
customs doubtless appear to us, surely under such a creed as 
this, good actions become doubly virtuous, and virtue itself 
shines the brighter. 

They had no laws, nor courts of justice. Personal security 
and the rights of private property were but little regarded 
among them. The chiefs and priests exercised an authority 
founded on fear and superstition. They had no word for 
"law" in the language.* It is only fair to the chiefs to add 
that they were above being idle, and thought it a disgrace if 
they did not excel in all departments of labor.f In character 
the inhabitants of Tahiti, according to Captain Cook, " were 
liberal, brave, open, and candid, without either suspicion or 
treachery, cruelty, or revenge." J They were veiy anxious 
for education. The women were affectionate, tender, and 
obedient ; the men nuld, generous, slow to take offence, 
and easily satisfied. Both sexes were very healthy. "I 
never saw any one," says Forster,§ "of a morose, peevish, 
discontented disposition in the whole nation ; they all join to 
their cheerful temper, a politeness and elegance which is 
happily blended with the most innocent simplicity of man- 
ners." Murders were very rare among them ; and though 
much licence was permitted to the young women before 
marriage, the married women, according to Captain Cook,|| 
were as well behaved "as in any other country whatever." 
They were very thievish ; but we must consider the immense 
temptations to which they were subjected and the, to them,-- 
inestimable value of the articles which they stole. Like 

♦ EUis, I.e. vol. ii., p. 427. } l-e- p. 582. 

t Ellis, Ic. yo\. ii. p. 178. || Voyage to the South Pole, toI. £., 

t First Voyage, yol. ii., p. 188. p. 187. 


other savages they resembled children in many respects, 
their sorrows were transient, their passions suddenly and 
strongly expressed. On one occasion, Oberea, the queen, 
who was then about forty years old, took a particular fancy 
to a large doll, which was accordingly presented to her. 
Shortly afterwards they met Tootahah, one of the principal 
chiefs, who became so jealous of Oberea's doll, that they 
were obliged to give him one also. 

There are scarcely any nations, whether barbarous or 
ciyiUsed, in which the relations of the two sexes are quite 
satisfiEU^tory. Savages, almost without exception, treat their 
women as slaves, and civilised nations too often avoid this 
error only to fall into others. 

The inhabitants of Tahiti are said to have been absolutely 
without any ideas of decency, or rather as Captain Cook puts 
it, perhaps more correctly, " of indecency." This no doubt 
arose in part from their large open houses, which were not 
divided into separate rooms. However this may be, where 
there was no sin, they saw no shame, and it must be confessed 
that in many points their idea of sin was very different from 
ours. Before, however, we condemn them, let us remember 
that a dinner party would have seemed as wrong to them as 
many of their customs do to us. If the freedom both in 
language and in action which they permitted to themselves, 
seems to us in many respects objectionable, we must not 
forget that our ideas of delicacy shut out from general con- 
versation many subjects of great interest and importance. 

A considerable number of the principal people of both 
sexes in Tahiti were formed into an association called the 
" Arreoy," all the members of which were regarded as being 
married to one another. If any of the women of the society 
had a child it was almost invariably killed ; but if it was 
allowed to live, the father and mother were regarded as 
having definitively engaged themselves to one another, and 



were ejected from the association ; the woman being known 
from that time as a " bearer of children/' which was among 
this extraordinary people a term of reproach. The existence 
of such a society shows how fimdamentEdly the idea of virtue 
may differ in different countries. Yet the married women were 
faithful to their husbands, and beautifully modest. It is impos- 
sible, indeed, to acquit even them of the charge of infanticide, 
for which we may find a cause, though not an excuse. I do not 
allude to the curious law that a child, as soon as it was bom, 
inherited the titles, rank, and property of its father, so that a 
man who was yesterday a chief might be thus at once reduced 
to the condition of a private person ; nor to the fact that any 
Arreoy who spared her infant was at once excluded from 
that society. We cannot suppose that such customs were 
without their effect ; but a more powerful reason may per* 
haps be found in the fact, that their numbers were already 
large, the means of subsistence limited, and that as but few 
were carried off either by disease or in war, the population 
would soon have outgrown their supplies, if some means were 
not taken to check the natural increase of numbers.* How- 
ever this may be, infanticide appears to have been dreadfully 
prevalent amongst them. It has been estimated that two- 
thirds of the children were destroyed by their own parents,! 
and both Mr. Nott and Mr. Ellis agree that during the whole 
of their residence in the island, until the adoption of Christi- 
anity, they did not know a single case of a mothei^ who had 
not been guilty of this crime. 

According to Wilson, J their language contained no word for 
'^ thanks,'^ and even Cook admits that they had no respect for 
old age. Fitzroy goes still farther, and assures us that '^thej 
scrupled not to destroy their aged or sick — ^yes, even thak' 
parents, if disabled by age or sickness.''§ No sach acousa^ 

• See, for instance, Kotzebue's New Voyage, voL i., p. 308. 

t EUifi, Tol. i., pp. 334, 336. t ^•^- P* 3^^* § '•^* ^o^* ^* P* ^^^* 


tion is, however, brought against them by earlier writers, 
so that such actions are probably veiy rare, and the result 
perhaps, as among the Feegeeans, of misdirected aflFection 
rather than of deliberate cruelty. 

They had no money; and though it was easy to obtaia 
the necessaries of life, to accumulate property was almost 
impossible. Again, the absence of spirituous liquors, and 
the relations between the sexes (however unsatisfactory in 
other respects) took away from them some of the principal 
incentives to crime. On the whole, then, if we judge them 
by a South Sea standard, the natives of the Society Islands 
appear to have been very free from crime. 

In spite of the differences which sometimes arose in conse- 
quence of their thievish disposition, and also perhaps in great 
measure from their not being able perfectly to imderstand 
each other. Captain Cook and his officers lived with the 
natives " in the most cordial friendship," and took leave of 
them with great regret. Mr. Ellis, on the contrary, assures 
us that '* no portion of the human race was ever perhaps 
sunk lower in brutal licentiousness cmd moral degradation 
than this isolated people.'^* Such a statement is surely quite 
inconsistent with the account he gives of their anxiety to 
possess copies of the Bible when it was translated into their 
language. " They were," he says, " deemed by them more 
precious than gold — ^yea, than much' fine gold," and "became 
at once the constant companion of their possessors, and the 
source of their highest enjoyment."t 

The inhabitants of the Friendly, or Tonga, and of the Sand- 
wich Islands are also veiy well described by Capt. Cook, but 
they belonged to the same race as those of Tahiti and New 
Zealand, and resembled them in religion, language, canoes, 
houses, weapons, food, habits, etc. It is somewhat remarkable 
that the Sandwich Islanders in many respects, as for instance 
• Ellis, U. ?ol. ii. p. 26. t Ellis, le, yoI. i. pp. 398-408. 


in their dances, houses, tattooing, etc., resembled the New 
Zealanders even more than their nearer neighbours in the 
Society and Friendly Islands. In the Friendly Islands Capt. 
Cook observed a veiy singular luxury in which the chiefs 
indulged themselves. . When one of them wished to go to 
sleep, two women came and sat by him, " beating briskly on 
his body and legs with both fists, as on a drum, till he fell 
asleep, and continuing it the whole night, with some short 
intervals." When the chief is sound asleep they sometimes 
rest themselves a little, " but resume it if they observe any 
appearance of his waking."* A similar statement is made by 
Wilson in his Missionary Voyage, f In all the islands the 
chiefs appear to have been treated with respect none the less 
profound, because shown in ways which seem to us peculiar. 
One of them was to imcover the body from the waist, and it 
seems to have been a matter of indifference, or rather of con- 
venience, whether this was done upwards or downwards. J 
In the Friendly Islands it was accoimted a striking mark of 
rudeness to speak to the king while standing up. 

There was also a certain amoimt of commerce between the 
different islands. Bora-bora and Otahaw produced abimdance 
of cocoa-nut oil, which was exchanged at Tahiti for cloth. 
The Low Islands again could not successfully grow the paper- 
mulberry; but they had a breed of dogs with long silky 
hair, which was much prized in the other islands. 

♦ Third Voyage, toL i., p. 323. f le, p. 237. 

t Cook's First Voyage, vol. ii., p. 125. 

MODEKN SAVAGES — continued. 


THE Esquimaux, and the Esquimaux alone among savage 
races, occupy both the Old and the New World. 
They inhabit the shores of the Arctic Ocean from Siberia 
to Greenland ; and throughout this great extent of country 
the language, appearance, occupations, weapons, and habits 
of the natives are very similar, and it must be added that 
the latter are most ingenious. The language of the Innuit 
or Esquimaux is akin to that of the North American Indians 
in structure, while their appearance has a decided likeness, 
particularly about the eyes, to the Chinese and Tartars. 

Their dwellings are of two kinds. The summer they pass 
in tents or wigwams, with the entrance to the south or 
south-east. In those observed by Captain Parry, the tent- 
poles were, in the absence of wood, formed of stags' horns, 
or bones lashed together. The lower borders of the skins 
were held down by large stones. These were sometimes built 
up into regular circles, eight or nine feet in diameter and 
four or five feet high.* These circles were at first supposed 
to be the remains of winter-houses, but it was subsequently 
ascertained that they were exclusively used for extending the 
Ains of the summer- tents. Near these " hut circles " long 
rows of standing stones were several timqs observed.t The 
winter-houses, in the southern districts are constructed of 

♦ Parry's Voyage, 1821-3, pp. 17, 61. t U pp. 62, 286, 363. 


earth or drift-timber, which is very abundant in some places. 
In the north, however, wood becomes extremely rare. The 
Esquimaux at the northern end of BaflGua's Bay,* who had 
no wood, excepting twigs of a dwarfish heath, were so little 
acquainted with the nature of timber that several of them 
successively seized on the spare top-mast of the Isabella, 
evidently with the intention of stealing it, and quite 
unconscious of its weight. In the absence of wood their 
houses were built of ice and snow ; those of ice are 
beautiful, and almost transparent, so that even at some 
little distance it is possible to see everything that takes place 
in them. They are much colder than those of snow, which 
therefore are generally preferred. West of the Rocky 
Mountains, the winter houses were usually underground. 
A Kamskatchadale "yourf is thus described by Captain 
Cook if "An oblong square, of dimensions proportionate 
to the number of persons for whom it is intended (for it 
is proper to observe that several families live together in 
the same jourt), is dug into the earth to the depth of about 
six feet. Within this space strong posts, or wooden pillars, 
are fastened in the groimd, at proper distances from each 
other, on which are extended the beams for the support of 
the roof, which is formed by joists resting on the ground 
with one end and on the beams with the other. The inter- 
stices between the joists are filled up with a strong wicker- 
work, and the whole covered with turf; so that a jourt has 
externally the appearance of a low round hillock. A hole is 
left in the centre, which serves for chimney, window, and 
entrance, and the inhabitants pass in and out by means of a 
strong pole (instead of a ladder) notched deep enough to 
afford a little holding for the toe." More often, however, 
the entrance consisted of an tmdergroimd passage. 

♦ Ross, Baffin's Bay, p. 122. 

t Cook's Voyages to the Pacific Ocean, yol. iii. p. 374. See also Yol. iii. p. 450. 


As a general rule we may say that the western yonrts are 
subterranean, while those of the tribes who live east of the 
Rocky Mountains are generally above ground. The manner 
in which the Esquimaux construct their snow igloos has 
been well described by Captain Parry. They choose* a 
drift of hard and compact snow, and from this they cut 
oblong slabs, six or seven inches thick and about two feet in 
length. With these they build a circular wall, inclining 
inwards so as to form a dome, which is sometimes as much 
as nine or ten feet high and from eight to fifteen feet in 
diameter. A small door is then cut ou the south side. It is 
about three feet high, two and a half wide at the bottom, and 
leads into a passage, about ten feet long, and with a step in 
the middle, the half next the hut being lower than either 
the floor of the hut or the outer passage. For the admission 
of light a roimd hole is cut on one side of the roof and a 
circular plate of ice, three or four inches thick and two feet 
in diameter, is let into it. If several families intend to live 
together, other chambers are constructed which open into the 
first, and then after a quantity of snow has been shovelled 
up on the outside, the shell of the building is regarded as 
finished. The next thing is to raise a bank of snow two and 
a half feet high all roimd the interior of the building, except 
on the side next the door. This bank forms the bed. Over 
it is laid some gravel, upon that again paddles, tent-poles, 
pieces of whalebone, twigs of birch and of andromeda, etc., 
and finally a number of deer-skius, which form a soft and 
luxurious couch. They have no fireplace, properly so called, 
that is to say no hearth, but each family has a separate lamp 
or shallow vessel of lapis ollaris, in which they bum seal's- 
oil, with a wick made of dry moss. 

Although they had no knowledge of pottery. Captain Cook 
saw at Unalashka vessels " of a flat stone, with sides of clay, 
• Parry, U, p. 500. 


not unlike a standing pye.'^* We here obtain an idea of 
the manner in which the knowledge of pottery may have 
been developed. After using clay to raise the sides of their 
stone vessels, it would naturally occur to them that the same 
substance would serve for the bottom also, and thus the use 
of stone might be replaced by a more convenient material. 

The snow houses melt away every spring ; but in some places 
the Esquimaux construct their dwellings on a similar plan, 
but with the bones of whales and walruses on a foundation of 
stones, and with a covering of earth. The^ snow-houses are 
of course pretty clean at first, but they generally become 
very filthy. The bone-huts are even dirtier, because more 
durable. " In every direction round the huts,*' says Captain 
Parry, " were lying innumerable bones of walruses and seals, 
together with skulls of dogs, bears, and foxes, on many of 
which a part of the putrid flesh still remaining sent forth 
the most offensive effluvia.^f He even observed a number 
of human bones lying about among the rest. J The inside of 
the huts, "from their extreme closeness and accumulated 
filth, emitted an almost insupportable stench, to which an 
abundant supply of raw and half-putrid walrus flesh in no 
small degree contributed." § 

On the north-western coasts of America the natives find 
plenty of drift-wood, and the floors of their yourts are, accord- 
ing to Belcher, made of split timber, nicely smoothed and care- 
fully caulked with moss. XJndemeath is often a large store- ' 
room, for in summer they kill many reindeer, whales, walrus, 
seals, swans, ducks, etc., the greater part of which are laid by 
for winter use. One of these winter stores is thus expressively, 
though somewhat hastily, described by Sir E. Belcher : || "It was 
frozen into a solid mass beneath, but loose from those on the 

* Cook's Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, vol. ii., p. 510. 

t Parry, I.e. p. 280. J See also Lyon's Journal, p. 236. 

§ Parry, I.e. p. 358. || Trans. Ethn. Soc, New Ser., yol. i., p. 132. 


surface, and seemed to be incorporated, by some unexplained 
process, into a gelatinous snow, which they scraped up easily 
with the hand and ate with satisfaction — ^fish-oil predomi- 
nating. It was not o£Fensiye nor putrid. How many years 
the lower mass may have remained there I could not deter- 
mine ; but estimating the supply in one yourt as proportioned 
for ten people — ^the allowance of inhabitants for each yourt 
— ^the daily proportion for the complete store would allow for 
three himdred days, or about twenty-four pounds per soul.^' 
He estimates the quantity of solid meat in this storehouse 
alone at 71,424 pounds. Captain Boss also mentions* the 
large stores of food laid up by the Esquimaux of Boothia 
Felix during the summer for winter use. The habit does not, 
however, appear to be general among the Esquimaux, though 
they all of them make " caches '* of meat under stone cairns. 

Charlevoix derives the name Esquimaux from the Indian 
word Eakimantsik, which means " eaters of raw food ;" many 
of these northern tribes being in the habit of eating their 
meat imcooked. We must in justice to them remember 
that several of our Arctic Expeditions have adopted the 
same custom, which seems indeed in those latitudes, highly 
conducive to health, f 

Their food if cooked at all is broiled or boiled. Their 
vessels being of stone or wood cannot, indeed, be put on 
the fire; but heated stones are thrown in until the water 
becomes hot enough, and the food is cooked. Of course, 
the result is a mess of soot, dirt, and ashes, which would, 
according to our ideas, be almost intolerable; but, if the 
stench of their houses does not take away a man's appetite, 
nothing else would be likely to do so. They never wash their 
pots or kettles ; the dogs save them this trouble. Those who 

* Karratiye of a Second Voyage, p. 251 ; and Appendix, p. 21. See also 
Hall's Life with the Esquimaux, voL ii., p. 311 ; Kane's Arctic Explorations, 
Tol. ii., p. 133. 

t See, for instance, Kane's Arctic Explorations, toI. ii., p. 14. 

FOOD. 397 

have arriTed at a dim consciousnes of their dirtiness, do 
generally but make matters worse, for if they wish to 
treat a guest "genteelly, they first lick the piece of meat 
he is to eat clean from the blood and scum it had con- 
tracted in the kettle, with their tongue; and should any 
one not kindly a,ccept it, he would be looked upon as an 
unmannerly man for despising their civility."* The Esqui- 
maux observed by Dr. Rae at Repulse Bay were, however, 
much cleaner in their habits. 

Their food consists principally of reindeer, musk ox, walrus, 
seals, birds, and salmon. They will, however, eat any kind 
of animal food. They are very fond of fat and marrow, 
to get at which they pound the bones with a stone. The 
southern tribes get a few berries in summer, but those who 
live in the north have scarcely any vegetable food except 
that which they obtain in a half-digested form from the 
stomach of the reindeer, and this they regard as a great 
delicacy ;t the northernmost of all, being unable to kill 
reindeer, are entirely deprived of vegetable food. Their 
drink consists of blood or water, of which they consume 
large quantities; thawing snow over a lamp, which is 
generally made of lapis ollaris. 

"I was once present,'' J says Captain Cook, "when the 
chief of Oonalashka made his dinner of the raw head of a 
large haKbut, just caught. Before any was given to the 
chief, two of his servants eat the gills, without any other 
dressing besides squeezing out the slime. This done, one of 
them cut off the head of the fish, took it to the sea and 
washed it, then came with it and sat down by the chief: 
first pulling up some grass, upon a part of which the head 
was laid, and the rest was strewed before the chief. He 

♦ Crantz, p. 168 ; Parry, Second Voyage, p. 293 ; Lyon's Journal, p. 142. 
t Ross. Narratiye of a Second Voyage, p. 352. 
j Cook's Third Voyage, yoI. ii., p. 611. 



then cut large pieces off the cheeks, and laid these within the 
reach of the great man, who swallowed them with as much 
satisfaction as we should do raw oysters. When he had 
done, the remains of the head were cut in pieces, and given 
to the attendants, who tore off the meat with their teeth, 
and gnawed the bones like so many dogs." 

Captain Lyon gives an even more disgusting account of 
an Esquimaux meal. "From Kooilittuck," * he says, "I 
learnt a new Eskimaux luxury: he had eaten till he was 
drunk, and every moment fell asleep, with a flushed and 
burning face, and his mouth open : by his side sat Amalooa 
(his wife), who was attending her cooking pot, and at short 
intervals awakened her spouse, in order to cram as much as 
was possible of a large piece of half-boiled flesh into his 
mouth with the assistance of her forefinger, and having 
filled it quite full, cut off the morsel close to his lips. This 
he slowly chewed, and as soon as a small vacancy became 
perceptible, this was filled again by a lump of raw blubber. 
During this operation the happy man moved no part of him 
but his jaws, not even opening his eyes; but his extreme 
satisfaction was occasionally shown by a most expressive 
grunt, whenever he enjoyed sufficient room for the passage 
of sound. The drippings of the savoury repast had so 
plentifully covered his face and neck, that I had no hesita- 
tion in determining that a man may look more like a beast 
by over-eating than by drinking to excess. The women 
having fed all their better halves to sleep, and not having 
neglected themselves, had now nothing to do but to talk and 
beg as usual." 

A feast among some of the more civilised Esquimaux of 
Greenland is thus described by Crantz.f "A factor being 
invited to a great entertainment with several topping Green- 

* Lyon's Journal, p. 181 ; see also Boss, l.c, p. 448. 
t History of Greenland, yol. i., p. 172. 

FOOD. 399 

landers, counted the following dishes : 1. Dried herrings. 2. 
Dried seal's flesh. 3. Boiled ditto. 4. Half raw and rotten 
ditto, called Mikiak. 5. Boiled willocks. 6. A piece of a 
half rotten whale's tail : this was the dainty dish or haunch 
of venison to which the guests were properly invited. 7. 
Dried salmon. 8. Dried reindeer venison. 9. A dessert of 
crowberries mixed with the chyle out of the maw of a rein- 
deer. 10. The same, enriched with train oil." 

During the greater part of the year they have considerable 
difficulty in obtaining water enough even to drink. It may 
seem surprising that people who are surrounded by snow 
and ice should suffer for want of water, but the amount of 
heat required to melt snow is so great, that a man with- 
out the means of obtaining fire might die of thirst in 
these arctic regions as easily as in the sandy deserts of 
Africa. Any direct " resort to show," says Kane, " for the 
purpose of allaying thirst was followed by bloody lips and 
tongue ; it burnt like caustic." * When the Esquimaux 
visited Captain Parry, they were always anxious for water, 
which they drank in such quantities, " that it was impossible 
to furnish them with half as much as they desired." f In 
the extreme north one of the principal duties of the women 
in the winter is to thaw snow over their lamps, feeding the 
wick with oil, if it does not rise well of its own accord ; J 
the natural heat of the room is not sufficient to melt snow, 
as the temperature of the huts is always kept if possible 
below the freezing-point. In South Greenland, however, 
the huts are built of turf, etc., and are very warm.§ But 
we must remember that coolness, rather than heat, is re- 
quired by the Esquimaux who live in snow dwellings, 
because if the temperature rises to thirty-two degrees, the 
continual dripping from the roof produces extreme incon- 

* Arctic Explorations, yol. i., p. 190. f l.e. p. 188. 

i Osbom's Arctic Journal, p. 17. } Egede, l.e. p. 116. 

400 FIKB. 

yenience; and, in fact, the most nnliealtliy season is the 
spring, when the weather is too warm for snow huts, and too 
cold for tents. Thus, therefore, the Esquimaux, though living 
in a climate so extremely rigorous, would be debarred from the 
use of fires by the very nature of their dwellings, even if they 
were able to obtain the necessary materials. They never, says 
Simpson, ''seem to think of fire as a means of imparting 
warmth ;"* their lamps are used for cooking, for light, and 
for melting snow and drying clothes, rather than to warm 
the air,t and as, nevertheless, the body temperature of the 
Esquimaux is almost the same as ours, it is evident that they 
must require a large amount of animal food. The quantity 
of meat which they consume is astonishing ; and it is worthy 
of remark that from the scarcity of wood in the far north, 
they use the same substance for food and fuel ; the calorific 
material being the same— namely, blubber — ^whether the heat 
is to be obtained by digestion or combustion ; whether the 
material is to be placed in a lamp and burnt, or to be eaten 
and digested. In summer, however, when it is less neces- 
sary to keep down the general temperature, they sometimes 
bum bones well saturated with oil. For obtaining fire the 
Esquimaux generally use lumps of iron pyrites and quartz, 
from which they strike sparks on to moss which has been 
well dried and rubbed between the hands.J They are also 
acquainted with the method of obtaining it by friction, § 
which is a slower and more laborious process. It appears, 
however, to be the one generally pursued by the Greenland 
Esquimaux. || 

It has been generally assumed that man could scarcely live 
in temperate climates, and certainly not in the arctic regions, 
without the advantage of fire. From the above facts, how- 

• Discoyeries in North America, p. 846. f Kane, he, vol. ii., p. 202. 

X Kane, l.e, yol. i., p. 379; Parry, I.e. p. 504; Ross, l,e, p. 613. 
§ Lyon's Journal, p. 290. || Egede, he, p. 138. 


ever, aa well as from others which will presently be re- 
oorded> it may be doubted whether this is really the case. 
Esquimaux do not use fire to warm their dwellings; cookery 
is with them a refinement, and even the melting of snow 
might be effected by the natural heat of the body. In fact, 
those Esquimaux who live on reindeer, more than on seal, 
having little blubber, make small use of fire. 

In the South the men have bows and arrows, harpoons, 
spears, lijies, fish-hookei, knives, snow -knives, ice -chisels, 
snow-shovels, groovers, driJl-bows, drills, etc. The women 
have lamps and stone-kettles, lamp-moss, pieces of iron- 
pyrites, bone needles, pieces of sinew, scrapers (figs. 76-78), 
horn spoons, sealskin vessels, pointed bones, marrow-spoons, 
and knives. They have generally also, according to Dr. Rae, 
a small piece of stone, bone, or ivory, about six inches long 
and half an inch thick ; this is used for arranging the wicks 
of the lamps. 

Kane gives the following inventory of an Esquimaux hut 
visited by him: a sealskin cup, for gathering and holding 
water ; the shoulder-blade of a walrus, to serve as a lamp ; a 
large flat stone to support it ; another large, thin, flat, stone 
to support the melting snow ; a lance-head, with a long coil 
of walrus line ; a stand for clothes ; and the clothes them- 
selves completed the whole worldly goods of this poor family.* 
On their travelling expeditions even less than this is neces- 
sary ; raw meat and a fur bag are all that they require. 

The implements of the Esquimaux are few and simple, but 
very ingenious. The women use knives of a semicircular 
form, and very similar to the curious semilunar knives (pi. 1, 
fig. 3) which are so common in Denmark. They are, how- 
ever, now made of metal, which the Southern Esquimaux have 
been enabled to obtain, though in small quantities, from the 

* Kane's Arctic Explorations, Tol. i., p. 381 




Fxo. 15S. 

Europeans. Some few of them also break off bits of meteoric 
iron, which they hammer to an edge, and then fix in a handle 
of horn or bone. The arrow-heads are of several kinds 

and shapes. They are made not by blows, but 

by pressure, for which purpose they use the point 

of a reindeer's horn, set in bone ; fio. 154. 

bone itself would not be tough 

enough. The shafts of the arrows 

are short, straightened by steam, 

and provided with feathers at the 

butt end. These are fastened on 
^i by deer sinews. The bows are 



generally of wood, either made 

of one piece steamed into the 
right form, or of three parts most ingeni- 
ously fastened together, and strengthened 
by pieces of bone or sinew. When wood 
cannot be obtained, they use bone or horn. 
They do not appear to be particularly good 
shots ; but Captain Parry * thinks that they 
would generally hit a deer from forty to 
forty-five yards, if the animal stood still, f 
The spears are made like the arrows, but 
are larger; the heads also are frequently 
barbed, and in many cases fit loosely into 
the shaft, but are securely fastened to a 
long leathern thong, which is tied to the 
butt end of the spear. For throwing the 
harpoon they use a short handle or throw- spear-head. 
ing-stick, about two feet long, narrow below, four inches 

* l.e ^. 611, In many other respects also their an- 

t The Esquimaux of Greenland have cient habits have been modified, and 

long abandoned the bow and arrow, their condition greatly improved, by 

using guns obtained from the Danes, this intercourse. 


wide above, and with a notch on each side for the thumb 
and forefinger. With these weapons they attack not only- 
seals and walruses, but even whales. They strike the whale, 
if possible, at the same time with many harpoons, " to which 
bladders are himg, made of great seal-skins, several of which 
so encumber and stop the whale, that it cannot sink deep. 
When he is tired out, they dispatch him quite with their 
little lances." Kane gives the figure of a lance, the blade of 
which closely resembles one of the longer " axes " from the 
Danish shell-mounds.* 

The Esquimaux have three principal ways of killing 
seals. The commonest is with the harpoon and bladder. 
When an Esquimaux in his kayak ^^ spies a seal> he 

Fio. 155. 

Bone Harpoon. 

tries to surprise it unawares with the wind and sun in 
his back, that he may not be heard or seen by it. He 
tries to conceal himself behind a wave, and makes hastily 
but softly up to it tiU he comes within four, five, or six 
fathoms of it; meanwhile he takes the utmost care that 
the harpoon, line, and bladder lie in proper order.^f As 
soon as the seal is struck the point of the spear detaches 
itself &om the shaft, and at the same moment the Esquimaux 
throws the large air bladder on to the water. This is of(;en 
dragged under water a little way, but it is so great an im- 
pediment, that the seal is soon obliged to come up. ** The 
Greenlander hastens to the spot where he sees the bladder 
rise up, and smites the seal as soon as it appears" with the 
great lance or "angovigak." This is not barbed, and does 

* Arctic Explorations, yol. ii., p. 129. f Crantz, p. 164. 


not tiierefore remain in tlie seal's body, but can be used 
again and again until the animal is exhausted. The second 
way is the "clapper-hunt." If the Esquimaux find, or can 
drive any seals into the creeks or inlets, they frighten them 
by shouting, clapping, and throwing stones every time they 
come up to breathe, until at last they are exhausted and easily 
killed. In winter, when the sea is frozen, the seals, which 
are obliged to come up from time to time for the sake of air, 
keep open certain breathing holes for this purpose, and the 
Esquimaux, when he has found one of these, waits patiently 
till the seal makes its appearance, when he kills it instantly 
with his harpoon. 

The Esquimaux are excellent deerstalkers, and are much 
assisted by the skill with which they can imitate the cry of 
the reindeer. Fish are caught sometimes with the hook 
and line, sometimes by means of small nets when they come 
to the shore in shoals to spawn, or finally with the spear. 
The nets are made of " small hoops or rings of whalebone, 
fifmly lashed together with rings of the same material.'** 
The fishing-lines also are made of whalebone.f Salmon are 
sometimes so abimdant, that in Boothia Felix, Captain Ross 
bought a ton weight for a single knife. For killing birds they 
use an instrument in some respects like the "bolas" of South 
America ; a number of stones or walrus teeth being fastened 
to short pieces of string, and all the strings then tied together 
at the other end.J The spears which are intended to be 
lirown at birds or other small animals have a double fork at 
the extremity, and three other barbed points near the middle. 
These diverge in different directions, so that if the end pair 
should miss, one of the central trio might strike the victun. 
Aquatic birds are also caught in whalebone nooses ; but "the 
moulting season is the great bird harvest, as a few persons, 

♦ Parry, l.e. p. 100. f Egede, l.e, p. 107. J Simpson, l.e, p. 156. 


wading into the shallow lakes, can soon tire out and catch 
the birds by hand."* 

The so-called "Arctic Highlanders/' however, are said to 
have no means of killing the reindeer, though it abounds in 
their country ; nor have they the art of fishing, although, 
curiously enough, they catch large numbers of birds in small 
hand nets. Seals, bears, walrus, and birds constitute almost 
the whole of their diet, f None of the American or Greenland 
Esquimaux have suicceeded in taming the reindeer. Dogs 
are their only domestic animals, and are sometimes used in 
hunting, but principally to draw the sledges. 

The sledges vary much both in materials and form : ac- 
cording to Captain Lyon the best are made of the jawbones 
of the whale, sawn to about two inches in thickness^ 
and from six inches to a foot in depth. These are the 
runners, and are shod with a thin plank of the same material. 
The sides are connected by pieces of bone, horn, or wood, 
firmly lashed together. In Boothia Captain Eoss saw sledges 
in which the runners were made of salmon, packed into a 
cylinder, rolled up in skins, and frozen together. In spring 
the skins are made into bags, and the fish are esJb&^X 
Altogether these sledges are wonderfully constructed, when 
it is considered with what simple tools they are made. 

Their boats also are very ingeniously built,, and are of two 
kinds> the kajak or men's boat,, and the umiak or women's 
boat. The kajak is from eighteen to twenty feet long^ 
eighteen inches broad in the middle,, tapering to both ends, 
and scarcely a foot deep. It has no outriggers, and is there<^ 
fore very difficult to sit. It is quite covered over at the top, 
with the exeeptu^ of a hole in the middle, into which the 

♦ Lyon's Jottrnal^ p. 398. 

t Kane, Arctic ExploratioQA, voU ii., pp* 208, 210. Se« also BichardsozL'^ 
Arctic Expedition, vol. ii., p.«25 ; Simpson's Discoveries in North America, p. 347 ; 
Robs, I.e. p. 585. 

:(/.0. Appendix, p. 24. 


The dress of the womea does not differ much from that of 
the men. 

Their principal ornaments are "labrets," or pieces of 
polished stone or bone^ which are worn in the lower lip or 
cheeks. The hole is made in early infSEincyy and gradually 
enlarged by a series of "guides."* These "labrets," how- 
ever^ are not worn by the Eastern tribes. According to 
Richardson they are in use from Behrings Straits to the 
Mackenzie Biver.f The other ornaments consist of strips 
o£ Yariou6ly colored fur^ and fringes of pierced teeth, 
generally those of the fox or wolf. Among the Esquimaux 
Tisited by Gapt. Lyon, the ornaments were all appropdated 
by the mein.:^ Some of the tribes are in the halnt of tattoo- 
ing themselve& 

The men himt and fish. They make the weapons and 
implements, and prepare the woodwork of the boat's. The 
women § are the cooks, they prq>are the skins, and make 
the clothes. They also repair the houses, tents, and boats, 
lihe men doing only carpenter's work. Though they do 
not appear to be very harshly treated, still the women 
have certainly '^a hard and aknost slavish life of it,'' 
although perhaps after all not more so than the men. 

The Esquimaux are not altogether without music. They 
have a kind of drum, and sing both alone and in chorus. 
They are acquainted witk several kinds of games, || both of 
strength and skill, and are fond of dances, which are often 
very' indecent. One of their games resembled our cat's- 
cradle,^ and Kane saw the children in Smith's Sound play- 
ing hockey on the ice. The Esquimaux have also a great 
natural ability for drawing. In many cases they have made 

* Yanoovrei^s Voyage, vol. u., p. 280 ; see also p. 408 ; Belcher, L0. p, 141. 
t Arctic Expedition, toI. i, p. Z55, i Lyon's Journal) p. 314. 

§ Crantz, p. 164. " || Egede, I.e. p. 162. 

f HaU)/«. y<4* n.y p. 316. 


rude maps for our officers, which have turned out to be sub- 
stantially correct. 

According to Crantz, the Greenland Esquimaux "have 
neither a religion nor idolatrous worship, nor so much as any 
ceremonies to be perceived tending towards it/'* This state- 
ment has been confirmed by many other obserVers.f Their 
burial ceremonies have, however, been supposed to indicate a 
belief in the resurrection. They generally bend the body into 
a sitting posture, bringing the knees up under the chin, and 
then wrap the corpse in one of their best skins. For the grave 
they choose some high place, and over the corpse they make 
a heap of stones. Near the body some of them place the 
implements of the deceased, and even sometimes, if he was a 
man, his kajak ; believing, as it has been said, that they will 
be of use to him in the new world. Egede,J however, ex- 
pressly denies that it is done with any such idea. This view 
is also confirmed by Hall, according to whom, the Esqtdmaux 
have a superstitious objection to use, or even touch, anything 
which has been in a house containing a dead body. § When 
therefore any person is dying, they place by them everything 
which can soothe and comfort their last moments, and then 
lekve the igloo, or house, which they close up, thus con- 
verting it into a tomb. Crantz tells us that they " lay a dog's 
head by the grave of a child, for the soul of A dog can find 
its way everywhere, and will show the ignorant babe the 
way to the land of souls,'* and this is admitted by Egede. 
Captain Cook saw burial mounds of earth or stone at 
Oonalashka. One of the latter was near the village, and he 
observed that every one who passed threw a stone on it.|| 
Infants, if unfortimate enough to lose their mothers, are 

♦;.tf. p. 197. 

t Ross, Baffin's Bay, vol. i.^ p. 175; Voyage of Discovery^ p. 128; Parry, 
I.e. p. 651 ; Richardson's Arctic Expedition, vol. ii., p. 44 ; Egede, I.e. p. 183. 

I Le. p. 151. § I.e. vol. i , p. 201 ; vol. ii., p 221. 

II yoyage to the Pacific Ocean, vol. ii., p. 521. 

410 BimiAL. CHARACrEB. 

always buried with them ; and sickly aged people are some- 
times buried alive, as it is considered a kindness to spare 
them the pain of a lingering death. The Esquimaux 
observed by Captain Parry had a superstitious idea that any 
weight pressing upon the corpse woidd give pain to the 
deceased.* Such a belief would naturally give rise, in a more 
favored country, to vaulted tumuli; but in the extreme 
north, the only result is that the dead bodies are but slightly 
covered up, in consequence of which the foxes and dogs 
frequently dig them up and eat thenu This the natives regard 
with the utmost indifference ; they leave the himian bones 
lying about near the huts, among those of animals which 
have served for food ; another reason for doubting whether 
their burial customs can be regarded as satisfactory evidence 
of any very definite and general belief in a resurrection, or 
whether the objects which they bury with their friends are 
really supposed to be of actual use to them. On the whole, 
the burial customs of the Esquimaux are curiously like those 
of which we find evidence in the ancient tumuli of northern 
and western Europe. 

In character the Esquimaux are a quiet, peaceable people. 
Those observed by Ross in Baffin's Bay, " coidd not be made 
to understand what was meant by war, nor had they any 
warlike weapons."t Like other savages they resemble chil- 
dren in a great many respects. They are such bad arithme- 
ticians that the "enumeration of ten is a labour, and of fifteen 
an impossibility with many of them."J Dr. Rae, whose 
partiality for the Esquimaux is well known, assures us that 
if a man is asked the number of his children, he is generally 
much puzzled. After counting some time on his fingers, 
he will probably considt his wife, and the two often difier, 
even thougji they may not have more than four or five. 

• U. ^, 395, 417, 550. f I.e. p. 186. { Parry, he. p. 251. 


They are excessively dirty. Considering the difficulty itt 
obtaining enough water even to drink during the greater 
part of the year, we cannot, perhaps, wonder that they never 
dream of washing. Their word for dirt, eherk, conveys no 
idea of anything disagreeable or offensive ;* but in justice to 
them we must remember that the extreme cold, by preventing 
putrefaction, removes one of our principal inducements to 
cleanliness, and at the same time induces so great a scarcity 
of water, as to render washing almost an impossibility. As 
a general rule it is impossible to put any dependence on their 
promises, not so much that they are intentionally deceitful, 
as on account of the wavering and inconstant disposition 
which they possess in common with so many other savages. 
Among themselves a successM huntsman or fisherman is 
always ready to share his seal or walrus with his less for- 
timate neighbours ; but he expects, as a matter of course, that 
a sufficient return will be made to him, when an opportunity 
occurs. They give away nothing themselves without ex- 
pecting to receive as much again, and being unable to 
imagine any other line of conduct, are naturally very defi- 
cient in gratitude. Captain Ross, however, and Dr. Rae 
consider that the Esquimaux encountered by them were 
neither ungrateful nor particularly selfish. In other respects 
also these appear to have been very favorable specimens of 
the race. Though not cruel, the Esquimaux seem to be a some- 
what heartless people. They do not, indeed, feel any actual 
pleasure in the infliction of pain, but they will take little 
trouble to remove or relieve suffering. The Esquimaux: are 
also great thieves, but, as Captain Parry truly observes, f we 
must "make due allowance for the degree of temptation to 
which they were daily exposed, amidst the boundless stores 
of wealth which our ships appeared to them to furnish.'* 

• Kane, Arctic Explorations, vol. ii., p. 116. f I.e. p. 622» 


According to Hall,* moreover, they are strictly honest among 
themselves, kind, generous, and trustworthy. The Esqui-^ 
maux women do not bear a high character. Both polygamy 
and polyandry appear to occur. A strong or skilful man has 
more than one wife, a beautiful or clever woman in some 
cases more than one husband, f Again, the temporary loan 
of a wife is considered a mark of peculiar friendship ; in 
which, however, the advantage is not all on one side, as a 
large family, far from being any incrumbrance, ia among the 
Esquimaux a great advantage.:^ 

The North American Indians. 

The aboriginal, or at least the Precolumbian, inhabitants 
of North America, fall naturally into three divisions. The 
Esquimaux in the extreme north, the Indian tribes in the 
centre, and the comparatively civilized Mexicans in the 
south. The central tribes, which occupied by far the greater 
extent of the continent, were again divided by the Boeky 
Mountains into two great groups; that on the western side 
being in much the most abject condition. Though no doubt 
there was and is an immense difference between different 
tribes — and particularly between the semi-agricultural na- 
tions of the west and the filthy barbarians of North Cali- 
fornia — still Mr. Schoolcraft, to whom we are indebted for 
an excellent work on the "History, Condition, and Prospects 
of the Indian Tribes," § points out that "their manners and 
customs, their opinions and mental habits, had, wherever they 
were enquired into, at the earliest dates, much in conmion. 
Their modes of war and worship, hunting and amusements, 
were very similar. In the sacrifice of prisoners taken in 
war 'y in the laws of retaliation ; in the sacred character 

* I.e. vol. ii., p. 312. f Ross, I.e. p. 273. } Ross, I.e. p. 616. 

§ Fublished b; authority of Congress. Philadelphia^ 1853. 

...^-— i 


attaclied to public transactions solemnized by smoking the 
pipe ; in the adoption of persons taken in War, in femalies ; 
in the exhibition of dances on almost every occasion that can 
enlist human sympathy ; in the meagre and inartificial style 
of music ; in the totemic tie that binds relationships together, 
and in the system of symbols and figures cut and marked on 
their graveposts, on trees, and sometimes on rocks, there is a 
perfect identity of principles, arts and opinions. The mer^ 
act of wandering and petty warfare kept them in a savage 
state, though they had the element of civilization with them 
in the Maize." * 

Many of the Indian chiefs had magnificent dresses of 
skins and feathers. Some of the tribes, indeed, wore no 
clothes ; but this was rarely the case with the women, and 
even the men had generally at least a loin cloth. The amount 
of clothing, however, depended very much on the temperature. 
In the plains and forests of the tropical and southern lati- 
tudes, " the Indian wears little or no clothing during a large 
part of the year ;" but it is very difierent on the mountainis 
and in the north, where the common dress was the breech 
cloth and mocassins, with a bu£&lo-skin thrown over the 
shoulders. The inhabitants of Vancouver's Island had mats, 
made either of dog's-wool alone, of dog's-wool and goose- 
down together, or of threads obtained from cedar bark. They 
often wore " necklaces of shells, claws, or wampum ; feathers 
on the head, and armlets, as well as ear- and nose-jewels." f 
Many of the Indian tribes are clean in their persons, and 
frequently use both the sweat-house and cold bath ; others 
are described as repulsive in coimtenance and filthy both in 
person and habits. 

The eastern tribes do not generally disfigure themselves 
artificially, except indeed by the use of paint ; but it is very 

• I.e. Tol. ii., p. 47. t Schoolcraft, vol. iii., p. 65. 


and is now universally abandoned. It is very remarkabk 
that this imnatural process does not appear to have any 
prejudicial effect on the mind of the sufferers.* 

The Indian tribes generally believed in the existenoe of a 
(^reat Spirit, and the immortality of the soul, but they seem 
to have had scarcely any religious observance, still less any 
edifices for sacred purposes. Burnet f never found any sem- 
blance of worship among the Comanches. The Dacotahs 
never pr*y to the Creator ; if they wish for fine weather 
they pray to the weather itself. They believe that the 
Great Spirit made all things except thunder and rice, but we 
are not told the reason for these two curious exceptions. 

The social position of the women seems to have been very 
degraded among the aboriginal tribes of North America. 
" Their wives, or dogs, as some of the Indians term them," 
are indeed well treated as long as they do all the work, and 
there is plenty to eat; but throughout the continent, as 
indeed among all savages, the drudgery falls to their lot, and 
the men do nothing but hunt and make war; though iq 
justice to them we must remember that the former at least 
of these two occupations was of the greatest possible im- 
portance, and that upon it depended their principal means 
of subsistence. Polygamy generally prevailed; the hus- 
band had absolute power over his wives, and the marriage 
lasted only as long as he pleased. Among some of the 
North Califomian Indians it is not thought right to beat 
the wives, but the men "allow themselves the privilege of 
shooting such as they are tired of." J Among the Dogribs 
and other northern tribes, the women are the property of the 
strongest. Every one is considered to have both a legal and 

♦ Beecher's Voyage Kound the World, yoI. i., p. 308; Wilson, Smithsonian 
Report, 1862, p. «87. 

t Schoolcraft, yol. i., p. 237. See aUo Kichardson's Arctic Expedition, toI. ii., 
p. 21. 

X Col. M'Eee in Schoolcraft's Indian Tribes, vol. iii., p. 127. 


moral right to take the wife of any man weaker than he is. 
In fact, the men fight for the possession of the women, just 
like stags and the males of other wild beasts. 

" Imperturbability,* in all situations, is one of the most 
striking and general traits of the Indian character. To still 
his muscles to resist the expression of all emotion, seems to 
be the point of attainment ; and this is particularly observed 
on public occasions. Neither fear nor joy are permitted to 
break this trained equanimity." Even among relations "it is 
not customary to indulge in warm greetings. The pride and 
stoicism of the hunter and warrior forbid it. The pride of 
the wife, who has been made the creature of rough en- 
durance, also forbids it." 

But perhaps the most remarkable evidence of this is the 
fact that the Algonquin language, although one of the 
richest, contained no word*' for " to love," and when Elliot 
translated the Bible for them in 1661, he was obliged to 
coin one. He introduced the word " women " to supply the 
want. Again, the Tinn^ language f contains no word to 
express " dear " or " beloved." It is only fair to add that 
Kane foimd the Cree Indians swearing in French, having no 
oaths in their own language, f Mr. Schoolcraft records, 
as an indication that they are in reality of affectionate 
disposition, that he "once saw a Fox Indian on the banks 
of the Mississippi, near whose wigwam I had, unnoticed to 
him, wandered, take up his male infant in his aims, and 
several times kiss it."§ The special mention of this fact 
conveys a different impression from that which was intended. 
Nevertheless, among the better tribes many no doubt are 
capable of feeling strong affection, and there are even cases 
on record in which the father has redeemed his son from the 
stake, and actually been burnt in his stead. 

* Schoolcraft, voL iii., p. 68. f Bicbardson's Arctic Ezpedifcion, toI. ii., p. 24. 
% l.c, p. 339. { he, Yol. iii., p. 64. 



Partly no doubt from the hatred produced by almost in- 
cessant wars, partly perhaps encouraged by the stoical dis- 
regard of pain which it was their pride to aflFect, the North 
American Indians were very cruel to captives taken in 
war. Scalping seems to have been an universal practice, 
and it is even said that the Sioux sometimes ate the hearts 
of their enemies, every one of the war party getting a 
mouthful, if possible. 

Infanticide was common in the north, but does not seem to 
have prevailed among the southern tribes to any great ex- 
tent ; and until the advent of Europeans they do not appear 
to have had any fermented liquors. The Sioux, Assiniboines, 
and other tribes on the Missouri are said to have habitually 
abandoned those who from age or infirmities were unable to 
follow the hunting camps. The same was frequently the 
case among the northern tribes.^ 

As a race the North Americans are rapidly disappearing. 
Left to themselves they would perhaps have developed an 
indigenous civilisation, but for ours they are unfit. Unable 
to compete with Europeans as equals, and too proud to work 
as inferiors, they have profited by intercourse with the supe- 
rior race only where the paternal government of the Hudson's 
Bay Company has protected them both from the settlers and 
from themselves, has encouraged hunting, put an end to war, 
prevented the sale of spirits, and, in times of scarcity, pro- 
vided food. Ere long the only remains of the Indian blood 
will, perhaps, be foimd in the' territories of the Hudson's 
Bay Company. 

Copper is found native in the northern districts, and even 
before the advent of the Europeans was used for hatchets, 
bracelets, etc. Nevertheless, it was used rather as a stone 
than as a metal ; that is to say, the Indians did not heat it and 
run it into moulds, or work it when hot, but simply took 
advantage of its malleability and hammered it into form. 



without the assistance of heat. Metallic vessels were quite 
unknown to the aborigines of North America. 

The implements of the Shoshonees, or Snake Indians, are 
described by Wyeth. Their possessions were confined to 
" the pot, bow and arrow, knives, graining tools, awls, root 
digger, fish-spears, nets, a kind of boat or raft, the pipe, 
mats for shelter, and implements to produce fire."* 

The pot was made of " long tough roots, woimd in plies 
around a centre, shortening the circupaference of the outier 
plies so as to form a vessel in the shape of an inverted bee- 
hive." They were so well made as to be quite watertight, and 
though of course they could not be put on the fire, stiU they 
were used for boiling, in the manner already described as 
practised by other savages. The Dacotahs are said to have 
sometimes boiled animals in their own skins, taking the skin 
off whole, suspending it at the four comers, and making use 
of boiling stones as usual. They had also stone vessels, but 
these were rare, and probably used only as mortars. 

Their bows are very skilfully made of the horns of the 
moimtain sheep and elk, or sometimes of wood. " The string 
is of twisted sinew, and is used loose, and those using this 
bow require a guard to protect the hand wljiich holds ilr." 
The arrow is driven with such force that it will pass right 
through the body of a horse or buffalo,t and in the accoimt of 
De Soto's expedition, it is stated that on one occasion an 
arrow went through the saddle and housings of a horse and 
penetrated one-third of its length into the body. Although 
on the whole far inferior to the rifle, stiU in hunting the bow 
has the one great advantage of silence. Among several of the 
tribes, arrow-making was a distinct profession. The arrow- 
heads are of obsidian, about three-fourths of an inclj long 

* Sehoolcnft, toI. i., p. 212. Catlin, I.e. toI. i., p. 31 ; yol. ii., p. 

t Schoolcraft, l.e, yol. iii., pp. 85, 46 ; 212 ; McEean and Hall's Indian Tribes, 
Kane's North American Indians, p. 141 ; vol. ii., p. 4. 

420 CANOES. 

and lialf an inch wide^ and quite thin. The base is expanded 
and is inserted into the spKt end of the shaft, being kept in 
its place by sinews. The shaft is about two feet and a half 
long ; when intended for hunting it is expanded at the end, 
so that when it is drawn out of the wound the arrow-head is 
extracted also ; but the shafts of war-arrows taper to the end, 
so that when they are drawn out the head remains behind. 

The knives are rudely made of obsidian, and are sometimes 
fastened in handles of. wood or horn. The graining tools for 
preparing skins are sometimes of bone, sometimes of obsidian. 
Mr. Wyeth does not describe their form. Awls were made 
of bone ; large thorns also being sometimes used for the 
purpose. Root-diggers are either made of horns, or of 
crooked sticks pointed and hardened by fire. "The fish- 
spear is a very simple and ingenious implement. The head 
is of bone, to which a small strong line is attached near 
the middle, connecting it with the shaft about two feet from 
the point. " Near the forward end of this head there is a 
small hole, which enters it ranging acutely towards the point 
of the head ; it is quite shallow. In this hole the front end 
of the shaft is placed." The shaft is of light willow, and 
about ten feet long. When the fish is struck the shaft is 
withdrawn, and the string at once pulls the bone end into a 
transverse position. The fish-nets are made of bark, which 
gives a very strong line, and are of two kinds, the scoop and 
the seine. They are, however, imknown among the northern 
tribes west of the Mackenzie.* The boats of the Shoshonees 
hardly deserve the name, and seem to be used only for cross- 
ing rivers. They are about eight feet long, and made of reeds, 
but there is no attempt to make them water-tight. Other 
tribes, however, have much better canoes, made either of 
bark, or of a log hollowed out. The pipes are large, and 
the bowl is generally of fiiller's-earth, or of soapstone. The 
* Bicliaxdsoii'8 Arctic Expedition, yol. ii., p, 25. 


mats are about four feet long, are made of rushes, and are 
used either as beds, or in the construction of wigwams. 

They obtain fire by rubbing a piece of wood in a hole. 
The Chippeways and Natchez tribes are said to have had an 
institution for keeping up a perpetual fire, certain persons 
being set aside and devoted to this occupation. 

The huts or wigwams are generally of two kinds, one for 
summer, and the other for winter. The winter wigwam 
of the Dacotahs is thus described by Schoolcraft : " To erect 
one of them it is only necessary to cut a few saplings about 
fifteen feet in length, place the large ends on the ground in 
a circle, letting the tops meet, thus forming a cone. The 
buffalo-skins, sewed together in the form of a cap, are then 
thrown over them and fastened together with a few splints. 
The fire is made on the ground in the centre of the wigwam, 
and the smoke escapes through an aperture at the top. 
These wigwams are warm and comfortable. The other 
kind of hut is made of bark, usually that of the elm.''* 
The huts of the Mandans,t Minatarees, etc., were circular in 
form and from forty to sixty feet in diameter. The earth was 
removed to a depth of about two feet. The framework was 
of timber, covered with willow boughs, but leaving a space 
in the middle to serve both as chimney and window. Over 
the woodwork was placed a thick layer of earth, and at 
the top of aU some tough clay, which was impervious to 
water, and in time became quite hard, as in fine weather the 
tops of the huts were the common lounging place for the 
whole tribe. Though these dwellings were sometimes kept 
very clean and tidy, J this was not always the case. Speak- 
ing of the Nootka Sound Indians, Captain Cook§ says : "The 
nastiness and stench of their houses are, however, at least 

♦ I.e. vol. ii., p. 191. t Catlin's American Indians, vol. 

t This tribe, one of the most inte- i., p. 82. 
resting, has been entirely swept away § Third Voyage, vol. ii., p. 316. 

by the small-pox. 


equal to the confusion. For, as they dry their fish within 
doors, they also gut them there, which, with their bones and 
fragments thrown down at meals, and the addition of other 
sorts of filth, lie everywhere in heaps, and are, I beliere, 
never carried away till it becomes troublesome, from their 
size, to walk over them. In a word, their houses are as 
fiJithy as hog-sties : everything in and about them stinking 
of fish, train-oil, and smoke.'' 

The Wallawalla Indians* of Columbia dig a circular hole 
in the ground about ten or twelve feet deep and from forty 
to fifty feet in circumference, and cover it over with drift- 
wood and mud* A hole is left on one side for a door, and a 
notched pole serves as a ladder. Here twelve or fifteen 
persons burrow through the winter, requiring very little fire, 
as they generally eat their salmon raw, and the place is very 
warm from the numbers collected together and the absence 
of ventilation. In summer they use lodges made of rushes 
or mats spread on poles. This tribe lives principally on 
salmon, preferring it putrid. 

South of the Ghilf of St. Lawrence and west of the Rocky 
Mountains ahnost all the tribes seem to have grown more or 
less maize. In the Carolinas and Virginia the Indians raised 
large quantities, and " all relied on it as one of their fixed 
means of subsistence."t The Delawares had extensive maize 
fields at the time of the discovery of America. In 1527, 
De Vaca saw it in small quantities in Florida, and De Soto, 
twelve years later, found it abundant among the Muscogees, 
Chactaws, Chickasaws, and Cherokees. On one occasion his 
army marched through fields of it for a distance of two 
leagues. It is known to have been cultivated by the Iroquois 
in 1610, and in small quantities by " the hunter communities 

♦ Kane's Nortli American Indiana, f Schoolcraft, l.e, vol. i., p. 6. See 

p. 272 ; United States' Exploring Ex- also Richardson's Arctic Expedition, 
pedition, vol. iy., p. 452. yol. ii., p. 51. 

FOOD. 423 

of the Ohio, the Wabagh, the Miami, and the Illinois," as 
well as by the natives along both banks of the Mississippi. 
The evidences of ancient agriculture have been already- 
alluded to in the chapter on North American Archaeology ; 
the maize appears to have been the only plant actually 
tmder cultivation ; but some of the tribes depended for their 
subsistence very much on roots, etc. Wild rice also grew 
abundantly id the shallow lakes and streams of Michigan, 
Winconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, as well as in the upper valleys 
of the Mississippi and Missouri. It was gathered by the 
women, and formed one of their principal articles of food. 
They went into the rice-fields in canoes, and bending the 
stalks in handsful over the sides of the canoe, beat out the 
grain with paddles. 

The North American Indians, however, have long depended 
mainly on the animal kingdom for their subsistence. They 
are essentially hunters and fishermen, the buffalo, the deer 
and the salmpn supplying them with their principal articles 
of food. The bufl&loes were sometimes driven into pounds, 
sometimes shot on the open prairie with bows and arrows. 
Fish were speared, caught in weirs, etc., or sometimes shot. 
The Macaws and Clallums on the Pacific coast sometimes 
even killed whales. For this purpose they used large barbed 
harpoons of bone, with a string, and a strong seal-skin 
bag filled with air. This apparatus was used in the same 
manner as among the Esquimaux {ante, p. 403). Like all 
carnivorous animals, the Indians alternate between seasons 
of great plenty and extreme want. Generally game is 
abundant, and Noka, one of their most celebrated hunters, 
is said to have killed in one day sixteen elks, four buflFaloes, 
five deer, three bears, one porcupine, and one lynx. This 
of course was a very exceptional case. Still there is gene- 
rally some season of the year when they kill more game than 
is required for immediate consumption. In this case the 

424 BURIAL. 

smplus 18 dried and made into pemmican. In winter^ how- 
ever, they are often very short of provisions. Back gives a 
terrible picture of their sufferings in famine times;* and 
Wyeth tells ns that the Shoshonees " nearly starve to death 
annually, and in winter and spring are emaciated to the last 
degree ; the trappers used to think they all eventually died 
from starvation, as they became old and feeble." t 

As might naturally be expected, the mode of burial varies 
much in different parts of North America. In Columbia 
they are generally " placed above ground, in their clothing, 
and then sewed up in a skin or blanket ; and the personal 
property of each deceased individual was placed near the 
body : over all were laid a few boards, placed as a kind of 
shed to protect them from the weather." { Among these 
tribes the corpse is doubled up. Near Point Orchard in the 
same district, the bodies were placed in canoes, and deposited 
among the branches of trees. The Mandans also, and indeed 
most of the Prairie Indians, scaffolded their d^jEid. Among 
the Clear Lake Indians, the Carriers, etc., it was usual to bum 
them, while in Florida they were interred ia a sitting pos- 
ture. Among other tribes, the bones of the dead were col- 
lected every eight or ten years, and laid in one common 
burial place. 

They are not altogether deficient in art, being able to 
make certain rude carvings, and to trace equally rude draw- 
ings on their wigwams, robes, etc. ; but about portraits they 
have some curious ideas. They think that an artist acqidres 
some mysterious power over any one whose likeness he may 
have taken; and on one occasion, when annoyed by some 
Indians, Mr. Kane got rid of them at once by threatening to 
draw any one who remained. Not one ventured to do so. 

♦ Arctic Land Expedition, p. 194 to f Schoolcraft, vol. i., p. 216. 

326. See also Kichardson's Arctic % United States' Exploring Expe- 

Expedition, toI. ii., p. 96. dition, vol. iv., p. 389. 


If the likeness is good, so much the worse — ^it is, they fancy, 
half alive, — at the expense of the sitter. So much life, they 
argue, could only be put in the picture by taking it away 
from the original. Again, they fancy that if the picture were 
injured, by some mysterious connection the original would 
suffer also. But perhaps the oddest notion of all is recorded 
by Catlin. He excited great commotion among the Sioux by 
drawing one of their great chiefs in profile. "Why was 
half his face left out," they asked ; " Mahtocheega was never 
ashamed to look a white man in the face." Mahtocheega 
himself does not seem to have taken any offence, but Shonka, 
The Dog, took advantage of the idea to taunt him. " The 
Englishman knows," he said, " that you are but half a man; 
he has painted but one-half of your face, and knows that 
the rest is good for nothing." This view of the case led to 
a fight, in which poor Mahtocheega was shot; and as ill- 
luck would have it, the bullet by which he was killed tore 
away just that part of the face, which had been omitted in 
the drawing. This was very unfortunate for Mr. Catlin, 
who had great difficulty in making his escape, and lived 
some months after in fear for his life ; nor was the matter 
settled until both Shonka and his brother had been killed, in 
revenge for the death of Mahtocheega. 

The Paraguay Indians. 

The Indians of Paraguay have been described by Don F^lix 
de Azara,* who lived a long time among them. He found 
them divided iuto several different nations or tribes, with at 
least forty distinct languages, and with different customs. 
Some of them lived by fishing, but the greater number 
depended for their subsistence on the wild horses and cattle, 
and must therefore have had different habits before the dis- 

♦ Voyages dans TAm^rique Meridionale, 1809. 


coveiy of America by the Europeans. Their principal arms 
were long spears, clubs, and bows and arrows. Some tribes, 
however, as, for instance, those of the Pampas, do not nse 
bows and arrows, but prefer the bolas. In war the Indians 
of Paraguay gave no quarter to men, but spared only the 
women and children. 

Their houses, if we can call them so, were of the simplest 
character ; they cut ihree or four boughs, stuck the two ends 
into the groimd, and threw over them a cow-skin. Their bed 
consisted of another skin ; they had no chairs or tables, or 
any kind of furniture. The men seldom wore any clothes ; 
the dress of the women consisted usually of a poncho, 
although among some of the tribes, as the Nalicu^gas, even 
this was dispensed with. The art of washing seems to have 
been entirely unknown, though Azara admits that in very 
hot weather they used sometimes to bathe, rather however, 
as it would appear, for coolness, than for cleanliness. It is 
unnecessary therefore to say that they were excessively filthy, 
and troubled much with lice ; if, indeed, they can^ be said to 
have been troubled by that which supplied them with one of 
their greatest enjoyments ; for though many of the tribes had 
no dances, no games, no music, they all took a pleasure in 
picking out and eating the vermin which swarmed on their 
skin and in their hair and clothes. 

They had no domestic animals, and no idea of agriculture. 
Their doctors had but one remedy, which they applied in all 
cases, and which had at least the great merit of being harm- 
less — since it consisted " i, sucer avec beaucoup de force Tes- 
tomac du patient, pour en tirer le mal."* 

Many of the tribes painted their bodies in various ways, 
and it was usual to pierce the imder lip and insert a piece 
of wood, about four or five inches long, which they never 

* Azariy l.c, p. 26, 


They Iiad no established form of goyenunenty nor any 
ideas of religion. Azara makes this latter statement gene- 
rally for all the Indians, and repeats it particularly for the 
following tribes — namely, the Gharroas, Minuanas, Aucas, 
OnaranySy Ghiayanas, NaUcn^gas, Gnasarapos, Ghiatos, Nina- 
quigoilas, Ghianas, Lengnas, Agoilots, Mocobys, Abissons, 
and Faraguas. 

Azara describes the language of the Ghiaranys as being the 
most copions, and yet it was in many respects very deficient ; 
for instance, they could only count up to four, and had no 
words for the higher numbers, not even for five or six. It 
is quite unnecessary to say that the marriage tie was little 
regarded among them ; they married when they liked, and 
separated when they pleased. 

Infanticide was, in several of the tribes, the rule rather 
than the exception ; the women brought up but one child 
each, and as they spared only the one which they thought 
likely to be the last, it often happened that they were left 
without any at all. 


The inhabitants of the southern parts of South America, 
although they are divided into numerous different tribes, 
may be considered as falling into two great groups: the 
Patagonians, or Horse Indians, on the east, who have horses 
but no canoes; and the Chonos and Fuegians, or Canoe 
Indians, who have canoes, but no horses, and who inhabit 
the tempestuous islands on the south and west. 

The Tacana-kunny who inhabit the north-eastern part of 
Tierra del Fuego are, properly speaking, not Fuegians, but 
Patagonians, and resemble them in color, stature, and 
clothing, except the peculiar boots. They live now pretty 
much as the mainlanders probably did before the introduc- 
tion of horses, and feed principally On guanacoes, ostriches. 


birds and seals, which they kill with dogs, bows and arrows, 
bolas, slings, lances and clubs.* The habits of the Pata- 
gonians must have been much altered by the introduction of 
the horse, but we can only deal with them as they now are. 

The Horse and Canoe Indians offer a great contrast in 
point of size; while the latter are short, ill-looking, and 
badly proportioned, the former are considerably above the 
average height, and are described by early travellers as 
being truly gigantic. They were first visited in 1519 by 
Magellan, who assures us that many of them were above 
seven feet (French) in height. In 1525 they were seen by 
Garcia de Loaisa, who mentions their great stature, but does 
not seem to have measured them. Similar statements were 
made by Cavendish, Knevett, Sibald de Veert, Van Noort, 
Spilbergen, and Lemaire; in fact out of the fifteen first 
voyagers who passed through the Magellanic Straits, not 
fewer than nine attest the fact of the gigantic size of the 
Fatagonians ; in which they are confirmed by the testimony 
of several subsequent travellers, and especially of Falkner, 
who assures us that he saw many men who were over seven 
feet in height. 

It is difficult altogether to reject these statements, and as 
they are certainly not applicable to the present race, it is 
possible that there may have been a change of size owing to 
the introduction and general use of the horse. 

The huts, or " toldos," of the Patagonians, are " rectan- 
gular in form, about ten or twelve feet long, ten deep, seven 
feet high in front, and six feet in the rear. The frame of 
the building is formed by poles stuck in the ground, having 
forked tops to hold cross pieces, on which are laid poles for 
rafters, to support the covering, which is made of skins of 
animals sewn together, so as to be almost impervious to 
rain or wind. The posts and rafters, which are not easily 
♦ Fitzroy, l.o. yol. ii., p. 137. 


procured, are carried from place to place in all their 
traveUing excursions. Having reached their bivouac, and 
marked out a place with due regard to shelter from the 
wind, they dig holes with a piece of pointed hard wood, 
to receive the posts : and all the frame and cover being ready 
it takes but a short time to erect a dwelling." * 

They have no pottery, and for carryiag water the only 
vessels they use are bladders. Their dress consists princi- 
pally of skins, sewn together with ostrich sinews, and 
often curiously painted on one side ; but according to 
Falkner,t some of the iribes "make or weave fine man- 
tles of wooUen yam, beautifully dyed with many colours." 
They have also a small triangular apron, two comers 
of which are tied round the waist, while the third passes 
between the legs and is fastened behind. When on 
horseback they use a kind of poncho, or mantle, with a slit 
in the middle, through which they put their head. For 
boots they wear the " skin of the thighs and legs of mares 
and colts;" they clean the skins, and then, after drying, soften 
with grease, and so put them on without either shaping or 
sewing. J They make brushes of grass, twigs, and rushes, and 
use the jaw of a porpoise for a comb. § The women wear a 
mantle, fastened across the breast by a wooden skewer, or 
pin, and tied round the waist. They have also a kind 
of apron which reaches down to their knees, but which only 
covers them in front. Their boots are made in the same way 
as those of the men. Like other savages, they are fond of 
beads, feathers, and other ornaments. They also paint them- 
selves with red, black, and white, which however to European 
eyes is anything but an improvement. Their defensive 

* Fitzroy, Le, yol. i., p. 93. and it was on account of these shoes 

t Falkner's Patagonia, p. 128. that Magellan called them *<Patago- 

} When first yisited they used the nians." 

sldn of the guanaco for this puipose, § Fitzroy, vol. i., p. 75. 


annonr consists of a hebnaet and Bhield, both made of thick 
hide, and strong enough to resist either arrows or hmces. 

Their bows are small, and the arrows, which are pointed 
with stone or bone, are said to be sometimes poisoned. They 
have also clubs and long cane lances, most of which are now 
tipped with iron. But the weapons which are most charac- 
teristic of the Patagonians, and which are indeed ahaost 
peculiar to them, are the bolas,* of which there are two or 
three sorts. That used in war is a single rounded stone or 
ball of hardened clay, weighing about a pound, and fastened 
to a short rope of sinew or skin. This they sometimes throw 
at their adversary, rope and all, but generally they prefer to 
strike at his head with it. For hunting they use two similar 
stones, fEustened together by a rope, which is generally three 
or four yards long. One of the stones they take in their 
hand, and then whirling the other round their head, throw 
both at the object they wish to entangle. Sometimes several 
balls are used, but two appears to be the .usual number. 
They do not try to strike their victim with the balls them- 
selves, but with the rope, " and then of course the balls swing 
round in different directions and the thongs become so ' laid 
up,' or twisted, that struggling only makes the C9,ptive more 
secure." t It is said that a man on horseback can use the 
"bolas'* effectually at a distance of eighty yards. { They 
also use the lassp. 

On the coast their food consists principally of fish, which 
they kill either by diving or striking them with their darts. 
Guanacoes and ostriches they catch with the bolas, and they 
also eat mare's-flesh, as well as various sorts of small game, 
and at least two kinds of wild roots. They have no fer- 
mented liquor, and the only prepared drink which they use 
is a decoction of chal&, and the juice of berberries mixed 
with water. 
• Falkner, l.e, p. 130. t Fitaroj, lc» vol. ii., p. U8, t Darwin's Joornal, p. 129. 


The death of a native is attended with peculiar ceremonies. 
The flesh haying been as much as possible stripped from the 
bones, they are hung " on high, upon canes or twigs woven 
together, to dry and whiten with the sun and rain." One of 
the most distinguished women is chosen to perform the dis- 
gusting office of making the skeleton, and during the process 
" the Indians, covered with long mantles of skins, and their 
faces blackened by soot, walk round the tent, with long 
poles or lances in their hands, singing in a mournful tone of 
voice and striking the ground, to frighten away the Valichus 

or evil beings The horses of the dead are killed that 

he may have wherewithal to ride upon in the Alhue Mapu, 
or Country of the Dead.' *' In about a year the bones are 
''packed together in a hide and placed upon one of the 
deceased's favorite horses, kept alive for that purpose," and 
in this manner the natives bear the relics, sometimes to a very- 
great distance, until they arrive at the proper burial place, 
where the ancestors of the dead man are lying. The bones 
are arranged in their proper positions, and fastened by 
string. The skeleton is then placed, with others, in a square 
pit, clothed in the best robes, and adorned with beads, fea- 
thers, etc.. The arms of the deceased are buried with him, 
and round the grave are ranged several dead horses, raised 
on their feet, and supported with sticks.* Sometimes a 
cairn of stones is raised over the grave, f 

Falkner regarded the Patagonians as Polytheists, but 
we do not know much about their religion. According 
to the missionaries, neither the Patagonians nor the Arau- 
canians had any ideas of prayer, or " any vestige of religious 
worship." J 

♦ Falkner'fl Patago;iia, pp. 118, 119. f Fitzroy, vol. ii., p. 168. 

% The Voice of Pity, vol. ii., pp. 37, 95. 


The Fuegians. 

The inliabitants of Tierra del Fuego are even more de- 
graded than those of the main land : in fact, they have been 
regarded by many travellers as being the lowest of mankind.* 
Adolph Decker, who visited Polynesia and Australasia under 
Jaques le Hermite in 1624, describes them as " rather beasts 
than men ; for they tear human bodies to pieces, and eat the 
flesh, raw and bloody as it is. There is not the least spark 
of religion or policy to be observed among them : on the 
contrary, they are in every respect brutal" — of which he 
proceeds to give evidence so convincing, that I refrain 
from quoting it.f " The men go altogether naked, and the 

women have only a bit of skin about their middles ; 

Their huts are made of trees, in the shape of tents, with a 
hole at the top to let out the smoke. Within they are sunk 
two or three feet under the earth ; and the mould is thrown 
upon the outside. Their fishing-tackle is very curious, and 
their stone hooks very nearly the same shape as ours. They 
are differently armed, some having bows, and arrows headed 
with stone ; others have long javelins, pointed with bone ; 
some again have great wooden clubs ; and some have slings, 
with stone-knives, which are very sharp." Their arrows are 
of hard wood, straight and well polished. They are about 
two feet long, and are tipped with a piece of agate, obsidian, 
or glass ; the head not being fixed to the shaft, remains in 
the ^^ound, even when the arrow is drawn out. The bows 
are from three to four feet long, and quite plain. The string 
is made of twisted sinews. 

Forster J found them " remarkably stupid, being incapable 
of imderstanding any of our signs, which, however, were 

♦ Byron's Voyage Round the World, p. 80; Wallis's Voyage Bound ibe 
"World, p. 392; Cook's Voyage to the South Pole, vol. ii., p. 187; Darwin's 
Journal, p. 235. t Callander's Voyages, vol. ii., p. 307. J l.e, p. 251. 


very intelligible to the nations of the South Sea." Wallis, 
in his "Voyage Round the World,"* describes them as 
follows : " They were covered with seal-skins, which stunk 
abominably, and some of them were eating the rotten flesh 
and blubber raw, with a keen appetite and great seeming 
satisfaction." And again he says: "Some of our people, 
who were fishing with a hook and line, gave one of them a 
fish, somewhat bigger than a herring, alive, just as it came 
out of the water. The Indian took it hastily, as a dog would 
take a bone, and instantly killed it, by giving it a bite near 
the gills: he then proceeded to eat it, beginning with the 
head, and going on to the tail, without rejecting either the 
bones, fins, scales, or entrails."t Their cookery is, if possible, 
still more disgusting. Fitzroy tells us that it was "too 
ofiensive" for description; and the account given by Byron { 
entirely confirms this statement. 

The men, says Fitzroy, § "are low in stature, ill-looking, 
and badly proportioned. Their colour is that of very old 
mahogany — or rather between dark copper and bronze. The 
trunk of the body is large,. in proportion to their cramped 
and rather crooked limbs. Their rough, coarse and extremely 
dirty black hair half hides, yet heightens, a villainous expres- 
sion of the worst description of savage features. The hair of 
the women is longer, less coarse, and certainly cleaner than 
that of the men. It is combed with the jaw of a porpoise, 
but neither plaited nor tied ; and none is cut away, excepting 
from over their eyes. They are short, with bodies largely 
out of proportion to their height ; their featui'es, especially 
those of the old, are scarcely less disagreeable than the re- 
pulsive ones of the men. About four feet and some inches is 
the stature of these she-Fuegians — ^by courtesy called women* 

♦ Hawkesworth'a Voyages, l,e, p. 403. f l,e, p. 403. 

t Byron's Loss of the Wager, p. 132. 

§ Voyages of the Adyenture and Beagle, vol. ii., p. 137. 



They neyer walk upriglit ; a stooping posture, and awkward 
movement is their natural gait. They may be fit mates for 
such uncouth men, but to civilized people their appearance is 


The smoke of wood fires, confined in small wigwams, hurts 
their eyes so much, that they are red and watery : the effects 
of their oiling or greasing* themselves, and then rubbing 
ochre, clay, or charcoal over their bodies; of their often 
feeding upon the most offensive substances, sometimes in a 
state of putridity ; and of other vile habits, may readily be 
imagined.'** Their incisors are worn flat,t like those of 
the Esquimaux and of many ancient races. 

" The men procure food of the larger kind, such as seal, 
otter, porpoises, etc. ; they break or cut wood and bark for 
fuel, as well as for building the wigwams and canoes. They 
go out at night to get birds; they train the dogs, and of 
course imdertake all hunting or warlike excursions. The 
women nurse their children, attend the fire (feeding it with 
dead wood, rather than green, on accoiqit of the smoke), 
make baskets and water-buckets, fishing-lines and necklaces, 
go out to catch small fish in their canoes, gather shell-fish^ 
dive for sea-eggs, take care of their canoes, upon ordinary 
occasions paddle their masters about while they sit idle, and 
do any other drudgery." $ 

"Swimming is a favorite amusement of the Fuegians 
during summer ; but the unfortunate women are obliged to 
go out into rather deep water, and dive for sea-eggs in the 
depth of winter as often as in summer. Men, women, and 
children are excellent swimmers, but they all swim like 

"When there is time, the natives roast their shell-fish, 
and half-roast any other food that is of a solid nature ; but 

* l.e. p. 139. t Fitzroy, Appendix, p. 144. 

J Fitzroy, l.e, p. 186. 


when in haste, they eat fish, as well as meat, in a raw state. 

Both seal and porpoises are speared 

by them from their canoes. When struck, the fish usually 
run into the kelp, with the spear floating on the water, being 
attached by a short line to a moveable barb : and then the 
men follow with their canoe, seize the spear and tow by it 
till the fish is dead. To them, the taking of a seal or a 
porpoise is a matter of as much consequence as the capture 
of a whale is to our countrymen. On moonlight nights, 
birds are caught when roosting, not only by the men but by 
their dogs, which are sent out to seize them while asleep upon 
the rocks or beach : and so well are these dogs trained that 
they bring all they catch safely to their masters, without 
making any noise, and then return for another mouthful. 
Birds are also frequently killed with arrows or by stones 
slung at them with unerring aim. Eggs are largely sought 
for by the natives ; indeed, I may say that they eat anything 
and everything that is eatable, 'without being particular as to 
its state of freshness, or as to its. having been near the fire." * 

According to Byron the dogs of the Chonos Indians assist 
in killing fish as well as birds. They are, he says, " cur-like 
looking animals, but very sagacious, and easily trained to 

this busiaess The net is held by two Indians, who 

get into the water ; then the dogs, taking a large compass, 
dive after the fish, and drive them into the net ; but it is 
only in particular places that the fish are taken in this 
manner." He adds, that the dogs "enjoy it much, and 
express their eagerness by barking every time they raise 
their heads above the water to breathe." t 

"In the winter, when snow lies deep, the Tekeenica 
people assemble to hunt the guanaco, which then comes 

♦ Fitzroy, l.e. p. 184. 

t Byron's Loss of the "Wager. In Kerr's Voyages and Travels, vol. xvii., 
pp. 339, 368, 463. 



Fio. 156. 


down from the high lands to seek for pasture near the sea. 

The long legs of the animal stick deeply into the snow and 
soft boggy groimd, disabling him from escape, 
while the Fuegians and their dogs hem him in 
on every side and quickly make him their prey. 

At other times of the 

year they sometimes get them by lying in wait, and 
shooting them with arrows, or by getting into a 
tree near their track, and spearing them as they 
pass beneath the branches. An arrow was shown to 
Low, which was marked with blood two-thirds of its 
length in wounding a guanaco, afterwards caught by 
dogs. Low held out his jacket, making signs that 
the arrow would not penetrate it ; upon which the 
native pointed to his eye."* Fig. 156 represents 
the head of a Fuegian harpoon, which closely resem- 
bles the ancient Danish specimen figured in p. 80. 

"Of vegetable food they have very little : a few 
berries, cranberries, and those which grow on the 
arbutus, and a kind of fungus which is foimd on the 
beech, being the only sorts used. The wretched 
Fuegians often sufier greatly from famine. On one 
occasion when the Chonos were in great distress on 
this account, a small party went away, and the 
natives said that in four sleeps they would return 
with food. On the fifth day they came back almost 
dead with fatigue, and "each man having two or 
three great pieces of whale -blubber, shaped like, a 
poncho with a hole in the middle, on his shoulders. 
The blubber was half putrid, and looked as if it had 
been buried underground." Notwithstanding this, 
it was cut into slices, broiled, and eaten. On another 

occasion masses of blubber were found in sand, doubtless 
♦ Fitzroy, l.c, p. 187. 





laid in store for a season of want. Their principal food, 
however, consists of limpets, mussels, and other shell-fish. 

Admiral Fitzroy entertains no doubt that the Fuegians 
are cannibals. ''Almost* always at war with adjoining 
tribes, they seldom meet but a hostile encounter is the re- 
sult ; and then those who are vanquished and taken, if not 
already dead, are. killed and eaten by the conquerors. The 
arms and breast are eaten by the women ; the men eat the 
legs, and the trunk is thrown into the sea." Again, in 
severe winters, when they can obtain no other food, they 
take " the oldest woman of their party, hold her head over a 
thick smoke, made by burning green wood, and pinching her 
throat, choke her. They then devour every particle of the 
flesh, not excepting the trunk, as in the former case." When 
asked why they did not rather kill their dogs, they said, 
" Dog catch iappo," t,e. otters. 

Like Decker, Admiral Fitzroy " never witnessed or heard 
of any act of a decidedly religious nature." t Still some of 
the natives suppose that there is " a great black man" in the 
woods who knows everything, "who cannot be escaped, and 
who influences the weather according to men's conduct." 
When a person dies, they carry the body far into the 
woods, J "place it upon some broken boughs, or pieces of 
solid wood, and then pile a great quantity of branches over 
the corpse." 

They make canoes of large pieces of bark sewn together. 

In the bottom they make a fireplace of clay, for they always 

keep fires alight, though with the help of iron pyrites they 

soon obtain sparks if any accident happens. The Chonos 

Indians, who in most respects resemble the Fuegians, have 

much better canoes. These are formed of planks, which are 

• I.e. p. 183. 

t See also Weddell, Voyage to South Pole, p. 179 ; The Voice of Pity, vol. vi., 
p. 92, etc. 
J le, p. 181. 


generally five in number, two on each side and one at the 
bottom. Along the edges of each are small boles, about an 
inch apart. The planks are sewn together with woodbine, 
the holes being fiUed with a kind of bark beaten up until it 
resembles oakum. Byron truly observes that in the absence 
of metal, "the labour must be great of hacking a single 
plank out of a large tree with shells and flints, even though 
with the help of fire." 

The Fuegians have no pottery, but, like the North Ameri- 
can Indians, use vessels made of birch, or rather of beech- 
bark. On the east coast many of the natives possess guan- 
aco-skins, and on the west i^me of them wear seal-skins. 
"Amongst the central tribes the men generally possess an 
otter-skin, or some small scrap about as large as a pocket- 
handkerchief, which is barely sufficient to cover their backs 
as low down as their loins. It is laced across the breast by 
strings, and according as the wind blows, it is shifted from 
side to side.*'* Many however, even of the women, go 
absolutely without clothes. Yet, as Captain Cook quaintly 
expresses it, " although they are content to be naked, they 
are very ambitious to be fine ;*' foi^ which purpose they adorn 
themselves with streaks of red, black, and white, and the 
men as well as the women wear bracelets and anklets of 
shell and bone. Dr. Hooker informs us that at the extreme 
south of Tierra del Fuego, and in mid- winter, he has often 
seen the men lying asleep in their wigwams, without a scrap 
of clothing, and the women standing naked, and some with 
children at their breasts, in the water up to their middles 
gathering limpets and other shellfish, while the snow fell 
thickly on them and on their equally naked babies. In fact, 
fire does not appear to be a necessary with them, nor do they 
use it to warm the air of their huts as we do, though some- 
times as a luxury they take advantage of it to toast their 
* Darwin's Hesearches in Geology and Natural Historj, p. 234. 

FERB. 439 

hands or feet. Doubtless, however, if deprived of this source 
of warmth they would die of starvation rather oftener than 
is now the case. If not the lowest, the Fuegians certainly 
appear to be among the most miserable specimens of the 
human race, and the habits of this people are of especial 
interest from their probable similarity to those of the ancient 
Danish shell-mound builders, who, however, were in some 
respects rather more advanced, being acquainted with the art 
of making pottery. 




r reading almost any account of savages^ it is impossible 
not to admire the skill with which they use their rude 
weapons and implements. The North American Indian will 
send an arrow right through a horse, or even a buffalo. The 
African savage will kill the elephant, and the Chinook fears 
not to attack even the whale. Captain Grey tells us that he 
has often seen the Australians Trill a pigeon with a spear, at 
a distance of thirty paces.* Speaking of the same people, 
Mr. Stanbridge asserts that "it is a favourite feat on the 
Murray to dive into the river, spear in hand, and come up 
with a fish upon it.'' f Woodes Rogers says that the CaU- 
fomian Indians used to dive and strike the fish under water 
with wooden spears, $ and Falkner tells us that some of the 
Patagonian tribes live chiefly on fish, "which they catch 
either by diving , or striking them with their darts." § Wallace, 
again, says the same of the Brazilian Indians.' || The South 
Sea Islanders are particularly active in the water. They dive 
after fish which " take refuge under the coral rock ; thither 
the diver pursues him, and brings him up with a finger in 
each eye.'' If They are even more than a .match for the 

♦ Grey, l.e, vol. ii., p. 285. 

t On the Aborigines of Victoria. Ethn. Trans., New Ser., vol. i., p. 293. 
% Callander's Voyages, vol. iii., p. 331. § Patagonia, p. 111. 

11 Travels on the Amazon, p. 488. IT Wilson, l,e. p. 385. 


shark, which they attack fearlessly with a knife. If they 
are unarmed " they all surround him and force him ashore, 
if they can but once get him into the surf;" tut even if he 
escapes they continue their bathing without the least fear.* 
Ellis more cautiously says only that " when armed they have 
sometimes been known to attack a shark in the water .^'f 
The Andaman Islanders also are said to dive and catch fish 
under water ; J and Rutherford makes a similar statement as 
regards the New Zealanders. The Esquimaux in his kayak 
will actually turn somersets in the water. Skyring§ saw a 
Fuegian who " threw stones from each hand with astonishing 
force and precision. His first stone struck the master with 
much force, broke a powder-horn which hung round his neck, 
and nearly knocked him backwards." In his description of 
the Hottentots, Kolben says, || that their dexterity in throwing 
the "hassagaye and rackum-stick, strikes every witness of 

it with the highest admiration If a Hottentot, in the 

chase of a hare, deer, or wild goat, comes but within thirty 
or forty yards of the creature, away flies the rackum-stick 
and down falls the creature, generally pierced quite thl'ough 
the body." The death of Goliath is a well-known instance 
of skill in the use of the sling ; and we are told also that in 
the tribe of Benjamin there was a corps of " seven hundred 
chosen men lefthanded; every one could sling stones at an 
hair-breadth, and not miss. "If The Brazilian Indians kill 
turtles with bows and arrows ; but if they shot direct at the 
animal, the arrow would glance off the smooth hard shell, 
therefore they shoot up into the air, so that the arrow falls 
nearly vertically on the shell, which it is thus enabled to 

What an amount of practice must be required to obtain 

♦ "Wilson, l.e, p. 368. f Polynesian Researches, vol. i., p. 178. 

% Mouat, l.e, pp. 310, 333. § Fitzroy, Ic. vol. i., p. 398. 

II Kolben, he. vol. i., p. 243. IT Judges xx. 16. •♦ Wallace's Amazon, p. 466. 


such skill as this ! How true also must the weapons be ! 
Indeed, it is very erident thltt each distinct type of flint 
implement most have been designed for some distinct pur- 
pose. Thus the different forms of arrowhead, of harpoon, or . 
of stone axe, cannot have been intended to be used in the 
same manner. Among the North American TndiauR the 
arrows used in hunting were so made that when the shaft 
was drawn out of the wound the head came out also ; while 
in the war arrows the shaft tapered to Ihe end, so that even 
when it was withdrawn the head of the arrow remained in 
the wound. Again« the different forms of harpoons are 
illustrated by the barbed and unbarbed lances of the Esqui- 
maux {ante^ p. 403). Unfortunately, hqwever, we have but 
few details of this kind ; travellers have generally thought it 
unnecessary to observe or record these apparently unimpor- 
tant details ; and that our knowledge of flint implements is 
most rudimentary, is well shown by the discussion between 
Professors Steenstrup and Worsaae, whether the so-caUed 
**axes" of the shell-mounds were really axes, or whether 
tiiey were not rather used in fishing. 

We may hope, however, that in future those who have the 
opportunity of dbserving stone implements among modem 
savages will give us more detailed information both as to 
the exact manner ia which they are used, and also about 
the way in which they are made ; that they will collect not 
only the weU-made weapons, but also, and even more care- 
fully, the humble implements of every-day life. 

Some archaeologists have argued that the shell-mound 
builders of Denmark must have possessed more formidable 
weapons than any that have yet been found, because it was 
considered impossible that they could have killed large 
game, as for instance the bull cmd seal, with the simple 
weapons of bone and stone, which alone have hitherto been 
discovered. Professor Worsaae, in his well-known work 



" On the Prunaeval Antiquities of Demnark*'* even goes so 
far as to say : ^^ Against birds and other small creatures these 
stone arrows might prove effectual^ but against larger animalsy 
such as the aurochs, the elk, the reindeer, the stag, and the 
wild boar, they were evidently insufficient ; particularly since 
these animals often become furious as soon as they are struck/' 
It is evident that Professor Worsaae is quite mistaken in this 

Mr. Galton informs me that the dexterity with which the 
savages of Southern Africa butcher and cut up large beasts 
with the poorest of knives is really extraordinary. The 
Dammaras had usually nothing but bits of flattened iron 
lashed to handles, or failing these, the edges of their flat 
spears. Yet with these miserable implements they would 
cut up giraffes and rhinoceroses, on which, even with ex- 
cellent knives of European manufacture, Mr. Qulton had 
much difficulty in making any impression. Other savage 
tribes readily cut flesh with pieces of shell or of hard wood. 

The neatness with which the Hottentots, Esquimaux, North 
American Indians, etc., are able to sew is very remarkable, 
although awls and sinews would in our hands be but poor 
substitutes for needles and thread. As already mentioned in 
p. 253, some cautious archaeologists hesitated to refer the rein- 
deer caves of the Dordogne to the Stone age, on account of the 
bone needles and the works of art which are found in them. 
The eyes of the needles especially, they thought, could only 
be made with metallic implements. Professor Lartet ingeni- 
ously removed these doubts by making a similar needle for 
himself with the help of flint ; but he might have referred to 
the fact stated by Cook t in his first voyage, that the New 
Zealanders succeeded in drilling a hole through a piece of 
glass which he had given them, using for this purpose, as he 
supposed, a piece of jasper. 

♦ Page 18. t Vol. iii., p. 464. 


The Brazilians also use ornaments of imperfectly crystallised 
quartz^ from four to eight inches long and about an inch in 
diameter. Hard as it is, they contrive to drill a hole at each 
end, using for that purpose the pointed leaf-shoot of the large 
wild plantain, with sand and water. The hole is generally 
transverse, but the ornaments of the chiefs are actually 
pierced lengthways. This, Mr. Wallace thinks, must be a 
work of years.* 

The works of art found in the Dordogne caves are no 
better than those of the Esquimaux or the North American 
Indians. In fact, the appreciation of art is to be regarded 
rather as an ethnological characteristic than as an indication 
of any particular stage in civilisation. We see, again, that 
in many cases a certain knowledge -of agriculture has pre- 
ceded the use of metals ; and the fortifications of New Zea- 
land, as well as the large morais of the South Sea Islands, 
are arguments in favor of the theory which ascribes some of 
our camps, our great tumuli, and other Druidical remains, to 
the later part of the Stone age. The great morai of Oberea, 
in Tahiti, has been already described (p. 385). Again, the 
celebrated statues of Easter Island are really colossal. One 
of them, which has fallen down, measures twenty-seven feet 
long, and others appear to be even larger. The houses 
of the Ladrone Islanders, also, are very remarkable. The 
larger ones were supported on strong pyramids of stone. 
These were, according to Freycinet,t in one piece, made of 
chalk, sand, or large stones, imbedded in a kind of cement. 
They were found in large numbers ; in t)ne case they formed 
a stone row four hundred yards long. They were first de- 
scribed by Ajison, who saw many which were thirteen feet 
in height ; while one of those seen by Freycinet measured 
as much as twenty feet. They were square at the base, and 
rested on the ground. On each pillar was a hemisphere, 
• Trayelfl on the Amazon, p. 278. f Vol. ii., p. 318. 


with the flat side upwards. The South Sea Islanders aflford, 
indeed, wonderful instances of what can be accomplished with 
stone implements. Their houses are large and often well 
built, and their canoes have excited the wonder of all who 
have seen them. 

Although, then, the use of stone as the principal material 
of implements and weapons may be regarded as charac- 
terising an early stage in the development of civilisation, still 
it is evident that this stage is itself susceptible of much sub- 
division. The Mincopie or the Australian, for instance, is 
not to be compared for an instant with the semi-civilised 
native of the Society Islands. So also in the ancient Stone 
age of Europe, we find evidences of great difference. The 
savage inhabitants of the South French caves had, according 
to MM. Christy and Lartet, no domestic animals, and no know- 
ledge of pottery or agriculture. The shell-mound builders 
of Denmark had the dog ; the Swiss Lake-dwellers also pos- 
sessed this animal, together with the ox, sheep, and pig, 
perhaps even the horse; they had a certain knowledge of 
agriculture, and were acquainted with the art of weaving. 
Thus, then, even when we have satisfied ourselves that any 
given remains belong to the Stone age, we are still but on 
the threshold of our enquiry. 

Travellers and naturalists have varied a good deal in 
opinion as to the race of savages which is entitled to the 
unenviable reputation of being the lowest in the scale of 
civilisation. Cook, Darwin, Fitzroy, and Wallis were de- 
cidedly in favor, if I may so say, of the Fuegian ; Burchell 
maintained that the Bushmen are the lowest ; D'tTrville voted 
for the Australians and Tasmanians ; Dampier thought the 
Australians ''the miserablest people in the world;" Forster 
said that the people of Mallicollo " bordered the nearest upon 
the tribe of monkeys ; " Owen inclines to the Andamaners ; 
others have supported the North American Eoot-diggers ; 

446 DiFFEBEin: lines 

and one Frencli writer even insinuates that monkeyB are 
more human than Laplanders. 

The civilisationy moreover, of the Stone age differs not 
onlj in degree, but also in kind, varying according to the 
climate, vegetation, food, etc; from which it becomes evi- 
dent — at least to all those who believe in the unity of the 
human race — ^that the present habits of savage races are not 
to be regarded as depending directly on those which charac- 
terised the first men, but on the contrary as arising froni 
external conditions, influenced indeed to a certain extent by- 
national character, which however is after all but the result 
of external conditions acting on previous generations. 

If we take a few of the things which are most generally 
useful in savage life, and at the same time most easily ob- 
tainable, such for instance as bows and arrows, slings, throw- 
ing sticks, pottery, domestic animals, or a knowledge of 
agriculture, we might perhaps have expected d priori that 
the acquisition of them would have followed some regular 
succession. That this, however, was not the case is shown 
by the annexed table, which will, I think, be found inte- 
resting. It gives some idea of the progress made by various 
savage tribes, at the time when they were first visited by 

Some of the differences exhibited in this table may indeed 
be easily accounted for. The frozen soil and arctic climate 
of the Esquimaux would not encourage, would not even 
permit, any agriculture. So, again, the absence of hogs in 
New Zealand, of dogs in the Friendly Isles, and of aU 
mammalia in Easter Island, is probably due to the fact that 
the original colonists did not possess these animals, and that 
their isolated position prevented them afterwards from ob- 
taining any. Moreover, we must remember that as a general 
rule, the lowest savage can only use one or two weapons. 
He is limited to those which he can carry about with 




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him, and naturally prefers those which are of most general 
utility.* We cannot, however, in this manner accoimt for 
all the facts. In Columbia, Australia, the Cape of Good 
Hope, and elsewhere, agriculture was imknown before the 
advent of Europeans. Easter Island, on the contrary, 
contained large plantations of sweet potatoes, yams, plan- 
tains, sugar-canes, etc. Yet the Chinooks of Colimibia had 
bows and arrows, fish-hooks, and nets; the Australians 
had throwing sticks, boomerangs, fish-hooks, and nets ; the 
Hottentots had bows and arrows, nets, fish-hooks, pottery, 
and at last even a certain knowledge of iron ; all of which 
seem to have been unknown to the Easter Islanders, all of 
which would have been very useful to them, and, excepting 
the iron, might have been invented and used by them. 

If the case of Easter Island stood alone, the absence of 
bows and arrows might, perhaps, be plausibly accounted for 
by the absence of game, the scarcity of birds, and the 
isolation of the little island, which rendered war almost 
impossible. But such an argument cannot b6 applied to 
other cases which are indicated in the table. Let us com- 
pare, for instance, the Atlantic tribes of North American 
Indians, the Australians, Cafifres, Bushmen, New Zealanders, 
and Society Islanders. All these were constantly at war, 
and the two first lived very much on the produce of the 
chase. They at least had therefore similar wants. Yet 
spears and perhaps clubs were the only weapons which they 
had in common ; the North Americans had good bows and 
arrows, the Society Islanders and Bushmen had bad ones — 
in fact, those of the former were so weak as to be use- 
less in war — the Australians, Caflfres, and New Zealanders 
had none. On the other hand, the Australians had the 
throwing stick and the boomerang; the Society Islanders 

♦ Weapons of war, depending yery mucli on the caprice of chiefs, are probably 
moie liable to change than those used in hunting. 


used slings; and ihe ISew Zealanders, besides yery effec- 
tiye clubsy had numerous and extensive fortifications. It 
is certainly most remarkable thai, tribes so warlike, and in 
many respects so advanced, as the New Zealanders and 
Caffires, should have been ignorant of bows and arrows, 
which were used by many very low races, such as the 
Fuegians, the Chinooks, the Andamaners, and Bushmen; 
particularly as it is impossible to doubt that, the New 
Zealanders at least would have found bows of great use, 
and that any of their tribes, having invented them, would 
have had an immense advantage in the '^ struggle for exist- 
ence.'^ Other similar contrasts will strike any one who 
examines the table ; but perhaps it may be said that some of 
these cases may be explained by the influence of more civi- 
lised neighbours ; that the comparison above-made, for 
instance, might be regarded as unfair, because the New 
Zealanders were an isolated race, while the Chinooks might 
have derived their knowledge of bows and arrows frtwn the 
eastern tribes, and these again might have acquired the art 
of making pottery from the semi-civilised nations of the 
south. No one can deny that* this may be true in some 
instances, because we know that at the present day most 
savages possess hatchets, knives, beads, etc., which they have 
received from traders, and which they cannot yet manufac- 
ture for themselves. 

It is certainly possible that the Chinooks may have derived 
their knowledge of the bow from their northern neighbours ; 
but we can hardly suppose that they did so from the Red 
Indian tribes to the east, because in that case it is difficult to 
understand why they should not also have learnt from these 
the much simpler, and almost equally useful, art of making 
pottery. Moreover there are some cases in which any such 
idea is absolutely out of the question ; thus, the throwing 
stick is used by the Esquimaux, the Australians, and some 



Brazilian tribes, the bolas by tbe Esquimaux and the Pata- 
gonians; the boomerang is peculiar to the Australians,.* 
The "sumpitan^^ or blow-pipe of the Malays occurs again 
in the valley of the Amazons. Again, diflferent races of 
savages have but little peaceful intercourse with one 
another. They are aknost always at war. If their habits 
are similar, they are deadly rivals, fighting for the best 
hunting-grounds or fisheries ; if their wants are diflferent, 
they fight for slaves, for women, for ornaments; or if they 
do not care about any of these, for the mere love of fighting, 
for scalps, heads, or some other recognised emblems of glory. 
In this condition of society each tribe lives in a state either 
of isolation from, or enmity with, its neighbours. Delenda 
est Carthago is the imiversal motto, and savages can only 
live in peace when they have a little world of their own. 
Sometimes a broad sea, or a high range of mountains, at 
others a wide "march'* or neutral territory supply the neces- 
sary conditions, and keep them apart. They meet only to 
fight, and are therefore not likely to learn much from one 
another. Moreover, there are cases in which some tribes 
have weapons which are quite unknown to their neighbours. 
Thus, among the Brazilian tribes we find the bow and arrow, 
the blow-pipe, the lasso, and the throwing stick. The first 
is the most general, but the Barbados use only the blow-pipe, 
the Moxos have abandoned the bow and arrow for the lasso, 
and the Purupurus are distinguished from all their neigh- 
bours by using, not bows and arrows, but the " palheta," or 
throwing stick. Again, the Caflfres have not generally 
adopted the bows and arrows of the Bushmen ; the Esqui- 
maux have not acquired the art of making pottery from the 
North American Indians, nor the southern Columbian tribes 
from the northern Mexicans. 

* The negroes of Niam Niam, however, haye iron crescents resembling boom- 
erangs, which are thrown in war. 


Many, again, of the ruder arts, as for instance the manu- 
facture of pottery and of bows, are so useful, and at the same 
time, however ingenious in idea, so simple in execution, as to 
render it highly improbable that they would ever be lost, 
when they had once been acquired. Yet we have seen that 
the New Zealanders and Caflfres had no bows, and that none 
of the Polynesians had any knowledge of pottery ; though 
it is evident from their skill in other manufactures and their 
general state of civilisation, that they would have found no 
difficulty in the matter, if the manner had once occurred to 
them. Again "bolas" are a most effectual weapon, and there 
is certainly no difficulty in making them, yet the knowledge 
of them appears to be confined to the Patagonians and th^ 
Esquimaux. There can be no doubt that the art of pottery 
has frequently been communicated by one race to another. 
Nevertheless, there are cases, even among existing races,* in 
which we seem to find indications of an independent dis- 
covery; at any rate, in which the art is in a rudimentary stage. 

On the whole, then, from a review of all these, and other 
similar facts which might have been mentioned, it seems to 
me most probable that many of the simpler weapons, imple- 
ments, etc., have been invented independently by various 
savage tribes, although there are no doubt also cases in which 
they have been borrowed by one tribe from another. 

The contrary opinion has been adopted by many writers on 
account of the undeniable similarity existing between the 
weapons used by savages in very different parts of the world. 
But however paradoxical it may sound, though the imple- 
ments and weapons of savages are remarkably similar, they 
are at the same time curiously different. No doubt the 
necessaries of life are simple and similar all over the world. 
The materials also with which man has to deal are very much 
alike ; wood, bone, and to a certain extent stone, have every- 
* See, for instance, p. 394. 

,,.. m i g=g 


where the same propertieB. The obsidian flakes of the 
Aztecs resemble the flint flakes of our ancestors, not so much 
because the ancient Briton resembled the Aztec, as because 
the fracture of flint is like that t)f obsidian. So also the 
pointed bones used as awls are necessarily similar all over the 
world. Similarity exists, in fact, rather in the raw material 
than in the manufactured article, and some even of the simplest 
implements of stone are yery different among different races. 
The adze-like hatchets of the South Sea Islanders are unHke 
those of the Australians or ancient Britons ; the latter again 
differ very much from the type which is characteristic of the 
drift or archseolithic period. 

. Nor are the habits and customs of savages in reality very 
similar. Many, indeed, of those differences which must have 
struck any one in reading the preceding part of the chapter, 
follow evidently and directly from the external conditions in 
which different races are placed. The habits of an Esqui- 
maux and a Hottentot could not possibly be similar. But 
let us take some act which is common to many races, and is 
susceptible of being accomplished in many ways. For in- 
stance, most savages live in part on the flesh of birds ; how is 
this obtained P Generally with bows and arrows ; but while 
the Australians catch birds with the- hand, or kill them with 
the simple spear or the boomerang, the Fuegians have both 
the sling and the bow, while the Esquimaux use a complex 
spear, or a projectile which consists of a number of walrus 
teeth fastened together by short pieces of string, and thus 
forming a kind of bolas. The northern tribes visited by 
Kane used a different method. They caught large numbers 
of birds — especially little auks — in small nets, resembling 
landing nets, with long ivory handles. Yet this very people 
were entirely ignorant of fishing.* 

Take, again, the use made of the dog. At first, probably, 
* Kane. Arctic Explorations, yol. ii., pp. 203, 243. 


the dog and the man hunted together ; the cunning of the 
one supplemented the speed of the other, and they shared 
the produce of their joint exertions. Gradually mind as- 
serted its pre-eminence oyer matter, and the man became 
master. Then the dog was employed in other ways, less 
congenial to his nature. The Esquimaux forced him to draw 
the sledge ; the Chinook kept him for the sake of his wool ; 
the South Sea Islanders, haying no game, bred the dog for 
food ; the Chonos Indians taught him to fish ; where tribes 
became shepherds, their dogs became shepherds also ; finally, 
it is recorded by Pliny that in ancient times troops of dogs 
were trained to serve in war. Even the ox, though less 
versatile than the dog, has been used for the first and the 
two last of these purposes. 

Again, in obtaining fire, two totally dijflTerent methods are 
followed ; some savages, as for instance the Fuegians, using 
percussion, while others, as the South Sea Islanders, rub one 
piece of wood against another. Opinions are divided whether 
we have any trustworthy record of a people without the 
means of obtaining fire. It has been already mentioned 
(p. 355) that, according to Mr. Dove, the Tasmanians, 
though acquainted with fire, did not know how to obtain it. 
In his history of the Ladrone Islands, Father Gobien asserts 
that fire, " an element of such universal use, was utterly un- 
known to them, till Magellan, provoked by their repeated 
thefts, burned one of their villages. When they saw their 
wooden houses blazing, they first thought the fire a beast 
which fed upon wood, and some of them, who came too near, 
being burnt, the rest stood afar off*, lest they shoidd be de- 
voured, or poisoned, by the violent breathings of this terrible 
animal.^' This fact is not mentioned in the original account 
of Magellan's Voyage. Freycinet believes that the assertion of 
Father Gobien is entirely without foundation. The language, 
he says, of the inhabitants contains words for fire, burning. 

454 piRB. 

charcoal, oven, grilling, boiliag, etc. ; and even before the ad- 
vent of the Europeans, pottery* was well known. It is difficult, 
however, to get over the distinct assertion made by Gobien, 
which moreover derives some support from similar statements 
made by other travellers. Thus Alvaro de Saavedra states 
that the inhabitants of certain small islands in the Pacific 
which he called " Los Jardines," but which cannot now be 
satisfactorily determined, stood in terror of fire because they 
had never seen it.f Again, Wilkes tells us J that on the 
island of Fakaafo, which he calls " Bowditch," " there was 
no sign of places for cooking, nor any appearance of fire." 
The natives also were very much alarmed when they saw 
sparks struck from flint and steel. Here, at least, we might 
have thought, was a case beyond question or suspicion ; the 
presence of fire could hardly have escaped observation ; the 
marks it leaves are very conspicuous. If we cannot depend 
on such a statement as this, made by an officer in the United 
States' Navy, in the official report of an expedition sent out 
especially for scientific purposes, we may weU be disheartened, 
and lose confidence in Ethnological investigations. Yet the 
assertions of Wilkes are questioned, and with much appearance 
of justice, by Mr. Tylor. § In the " Ethnography of the United 
States' Exploring Expedition," Hale gives a list of Fakaafo 
words, in which we find afi for " fire." This is evidently the 
same word as the New Zealand ahi ; but as it denotes light 
and heat, as weU as fire, we might suppose that it thus found 
its way into the Fakaafo vocabulary. I should not, there- 
fore, attribute to this argument quite so much force as does 
Mr. Tylor. It is, however, evident that Captain Wilkes did 
npt perceive the importance of the observation, or he wotdd 
certainly have taken steps to determine the question ; and as 
Hale, in his special work on the Ethnology of the expedition, 

♦ Ic. vol. ii., p. 166. t Hackluyt, Soc, 1862, p. 178. 

J United States' Expl. Exped. vol. v., p. 18. § Early History of Mankind, p. 230. 


does not say a word on the subject, it is clear he had no 
idea that the inhabitants of Fakaafo exhibited such an in- 
teresting phenomenon. The fact, if established, would be 
most important^ but it cannot be said to be satisfactorily 
proved that there is at present, or has been within historical 
times, any race of men entirely ignorant of fire. It is at 
least certain that as far back as the earliest Swiss l^ke- villages, 
and Danish shell-mounds, the use of fire was well known in 

There is, again, scarcely any conceivable way in which the 
dead could be disposed of, which has not been adopted in 
some part of the world. Among many the corpse is simply 
buried ; by others it is burned. Some of the North American 
Indians expose their dead on scaffolds in the branches of trees. 
Some tribes deposit them in sacred rivers, others in the sea. 
Among the Sea Dyaks the dead chief is placed in his war 
canoe with his favorite weapons and principal property, and 
is thus turned adrift. Other tribes gave- their dead to be 
food for wild beasts ; and others preferred to eat them them- 
selves. Some Brazilian tribes drink the dead.* " The Ta- 
rianas and Tucanos, and some other tribes, about a month 
after the funeral, disinter the corpse, which is then much 
decomposed, and put it in a great pan or oven, over the fire, 
till all the volatile parts are driven off with a most horrible 
odour, leaving only a black carbonaceous mass, which is 
pounded into a fine powder, and mixed in several large 
conches of caxiri : this is drunk by the assembled company" 
under the full belief that the virtues of the deceased will thus 
be transmitted to the drinkers. The Cobeus also drink the 
ashes of the dead in the same manner. 

Indeed, if there are two possible ways of doing a thing, we 
may be sure that some tribes will prefer one, and some the 
other. It seems natural to us that descent should go in the 
^ Wallace, Trayels on the Amazon, p. 498. 


male line ; but there are very many tribes in wbicli it is traced 
from the mother, not the father. The husband or father 
seems to us to be the natural head of the family ; in Tahiti 
the reverse is the case, and the son enters at once into the 
property and titles of his father, who then holds them only 
as a guardian or trustee ; so that among this extraordinary 
people, not the father, but the son, is in reality the head of 
the family. Among the New Zealanders Mr. Brown assures 
us that the youngest son succeeded to the property of the 
fiither.* There are many races in which those holding cer- 
tain relationships are forbidden to talk to one another, an 
extraordinary superstition which, as we have seen (p. 364), 
reaches its climax among the Feegeeans. 

It seems natural to us that after childbirth, the woman 
should keep her bed ; and that as far as possible the husband 
should relieve her for a time from the labors and cares of 
life. In this, at least, one might have thought that all 
nations would be alike. Tet it is not so. Among the 
Caribs the father, on the birth of a child, took to his 
hammock, and placed himself in the hands of the doctor, 
the mother meanwhile going about her work as usual. A 
similar custom has been observed on the mainland of South 
America ; among the Arawaks of Surinam ; in the Chinese 
province of West Yunnan; it is mentioned by Strabo as 
occurring in his time among the Iberians, and is found even 
in the present day among the Basques, among whom we are 
told that in some of the valleys, the ** women rise immediately 
after childbirth, and attend to the duties of the liousehold, 
while the husband goes to bed, taking the baby with him, 
and thus receives the neighbours' compliments." The same 
habit heus been noticed also in the South of France ; accord- 
ing to Diodorus Siculus it prevailed at his time in Corsica ; 
and finally it " is said still to exist in some cantons of Beam, 
* New Zealand and its Aborigines, p. 26. 


where it is called faire la oouyade." A fiill account of this 
most extraordinary habit will be found in Tyler's Early 
History of Mankind, on the authority of which I make the 
above statements.* 

Again, the love of life — the dread of death — ^are among 
the strongest of our feelings. ''Everything that a man hath, 
he will give in exchange for his life." But this is by no 
means universally the case. According to Azara, the Indians 
of Paraguay have a great indifference to death ; and we have 
already seen that this is the case with the Feegeeans. 
Among the Chinese it is said that a man condemned to death, 
if permitted to do so, may always secure a substitute on pay- 
ment of a moderate sum of money. 

Again, the sounds by which language is constituted differ 
extremely in different parts of the world. The clicks of the 
Hottentots are a striking illustration of this. The Indians of 
Fort au Francais in Columbia, according to M. de Lamanon,t 
make no use of the consonants A, /, x, j\ d, p, or v. The 
Australians did not use the sound conveyed by our letter 8.i 
The Feegeeans do not use the letter c, the Somo-Somo dialect 
has no k, that of Bakiraki anjd other parts no /.§ The 
Society Islanders exclude both 8 and c. || In representing 
the New Zealand language the missionaries found ihem- 
selves able to discard no less than thirteen letters, namely, 
b, c, rf,/, ^,y, /, q, «, t7, X, y, and z. % 

Even the symbols by which the feelings are expressed are 
very different in different races. Kissing appears. to us the 
natural expression of affection ; yet it was entirely unknown 
to the Tahitians,'the New Zealanders,** the Papouans,tt and 
the aborigines of Australia, nor was it in use among the 

* l.e, p. 288. t Yoya^ de la Perouse, vol. il., p. 211. 

J Preycinet, toI. ii., p. 767 ; D'TTrrille, vol. i., p. 188, 199, 481. 

§ Figi and the Figiana, vol. i., p. y., 267. i| Polynesian Reeearches, vol. i., p. 77. 

% Brown. New Zealand and its Aborigines, p. 100. 

•• lyUryille, Tol. iL, p. 661. ft Freycinet, yoL ii., p. 66. 



Esquimaux;* the Tongans and many other Polynesians 
always sit down when speaking to a superior; the in- 
habitants of Mallicollo testify *' admiration by hissing like a 
goose ;"t at Vatavulu it is respectful to turn one's back on a 
superior, especially in addressing him. J According to Frey- 
cinet, tears were recognised in the Sandwich Islands as a 
sign of happiness ;§ and some of the Esquimaux puU noses 
as a token of respect. || Spix and Martins assure us that 
blushing was unknown among the Brazilian Indians; and 
that only after long intercourse with Europeans, does a 
change of color become in them any indication of mental 
emotion. If 

The ideas of virtue are also extremely dissimilar. Neither 
faith, hope, nor charity, enter into the virtues of a savage. 
The Sichuana language contains no expression for thanks; 
the Algonquin had no word for love ; the Tinn^ no word 
for beloved ; mercy was with the North American Indians a 
mistake, and peace an evil; theft, says Catlin, they "call 
capturing ;" humility is an idea which they could not com- 
prehend. Chastity was not reckoned as a virtue by the 
New Zealanders ; ** it was disapproved of, though for very 
different reasons, by some of the Brazilian tribes, by the 
inhabitants of the Ladrones, and by the Andamaners. On 
the other hand, the Australians would have been shocked 
at a man marrying a woman of his own family name ; the 
Abipones thought it a sin for a man to pronounce his own 
name ; the Tahitians thought it very wrong to eat in com- 
pany, and were horrified at an English sailor, who carried 
some food in a basket on his head. This prejudice was also 
shared by the New Zealanders, ft while the Feegeeans, who 

♦ Lyon's Journal^ p. 353. f Cook's Second Voyage, yol. ii., p. 36. 

X Figi and the Figians, vol. i., p. 164. § I.e. toI. ii., pp. 642, 6S9. 

II Ross. Baffin's Bay, p. 118. f Vol. i., p. 376. 

«* Brown. New Zealand and its Aborigines, p. 86. 
ft D'Urville, vol. ii., p. 633. 


were habitual cannibals, who regarded mercy as a weakness, 
and cruelty as a virtue, fully believed that a woman who was 
not tattooed in an orthodox manner during life, could not pos- 
sibly hope for happiness after death. This curious idea is also 
found among the Esquimaux. HaU tells us that they tattoo 
" from principle, the theory being that the lines thus made 
will be regarded in the next world as a sign of goodness.''* 
It seems to the Veddahs the most natural thing in the world 
that a man should marry his younger sister, but marriage 
with an elder one is as repugnant to them as to us. Among 
the Friendly Islanders the chief priest was considered too 
holy to be married; but he had the right to take as many 
concubines as he pleased; and even the chiefs dared not 
refuse their daughters to him. Among the natives of New 
South Wales, though the women wore no clothes, it was 
thought indecent for children to go naked, f 

I cannot indeed but think that the diflferences observable in 
savage tribes, are even more remarkable than the similarities. 

In endeavouring to estimate the moral character of savages, 
we must remember not only that their standard of right and 
wrong was, and is, in many cases, very different from ours : 
but also that, according to the statements of travellers, though 
on this point I must confess that I feel much hesitation, some 
of them can hardly be regarded as responsible beings, and 
have not attained to any notions, however faulty and un- 
defined, of moral rectitude.J But where such notions do 
exist, they differ widely, as we have seen, from our own; 
and it would open up too large a question to enquire whether, 
in all cases, our standard is the correct one. 

In considering the character of women belonging to savage 
or semi-savage races, we must remember that savages re- 
garded the white men as beings of a superior order to them- 

• Life with the Esquimaux, vol. ii., p. 315. f D'TXrville, yol. i. p. 471. 
J See, for instance, Burchell, vol. i., p. 461 


selves. Thus M. Du Chaillu tells \ib, that soma of the Afirican 
savages looked upon him as a superior being ; and the South 
Sea Islanders worshipped Captain Cook as a deity. Even 
when they had killed him, and cut him into small pieces, 
the inhabitants of Owhyhee fiilly expected him to re-appear, 
and frequently asked '^what he would do to them on his 
return."*. However absurd and extravagant such a belief 
may at first sight appear, it must be admitted that it is in 
many respects very natural Savages can only raise their 
minds to the conception of a being a few degrees superior 
to themselves, and Captain Cook was more powerful, wiser, 
and we may add more virtuous, than most of their so-caQed 
*' Deities.'' Under these circumstances, although it must be 
admitted that the chastity of the women is not, as a general 
rule, much regarded among savages, we must not too severely 
condemn them on this account. It is not surprising that 
any connexion with white men is regarded rather as an 
honor than as a disgrace : Europeans hold, in &xst, almost the 
same position in public estimation as did the amorous deities 
of ancient mythology. 

Again, with savages, as with children, time appears longer 
than it does to us, and a temporary marriage as natural and 
honorable as one that is permanent. Hospitality, again, 
is frequently carried so far that it is thought wrong to with* 
hold from a guest anything that might contribute to his 
comfort, and he is accordingly provided with a temporary 
wife for the period of his visit.f Among the Esquimaux it 
is considered a great mark of friendship for two men to 
exchange wives* for a day or two. It has been already men- 
tioned that a Kandyan chief, described by Mr. Bayley, was 
quite scandaHsed at the idea of having only one wife. It 

♦ Cook's Voyage to the Pacific Ocean. By Capt. King, F.R.S. Vol. iii., p. 69. 
t See, for instaneei Wilson's Missionary Voyage, pp. 61, 141, 160, etc ; Frey- 
cinet, vol. ii., p. 119. 



wasy he said, '^ just like monkeys/' When Captain Cook was 

in New Zealand, his companions contracted many temporary 

marriages with the Maori women ; these were arranged in a 

formd and decent maimer, and were regarded, by the New 

Zealanders at any rate, as perfectly regular and innocent.* 

Eegnardt assures us that the Lapps preferred to marry a girl 

that has had a child by a white man, thinking *' that because 

a man, whom they believe to be possessed of a better taste 

than themselves, has been anxious to give marks of his love 

for a girl of their country, she must therefore be possessed of 

some secret merit." Even at the present day, Lady Duff 

Gordon tells us, in her paper on the Cape,{ that "there 

are no so-called 'morals^ among the coloured people, and 

how or why should there P It is an honor to one of these 

girls to have a child by a white man.'* Taking all these 

facts into consideration, the intercourse which has taken 

place between Europeans and women of lower tribes must 

not, I think, be too severely condemned, or rather the blame 

ought to fall on us and not on them. But even among 

savages themselves, we must admit thai female virtue is, in 

many eases, but slightly regarded ; as, indeed, is but natural 

when women themselves are looked upon as little better than 

domestic animals. Among many tribes, for instance the 

South Sea Islanders and the Esquimaux, indecent dances are 

not only common, but are countenanced by women of the 

highest rank, to whom it does not appear to occur that there 

is any harm or impropriety in them. According to IJlloa,§ the 

Brazilians do not approve of chastity in an unmarried woman, 

regarding it as a proof that she can have nothing attractive 

about her. The inhabitants of the Ladrones,|| and of the 

Andaman Islands,^ come to the same conclusion ; in the 

• Cook's First Voyage, vol. iii., p. 460. 

t Pinkerton. Journey to Lapland, yol. i., p. 166. 

J Vacation Tourists, 1863, p. 178. § Pinkerton, vol. xiv., p. 621. 

1 Freycinet, vol. ii., p. 370. f Trans. Ethn. Soc, New Ser., vol. ii., p. 35. 


latter case, however, for a different reason, regarding it as a 
proof of selfishness and pride. Judged by our standards 
these facts are very dreadful ; but we must remember that 
they did not entail on savages the same fatal consequences as 
with us ; and before we condemn them too severely, let us 
remember our own literature and our own morality, even in 
the last century. 

The harsh, not to say cruel, treatment of women, which is 
almost universal among savages, is one of the deepest stains 
upon their character. They regard the weaker sex as beings 
of an inferior order, as mere domestic drudges. Hard work 
and hard fare fall to their lot. Not are their labors and 
sufferings sweetened by any great affection on the part of 
those for whom they work. We have already seen that the 
Algonquins had no word for " love " in their language, and 
that the Tinn^ Indians had no equivalent for "dear" or 
"beloved." Captain Lefroy* says, "I endeavoured to put 
this intelligibly to Nannette, by supposing such an expression 
as ma ch^re femme; ma ch^re fiUe. When at length she 
understood it, her reply was (with great emphasis), * I'disent 
jamais 9a ; i'disent ma femme, ma fiUe.' " Spix and Mar- 
tins t tell us that among the Brazilian tribes, the father has 
scarcely any, the mother only an instinctive affection for the 
child—" iibrigens wachst das Kind, vom Vater gar nicht, von 
der Mutter instinctartig geliebt, jedoch wenig gepflegt auf." 
There can be no doubt that, as an almost universal rule, 
savages are cruel, and the only arguments we can urge in 
their favor are that they are less sensitive to pain than is 
the case with those who spend much of their time in-doors, 
and that in many cases they do not hesitate to inflict upon 
themselves also the most horrible tortures. 

Savages have often been likened to children, but so far as 
intelligence is concerned, a child of four years old is far 

* Bichardson's Arctic Expedition, yol. ii., p. 24. f Beise, vol. i., p. 381. 


superior ; although if we take for comparison a child belong- 
ing to a civilized race at a sufficiently early age, the parallel 
is fair enough. Thus, they have no steadiness of purpose. 
Speaking of the Dogrib Indians, we found, says Richardson,* 
" by experience, that however high the reward they expected 
to receive on reaching their destination, they could not be 
depended on to carry letters. A slight difficulty, the prospect 
of a banquet on venison, or a sudden impulse to visit some 
friend, were sufficient to turn them aside for an indefinite 
length of time." Even among the comparatively civilised 
South Sea Islanders this childishness was very apparent. 
" Their tears indeed, f like those of children, were always 
ready to express any passion that was strongly excited, and 
like those of children they also appeared to be forgotten as 
soon as shed." D'UrviUe also mentions that Tai-wanga, a 
New Zealand chief, cried like a child, because the sailors 
spoilt his favorite cloak, by powdering it with flour. J It is 
not, says Cook, "indeed strange that the sorrows of these 
artless people should be transient, any more than that their 
passions should be suddenly and strongly expressed; what 
they feel, they have never been taught either to disguise or 
suppress, and having no habits of thinking which perpetually 
recal the past, and anticipate the future, they are affected by 
all the changes of the passing hour, and reflect the color of 
the time, however frequently it may vary ; they have no 
project which is to be pursued from day to day, the subject 
of unremitted anxiety and solicitude, that first rushes into 
the mind when they awake in the morning, and is last dis- 
missed when they sleep at night. Yet if we admit that they 
are upon the whole happier than we, we must admit that the 
child is happier than the man, and that we are losers by the 

♦ Arctic Expedition, vol. ii., p. 23. f Cook's First Voyage, p. 103. 

t D'llrville, vol. ii., p. 398. See also Burton's Lake Regions of Central 
Africa, p. 332. 


perfection of our nature, the increase of oar knowledge, and 
the enlargement of onr views/' 

We know the difficulty which children find in pronouncing 
certain sounds : r and / for instance, they constantly confound. 
This is the case also among the Sandwich Islanders and in the 
Ladrones according to Freycinet;* in Yanikoro;t among 
the Dammaras ; X and in the Tonga Islands. § The frequent 
repetition of a syllable is also noticeable in the languages 
of savages, and especially in names. Mr. Darwin observed 
that the Fuegians had great difficulty in comprehending an 
alternative : .and every one must have noticed the tendency 
among savages to form words by reduplication. This also 
is charactenstic of childhood among civilised races. 

Again, some of the most brutal acts which have been 
recorded against them are to be regarded less as instances of 
deliberate cruelty, than of a childish thoughtlessness and im- 
pulsiveness. A striking instance of this is recorded by Byron 
in his narrative of the Loss of the Wager. A cacique of the 
Chonos, who was nominally a Christian, had been out with 
his wife to fish for sea-eggs, and having had little success, 
returned in a bad himiour. " A little boy of theirs, about 
three years old, whom they appeared to be doatingly fond of, 
watching for his father and mother's return, ran into the 
surf to meet them : the father handed a basket of eggs to 
the child, which being too heavy for him to carry, he let it 
fall, upon which the father jumped out of the canoe, and 
catching the boy up in his arms, dashed him with the 
utmost violence against the stones. The poor little creature 
lay motionless and bleeding, and in that condition was taken 
up by the mother, but died soon after." || 

• Vol. ii., pp. 260, 619. f Vol. v., p. 218. 

J Galton. Tropical South Africa, p. 181. 

§ Mariner's Tonga Islands, vol. i., p. 30. 

II Byron's Loss of the Wager. Kerr's Voyages, vol. xvii., p. 874. 


In fact, we may almost sum up this part of the question in 
a few words by saying, as the most general conclusion which 
can be arrived at, that savages have the character of childr^ 
with the passions and strength of men. No doubt diflferent 
races of savages diflfer very much in character. An Esqui- 
maux and a Feegeean, for instance, have little in common. 
But after making every possible allowance for savages, it 
must I think be admitted that they are inferior morally as 
well as in other respects, to the more civilised races. There 
is indeed no atrocious crime, no vice recorded by any tra- 
veller, which might not be paralleled in Europe, but that 
which is with us the exception, is with them the rule ; that 
which with us is condemned by the general verdict of 
society, and is confined to the uneducated and the vicious, is 
among savages passed over almost without condemnation, and 
often treated as a matter of course. Among, the Feegeeans, 
for instance, parricide is not a crime, but a custom, and other 
similar cases have been already mentioned. 

If we now turn to the mental difierences between civil- 
ised and uncivilised races we shall find them very strongly 
marked. Speaking of a Bushman tribe, Burchell observes 
that " whether capable of reflection or not, these indiyiduals 
never exerted it."* The Eev. T. Dove describes the Tas- 
manians as distinguished " by the absence of all moral viewa 
and impressions. Every idea bearing on our origin and des- 
tination as rational beings seems to have been erased from 
their breasts." f It would be easy to fill a volume with the 
evidence of excessive stupidity recorded by different travellers. 
It might be perhaps thought that these were rather instances 
of individual dulness, than any indication of a national cha- 
racteristic ; but in the nature and capacity of a language we 
find a test and measure of the higher minds in a nation. 
Unfortunately, however, travellers have found it difiicult 

* I.e. vol. i., p. 461. t Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science, vol. i., p. 249. 




enough to obtam yocabularies of the words in use; and 
we seldom get any information as to words for which savages 
have no equivalent, or ideas which they do not possess. 
I have, however, already mentioned the deficiency of some 
North American languages in terms of endearment; this 
fact suggests a melancholy condition of the domestic rela- 
tions, but it may here be referred to again as an evidence of 
a low mental, as well as moral, condition. What Spix and 
Martius tell us about the Brasdlian tribes* appears also to be 
true of many, if not of most, savage races. Their vocabulary 
is rich, and they have separate names for the different parts 
of the body, for aU the different animals and plants with 
which they are acquainted, for everything, in factj which 
they can see and handle. Yet they are entirely deficient in 
words for abstract ideas ; they have no expressions for color, 
tone, sex, genus, spirit, etc. So, again, the Tasmanians had 
no word for a tree, though they had a name for eaih species ; 
nor could they express " qualities such as hard, soft, warm, 
cold, long, short, round, etc. : for ' hard ' they would say 
'like a stone;' for 'tail* they would say 'long legs,' etc. ; 
and for * round ' they said * like a ball,' ^ like the moon,' and 
so on."t According to the missionaries, J Fuegians have 
" no abstract terms for expressing the truths of our religion ; " 
and among the North American languages "a term sufficiently 
general to denote an *oak tree' is exceptional." § Even the 
comparatively civilised inhabitants of Tahiti had, according 
to Forster, " no proper words for expressing abstract ideas."|| 
The names for numbers are, however, among the lower races, 
the best, or at least the most easily applicable test of mental 

We have seen that the Esquimaux can only with difficulty 

• Rebe in Brazilien, vol. i., p, 385. J The Voice of Pity, vol. x., p. 162. 

t Milligan. Proc. Boy. Society. Tas- § Latham. Varieties of Man, p. 375. 

mania, vol. iii., p. 281. jj I.e. p. 403. 


count up to ten, and that some individuals cannot go beyond 
five. The Dammaras "in practice, whatever they may 
possess in their language, certainly use no numeral greater 
than three. When they wish to express four, they take to 
their fingers, which are to them as formidable instruments of 
calculation as a sliding rule is to an English schoolboy. 
They puzzle very much after five, because no spare hand 
remains to grasp and secure the fingers that are required 
for units."* Mr. Crawfurd, to whom we are indebted for an 
interesting paper on this subject,t has examined no less than 
thirty Australian languages, and it appears that none of the 
tribes in that vast continent can count beyond four. Ac- 
cording to Mr. Scott N ind, indeed, the numerals used by the 
natives of King George's Sound reach up to five ; but the 
last is merely the word "many." The Brazilian Indians 
count only up to three ; for any higher number they use the 
word "many." J The Cape Yorkers (Australia) can hardly 
be said to go beyond two ; their numerals are as follows : 

One Netat 

Two Naes. 

Three , Naes-netat, 

Four ,. Naes-naes. 

Five Naes-naes-netat, 

Six Nties-naes-naes. 

Again, in the state of their religious conceptions, or rather 
in the absence' of religious conceptions, we get another proof 
of extreme mental inferiority. It has been asserted over 
and over again that there is no race of men so degraded 
as to be entirely without a religion — ^without some idea of a 
deity. So far from this being true, the very reverse is the 
case. Many, we might almost say all, of the most savage 

• Galton's Tropical Africa, p. 133. 

t Ethnological Society's Transactions, New Series, yol. ii., p. 84. 

X Spix and Martins, yol. i., p. 387. 

PBcsBSEBSui...!.. . - wssmgssssBmessi 


races are, according to the nearly universal testimony of 
travellers, in this condition. Much evidence of this has been 
already given, but it would be easy to collect a great many 
other statements to the same effect. Thus Burton states that 
some of the tribes in the Lake districts of Central Africa 
" admit neither God, nor angel, nor devil."* The Tasmanians 
had no word for a creator, f The South American Indians of 
the Gran Chaco are said by the missionaries to have " no reli- 
gious or idolatrous belief or worship whatever ; neither do they 
possess any idea of God, or of a supreme being. They make 
no distinction between right and wrong, and have therefore 
neither fear nor hope of any present or future punishment 
or reward, nor any mysterious terror of some supernatural 
power, whom they might seek to assuage by sacrifices or 
superstitious rites." J According to Burchell,§ the Bachapins 
(Cafees) had no form of worship or religion. They thought 
" that everything made itself, and that trees and herbage grew 
by their own will." They had no belief in a good deity, but 
some vague idea of an evil Being. Indeed the first idea of a 
God is almost always as an evil spirit. In the Pellew Islands, 
Wilson found no religious buildings, nor any sign of religion. 
According to Spix and Martius, the Brazilian Indians believed 
•in the existence of a devil, but not of a God. || Some of the 
tribes, according to Bates and Wallace, were entirely without 
religion. The Yenadies and the Villees are, according to 
Dr. Short, entirely without any belief in a future state. ^ 
Captain Grant could find "no distinct form of religion" in 
some of the comparatively civilised tribes visited by him.** 
And, again. Hooker tells us that the Lepchas of Northern 
India have no religion. The Toupinambas of Brazil had no 

• Transactions of the Ethnological § Trayelsin S Africa, vol. ii., p. 550. 

Society, New Series, vol. i., p. 323. |) Reise in Brasilien, vol. i., p. 379. 

t Rev. T. Dove. Tasmanian Journal % Proceedings of Madras Govemment, 

of Science, vol. i., p. 249. Revenue Department, May, 1864. 

{ Voice of Pity, vol. ix., p. 220. ♦• A Walk across Africa, p. 145. 


religion, though if the name is applied ^^k des notions fantas- 
tiques d'fetres sumaturels at puissans, on ne sauroit nier 
qu'ils n'eussent une croyance r^ligieuse et m^me une sorte de 
eulte ext^rieur." They believed in the eidstence of a heaven 
for those who had killed and eaten many of their enemies ; 
while those who were effeminate would be compelled to dwell 
" avec Aygnan (le diable), aupres duquel elles sont perp^tu- 
ellement tourment^es."* Moreover, we must remember that 
most travellers start with an entirely opposite impression* 
and are only convinced against their will. We have already 
observed a case of this kind in Kolben, who, in spite of the 
assertions of the natives themselves, felt quite sure that 
certain dances must be of a religious character, "let the 
Hottentots say what they will." Again, Mr. Matthews, who 
went out to act as missionary among the Fuegians, but was 
soon obliged to. abandon the hopeless taisk, observed only one 
act, " which could be supposed devotionaL" He sometimes, 
we are told, "heard a great howling or lamentation, about 
sunrise in the morning; and upon asking Jemmy Button 
what occasioned the outcry, he could obtain no satisfactory 
answer; the boy only saying, 'people very sad, cry very 
much.' " This appears so natural and sufficient an explana- 
tion, that why the outcry should be ** supposed devotional," 
I must confess myself unable to see. Once more. Dr. 
Hooker states that the Khasias, an Indian tribe, had no 
religion. Col. Yule,* on the contrary, says that they have> 
but he admits that breaking hen's eggs is "the principal 
part of their religious practice." But if most travellers 
have expect<Ki to find a religion everywhere, and have been 
convinced, almost against their will, that the reverse is the 
case; it is quite possible that there may have been others 
who have too hastily denied the existence of a religion 

♦ Freycinet, yoI. i., p. 153. f Yule. On the Khasia HilLs and People, p. 18. 


among the tribes they visited. However this may be, those 
who assert that even the lowest savages believe in a Deity, 
affirm that which is entirely contrary to the evidence. The 
direct testimony of travellers on this point is indirectly cor- 
roborated by their other statements. How, for instance, can 
a people who are unable to count their own fingers, possibly 
raise their mind so far as to admit even the rudiments of a 
religion.* The fetish worship, which is so widely prevalent 
in Africa, can hardly be called a religion; and even the 
South Sea Islanders, who were in many respects so highly 
civilised, are said to have been seriously offended with their 
Deity if they thought that he treated them with undue 
severity, or without proper consideration. According to 
Kotzebue, the Kamtschatkans adored their deities "when 
their wishes were fulfilled, and insulted them when their 
affairs went amiss." f When the missionaries introduced a 
printing-press into Feegee "the heathen at once declared 
it to be a God." J 

The savage almost everywhere is a believer in witchcraft. 
Confusing together subjective and objective relations, he 
is a prey to constant fears. Nor is the belief in sorcery 
altogether shaken off even by the most civilised nations. 
James the First was imder the impression that by melting 
little images of wax " the persons that they bear the name 
of may be continually melted or dried away by continual 
sickness." As regards pictures, the most curious fancies 
exist among savage races. They have a very general dislike to 
be represented, thinking that the artist thereby acquires some 
mysterious power over them. If the picture is like, so much 
the worse. So much life, they argue, could not be put into 
the drawing except at the expense of the original. Kane axk 

* See, for instance, Grey^s Creed of Christendomi p. 212. 

t New Voyage Bound the World, toI. ii., p. 13, 

X Figi and the Figians, toI. ii., p. 222. 


one occasion freed himself from some importunate Indians, 
by threatening to draw them if they did not go away. I 
have already mentioned (p. 425) the danger in which Catlin 
found himself from sketching a chief in profile, and thereby 
as it was supposed depriving him of half his face. So again 
a mysterious connexion is supposed to exist between a cut 
lock of hair and the person to whom it belonged. In various 
parts of the world the sorcerer gets clippings of the hair of 
his enemy, parings of his nails or leavings of his food, con- 
vinced that whatever evil is done to these, will react on their 
former owner. Even a piece of clothing, or the ground on 
which a person has trodden, will answer the purpose, and 
among some tribes the mere knowledge of a person's name 
is supposed to give a mysterious power. The Indians of 
British Columbia have a great horror of telling their names. 
Among the Algonquins a person's real name is communicated 
only to his nearest relations and dearest friends: the (filter 
world address him by a kind of nickname. Thus, the true 
name of La Belle Saiivage was not Pocahontas, but Matokes, 
which they were afraid to communicate to the English. In 
some tribes these name-fancies take a diflferent form. Ac- 
cording to Ward, it is an unpardonable sin for a Hindoo 
woman to mention the name of her husband. The Kaffirs 
have a similar custom, and so have some East African tribes. 
In many parts of the world the names of the dead are 
avoided with superstitious horror. This is the case in great 
parts of North and South America, in Siberia, among the 
Papuans and Australians, and even in Shetland, where it is 
said that widows are very reluctant to mention their departed 

Throughout Australia, among some of the Brazilian tribes, 
in parts of Africa, and in various other countries, natural 
death is regarded as an impossibility. In the New Hebrides 
^* when a man fell ill, he knew that some sorcerer was bum- 


ing his rubbish, and shell-trumpets, which could be heard 
for miles, were blown to signal to the sorcerers to stop, and 
wait for the presents which would be sent next morning. 
Night after night, Mr. Turner used to hear the melancholy 
too-tooing of the shells, entreating the wizards to stop 
plaguing their victims."* Savages never know but what 
they may be placing themselves in the power of these terrible 
enemies.t The sufferings and privations which they thus 
undergo, the horrible tortures which they sometimes inflict 
on themselves, and the crimes which they are led to commit, 
are melancholy in the extreme. It is not too much to say 
that the horrible dread of unknown evil hangs like a thick 
cloud over savage life, and embitters every pleasure. 

Perhaps it will be thought that in the preceding chapter I 
have selected from various works all the passages most un- 
favorable to savages, and that the picture I have drawn of 
them is unfair. In reality the very reverse is the case. 
Their real condition is even worse and ;inore abject than that 
which I have endeavoured to depict. I have been careful to 
quote only from trustworthy authorities, but there are many 
things stated by them which I have not ventured to repeat ; 
and there are other facts which even the travellers themselves 
were ashamed to publish. 

♦ Tylor, I.e. p. 129; Turner's Polynesia, pp. 18, 89, 424. 
t See Brown. New Zealand and its Aborigines, p. 80. 




I HAVE already expressed my belief that^ the simpler arts 
and implements have been independently invented by 
various tribes, and in very different parts of the world. Even 
at the present day we may, I think, obtain glimpses of the 
manner in which they were, or may have been, invented. Some 
monkeys are said to use clubs, and to throw sticks and stones 
at those who intrude upon them. We know that they use 
round stones for cracking nuts, and surely a very small step 
would lead from that to the application of a sharp stone for 
cutting. When the edge became blunt, it would be thrown 
away, and another chosen ; but after awhile accident, if not 
reflection, would show, that a roimd stone would crack other 
stones, as well as nuts, and thus the savage would learn to 
make sharp-edged stones for himself. At first, as we see in 
the drift specimens, these would be coarse and rough, but 
gradually the pieces chipped off would become smaller, the 
blows would be more cautiously and thoughtfully given, and 
at length it would be found that better work might be done 
by pressure than by blows. From pressure to polishing 
would again be but a small step. In making flint imple- 
ments sparks would be produced ; in polishing them it would 
not fail to be observed that they became hot, and in this 
way it is easy to see how the two methods of obtaining fire 
may have originated. 


The chimpanzee builds himself a house or shelter almost 
equal to that of some sayages. Our earliest ancestors there- 
fore may have had this art ; but even if not, when they 
became hunters, and as we find to be the case with all 
hunting tribes, supplemented the inefficiency of their wea- 
pons by a wonderful acquaintance with the manners and 
customs of the animals on which they preyed, they could not 
fail to observe, and perhaps to copy, the houses which 
various species of animals construct for themselves. 

The Esquimaux have no pottery ; they use hollow stones 
as a substitute, but we have seen how they sometimes improve 
upon these by a rim of clay. To extend this rim, diminish, 
and at last replace the stone, is an obvious process. In 
hotter countries, vessels of wood, or the shells of fruits such 
as cocoa-nuts and gourds, are used for holding liquids. 
These of course will not stand fire, but by plastering them 
on the outside with clay they would be enabled to do so. 
There is some evidence that this obvious improvement has 
been made by several separate tribes even in modem times.* 
Other similar cases might be mentioned, in which by a very 
simple and apparently obvious process, an important improve- 
ment is secured. It seems very improbable that any such 
advantage should ever be lost again. There is no evidence, 
says Mr. Tylor,t "of any tribe giving up the use of the 
spindle to twist their thread by hand, or having been in the 
habit of working the fire-drill with a thong, and going back 
to the clumsier practice of working it without^ and it is even 
hard to fancy such a thing happening.'' What follows from 
this argimient ? Evidently that the lowest races of existing 
savages must, always assuming the common origin of the 
human race, be at least as far advanced as were our ancestors 
when they spread over the earth's surface* 

♦ See Tylor, Early History of Mankind, p. 269. f U, p. 564, 


What, then, must have been their condition ? They were 
ignorant of pottery, for the Esquimaux, the Polynesians, the 
Australians, some North and South American tribes, and 
many other savage races, have none even now, or at least 
had none until quite lately. They had no bows and arrows, 
for these weapons were unknown to the Australians and New 
Zealanders ; their boats for the same reason must have been 
of the rudest possible character ; they were naked, and igno- 
rant of the art of spinning; they had no knowledge of 
agriculture, and probably no domestic animal but the dog, 
though here the argument is weaker, inasmuch as experience 
is more portable than property. It is, however, in my 
opinion, most probable that the dog was long the only domes- 
ticated animal. Of the more unusual weapons, such as the 
boomerang, blowpipe, bolas, etc., they were certainly igno- 
rant. The sling and the throwing-stick were doubtless 
unknown, and even the shield had probably not been in- 
vented. The spear, which is but a development of the knife- 
point, and the club, which is but a long hammer, are the 
only things left by this line of argument. They seem to be 
the only natural and universal weapons of man. 

We might be disposed to wonder how man was at first 
able to kill game ; but wie must remember that if man was 
unskilful, animals were unsuspicious. The tameness of the 
birds on uninhabited islands is well known ; the wariness of 
animals 'and the skill of man must have increased almost 
pari passu. 

The same argument may be applied to the mental con- 
dition of savages. That our earliest ancestors could have 
counted to ten is very improbable, considering that so many 
races now in existence cannot get beyond four. On the 
other hand it is very improbable that man can have existed 
in a lower condition than that thus indicated. So long, 
indeed, as he was confined to the tropics, he may have found 


a succession of fruits, and have lived as the monkeys do now. 
Indeed, according to Bates, this is the case with some of the 
Brazilian Indians. ^The monkeys" he says 'Uead in fact 
a life similar to that of the Far&rauate Indians." Directly, 
however, our ancestors spread into temperate climates, this 
mode of life would hecome impossible, and they would be 
compelled to seek their nourishment, in part at least, from 
the animal kingdom. Then, if not before, the knife and the 
hammer would develop into the spear and the club. 

It is too often supposed that the world was peopled by a 
aeries of " migrations." But migrations, properly so called, 
are compatible only with a comparatively high state of or- 
ganisation. Moreover, it has been observed that the geo- 
graphical distribution of the various races of man curiously 
coincides with that of other races of animals : and there can 
be no doubt that man originally crept over the earth's sur- 
face, little by little, year by year, just for instance as the 
weeds of Europe are now gradually but surely creeping 
over the surface of Australia. 

The preceding argument assumes, of course, the unity of 
the hiunan race. It would, however, be impossible for me 
to end this volume without saying a few words on this great 
question. It must be admitted that the principal varieties 
of mankind are of great antiquity. We find on the earliest 
Egyptian monuments, some of which are certainly as ancient 
as 2400 B.C., " two great distinct types, the Arab on the east 
and west of Egypt, and the Negro on the south; and the 
Egyptian type occupying a middle place between the two. 
The representations of the monuments, although conven- 
tional, are so extremely characteristic that it is quite impos- 
ble to mistake them." These distinct types still predominate 
in Egypt and the neighbouring countries. Thus, then, says 
Mr. Poole, in this immense interval we do not find ^^ the least 
change in the Negro or the Arab ; and even the type which 


e intermediate between them is virtually as Tin- 
hose who consider that length of time can change 
j{ man, will do well to consider the fact that three 
ind years give no ratio on which a calculation could be 

inded.'' * I am, however, not aware that it is supposed by 
any school of Ethnologists that " time " alone, without a 
change of external conditions, will produce an alteration of 
type. Let us turn now to the instances relied on by Mr. 
Crawfurd.f The millions, he says, "of African Negroes 
that have during three centuries been transported to the 
New World and its islands, are the same in color as the 
present inhabitants of the parent coimtry of their forefathers. 
The Creole Spaniards, who have for at least as long a time 
been settled in tropical America, are as fair as the people of 
Arragon and Andalusia, with the same variety of color in 
the hair and eye as. their progenitors. The pure Dutch 
Creole colonists of the Cape of Good Hope, after dwelling 
two centuries among black Caflfres and yeUow Hottentots, do 
not differ in color from the people of Holland/' Here, on 
the contrary, we have great change of circumstances, but 
a very insufficient lapse of time, and in fact there is no 
well-authenticated case in which these two requisites are 
united. But Mr. Crawfurd goes too far when he denies 
altogether any change of type. In spite of the compara- 
tively short time which has elapsed, and of the immense 
immigration which has been kept up, there is already a 
marked diflference between the English of Europe and those 
of America, and it would be desirable to enquire, whether 
in their own eyes, the Negroes of the New World exactly 
resemble those of Africa. 

But there are some reasons which make it probable that 
changes of external condition, or rather of country, produce 

♦ Poole. Trans. Ethn, Soc. New Ser. toI. ii., p. 261. 
t Crawfurd. Trans. Ethn. Soc. New Ser. vol. ii., p. 262. 


less effect now than was formerly the case. At present, 
when men migrate they carry with them the manners and 
appliances of ciyiUsed life. They build houses more or less 
like those to which they have been accustomed, carry with 
them flocks and herds, and introduce into their new country 
the principal plants which served them for food in the old. 
If their new abode is cold they increase their clothing, if 
warm they diminish it. In these and a thousand other ways 
the effect which would otherwise be produced is greatly 

But, as we have seen, this has not always been the case. 
When man first spread over the earth, he had no domestic 
animals, perhaps not even the dog ; no knowledge of agricul- . 
ture ; his weapons were of the rudest character, and his 
houses scarcely worthy of the name. His food, habits, and 
whole manner of life must then have varied as he passed 
from one country to another, he must have been far more 
subject to the influence of external circumstances, and in all 
probability more susceptible of change. Moreover, his form, 
which is now stereotyped by long ages of repetition, may 
reasonably be supposed to have been itself more plastic than 
is now the case. 

If there is any truth in this view of the subject, it will 
necessarily follow that the principal varieties of man are of 
great antiquity, and in fact go back almost to the very origin 
of the human race. We may then cease to wonder that the 
earliest paintings on Egyptian tombs represent so accurately 
several varieties still existing in those regions, and that the 
Engis skull, probably the most ancient yet found in Europe, 
so closely resembles many that may be seen even at the 
present day. 

This argument has been carried still farther by Mr. Wal- 
lace in an admirable memoir on "The Origin of Human 
Races and the Antiquity of Man deduced from the theory of 


Natural Selection." * He has attempted to reconcile the two 
great schools of ethnologists who hold opinions "so dia- 
metrically opposed to each other ; the one party positively 
maintaining that man is a species, and is essentially one — 
that all differences are but local and temporary variations, 
produced by the different physical and moral conditions by 
which he is surrounded; the other party maintaining with 
equal confidence that man is a genus of many species, each of 
which is practically unchangeable, and has ever been as 
distinct, or even more distinct, than we now behold them." 
Mr. Wallace himself holds the former of these theories, 
although admitting that at present apparently "the best of 
the argument is on the side of those who maintain the 
primitive diversity of man," and he shows that the true 
solution of this difficulty lies in the theory of Natural Selec- 
tion, which with characteristic unselfishness he ascribes un- 
reservedly to Mr. Darwin, although, as is well known, he 
struck out the idea independently and published it, though 
not with the same elaboration, at the same time. 

After explaining the true nature of the theory, which it 
must be confessed, is even yet very much misimderstood, he 
points out that as long as man led what may be called an 
animal existence, he would be subject to the same laws, and 
would vary in the same manner as the rest of his fellow- 
creatures, but that at length "by the capacity of clothing 
himself, and making weapons and tools (he) has taken away 
from nature that power of changing the external form and 

structure which she exercises over all other animals 

From the time, then, when the social and sympathetic feel- 
ings came into active operation, and the intellectual and 
moral faculties became fairly developed, man would cease to 
be influenced by natural selection in his physical form and 

♦ Anthropplogical Reyiew, May, 1884. 


structure ; as an animal he would remain almost stationary ; 
the changes of the surrounding universe would cease to have 
upon him that powerful modifying eflTect which it exercises 
over other parts of the organic world. But from the 
moment that his body became stationary, his mind would 
become subject to those very influences from which his body 
had escaped ; every slight variation in his mental and moral 
nature which should enable him better to guard against 
adverse circumstances, and combine for mutual comfort and 
protection, would be preserved and accumulated ; the better 
and higher specimens of our race would therefore increase and 
spread, the lower and more brutal would give way and suc- 
cessively die out, and that rapid advancement of mental 
organisatipn would occur, which has raised the very lowest 
races of men so far above the brutes, (although differing so 
little from some of them in physical structure), and, in 
conjunction with scarcely perceptible modifications of form, 
has developed the wonderful intellect of the Germanic 

Mr. Wallace appears to me, however, to press his argu- 
ment a little too far when he says that man is no longer 
"influenced by natural selection," and that his body has 
•'become stationary." Slow and gradual changes still 
take place, although his "mere bodily structure" long 
ago became of less importance to man than "that subtle 
force we term mind." This, as Mr. Wallace eloquently 
says, "with a naked and unprotected body, this gave him 
clothing against the varying inclemencies of the seasons. 
Though unable to compete with the deer in swiftness, or 
with the wild bull in strength, this gave him weapons where- 
with to capture or overcome both. Though less capable than 
most other animals of living on the herbs and the fruits that 
unaided nature supplies, this wonderful faculty taught hi'in 
to govern and direct nature to his own benefit, and make her 


produce food for him when and where he pleased. From the 
moment wh^n the first skin was used as a covering, when 
the first rude spear was formed to assist in the chase, the 
first seed sown or shoot planted, a grand revolution was 
effected in nature, a revolution which in all the previous ages 
of the world's history had had no parallel, for a being had 
arisen who was no longer necessarily subject to change with 
the changing universe, — a being who was in some degree 
superior to nature, inasmuch as he knew how to control 
and regulate her action, and could keep himself in harmony 
with her, not by a change in body, but by an advance in 

" Here, then, we see the true grandeur and dignity of man. 
On this view of his special attributes, we may admit that 
even those who claim for him a position and an order, a 
class, or a sub-kingdom by himself, have some reason on 
their side. He is, indeed, a being apart, since he is not 
influenced by the great laws which irresistibly modify all 
other organic beings. Nay, more: this victory which he 
has gained for himself gives him a directing influence over 
other existences. Man has not only escaped ' natural selec- 
tion' himself, but he is actually able to take away some of 
that power from nature which, before his appearance, she 
tmiversally exercised. "We can anticipate the time when the 
earth will produce only cultivated plants and domestic ani- 
mals ; when man's selection shall' have supplanted * natural 
selection ; ' and when the ocean will be the only domain in 
which that power can be exerted, which for countless cycles 
of ages ruled supreme over the earth." 

Thus, then, the great principle of Natural Selection, which 
is to biology what the law of gravitation is for astronomy, not 
only throws an unexpected light on the past, but illuminates 
the future with hope; nor can I but feel surprised that a 
theory which thus teaches us humility for the past, faith in 



the present, and hope for the future, should have been re- 
garded as opposed to the principles of Christianity or the 
interests of true religion. 

But even if the theory of "natural selection" should event- 
ually prove to be untenable, and if those are right who believe 
that neither our minds nor our bodies are susceptible of any 
important change, any great improvement, still I think we are 
justified in believing that the happiness of man is greatly on 
the increase. It is generally admitted that if any animal 
increases in nimibers it must be because the conditions are 
becoming more favorable to it, in other words, because it is 
happier and more comfortable. Now, how will this test 
apply to man P Schoolcraft estimates* that in a population 
which lives on the produce of the chase, each hunter requires 
on an average 50,000 acres, or 78 square miles, for his sup- 
port. Again, he tells usf that, excluding Michigan territory, 
west of Lake Michigan, and north of Illinois, there were in 
the United States, in 1826, about 97,000 Indians, occupying 
77,000,000 of acres, or 120,312 square miles. This gives one 
inhabitant to every 1^ square miles. In this case, however, 
the Indians lived partly on the subsidies granted them by 
Government in exchange for land, and the population was 
therefore greater than would have been the case if they had 
lived entirely on the produce of the chase. The same reason 
affects, though to a smaller extent, the Indians in the Hud- 
son's Bay territory. These tribes were estimated by Sir 
George Simpson, late Governor of the territories belonging 
to the Hudson's Bay Company, in his evidence given before 
the Committee of the House of Conmions, in 1867, at 
139,000, and the extent is supposed to be more than 
1,400,000 square miles, to which we must add 13,000 more 
for Vancouver's Island, making a total of more than 

* Indian Tribes, toI. L, p. 483. f l,e, toL iii., p. 675. 


900,000,000 of acres ; about 6,500 acres, or 10 square miles, 
to each individual. Again, the inhabitants of Patagonia, 
south of 40°, and exclusive of Chiloe and Tierra del Puego, 
are estimated by Admiral Fitzroy at less than 4,000, and the 
number of acres is 176,640,000, giving more than 44,000 
acres, or 68 square miles for each person: A writer in the 
" Voice of Pity," however, thinks that their numbers may, 
perhaps, amount to 14,000 or 16,000.* It would be difficult 
to form any census of the aborigines in Australia ; Mr. Old- 
field estimates that there is one native to every 50 square 
miles;! and it is, at least, evident that, since the introduc- 
tion of civilisation, the total population of that continent has 
greatly increased. 

Indeed, population invariably increases with civilisation. 
Paraguay, with 100,000 square miles, has from 300,000 to 
500,000 inhabitants, or about four to a square mile. The 
uncivilised parts of Mexico contained 374,000 inhabitants in 
675,000 square miles; while Mexico proper, with 833,600 
square miles, had 6,691,000 inhabitants. Naples had more 
than 183 inhabitants to each square mile; Yenetia more 
than 200, Lombardy 280, England 280, Belgium as many 
as 320. 

Finally, we cannot but observe that, under civilisation, 
the means of subsistence have increased, even more rapidly 
than the population. Far from suffering for want of food, 
the more densely peopled coimtries are exactly those in 
which it is, not only absolutely, but even relatively most 
abxmdant. It is said that any one who makes two blades of 
grass grow where one grew before, is a benefactor to the 
human race ; what, then, shall we say of that which enables 
a thousand men to live in plenty, where one savage could 
scarcely find a Scanty and precarious subsistence P 

• le, Tol. ii., p. 98. t Trans. Ethn. Soc, New Ser., toI. iii., p. 220, 


There are, indeed, many who doubt whether happiness 
is increased by ciyilisation, and who talk of the free and 
noble sayage. But the true savage is neither free nor 
noble; he is a slave to his own wants, his own passions; 
imperfectly protected from the weather, he suffers from the 
cold by night and the heat of the sun by day ; ignorant of 
agriculture, living by the chase, and improvident in success, 
hunger always stares him in the fEtce, and often drives him 
to the dreadM alternative of cannibalism or death. 

Wild aniTnalfl are always in danger. Mr. Galton, who is 
so well qualified to form an opinion, believes that the life of 
aU beasts in their wild state is an exceedingly anxious one ; 
that "every antelope in South Africa has literally to run 
for its life once in every one or two days upon an average, 
and that he starts or gallops under the influence of a false 
alarm many times in a day.''* So it is with the savage ; he 
is always suspicious, always in danger, always on the watch. 
He can depend on no one, and no one can depend upon him. 
He expects nothing from his neighbour, and does unto others 
as he believes that they would do unto him. Thus his life 
is one prolonged scene of selfishness and fear. Even in his 
religion, if he has any, he creates for himseK a new source of 
terror, and peoples the world with invisible enemies. The 
position of the female savage is even more wretched than 
that of her master. She not only shares his sufferings, but 
has to bear his ill-himiour and ill-usage. She may truly be 
said to be little better than his dog, a little dearer than his 
horse. In Australia, Mr. Oldfield never saw a woman's 
grave, and does not think that the natives took the trouble 
to bury them. But, indeed, he believes that few of them 
are so fortunate as to die a natural death, " they being 
generally despatched ere they become .old and emaciated, 

• Trans. Ethn. Soe., I^ew Ser., toI. iii., p. 133. 


that so much good food may not be lost. .... In fine, so 
little importance is attached to them, either before or after 
death, that it may be doubted whether the man does not 
yalue his dog, when aliye, quite as much as he does his 
woman, and think of both quite as often and lovingly after 
he has eaten them."* 

Not content, howeyer, with those incident to their mode of 
life, sayages appear to take a melancholy pleasure in self- 
inflicted sufferings. Besides the yery general practice of 
tattooing, the most extraordinary methods of disfigurement 
and self-torture are adopted ; some cut off the little finger, 
some make an immense hole in the under lip, or pierce the 
cartilage of the nose. The Easter Islanders enlarge their 
ears till they come down to their shoulders ; the Ghinooks, 
and many other American tribes, alter the shape of their 
heads ; the Chinese that of their feet. Some of the African 
tribes chip their teeth in various manners, each community 
haying a fashion of its own. The Nyambanas, a division of 
the Caffres, are characterised by a row of artificial pimples or 
warts, about the size of a pea, and extending from the upper- 
part of the forehead to the tip of the nose. '^ Of these they 
are proud.'^t Some of the Bachapins, who have distinguished 
themselves in battle, are allowed the privilege of marking 
^' their thigh with a long scar, which is rendered indelible 
and of a bluish color, by means of wood ashes rubbed into 
the fresh wound.'' X ^ Australia, Captain King saw a native 
ornamented with horizontal scars which extended across the 
upper part of the chest. They were at least an inch in 
diameter and protruded half an inch from the body.$ In 
some parts of Australia, and in Tasmania, all the men have 

• Trans. Etim. Soe., New Ser., rol t Baroh«ll, U. vol. iL, pp. 476, 686. 

iii., p. 248. f Narrative of a Survey of the Inter- 

t United States' Eipbring Expe- tropical and Weatem Coa«ti of Auitra- 

dition, Tol. i., p. 63. li^ p. 42. 



a tooth knocked out in a very clumsy and painful manner.* 
" The inhabitants of Tanna haye on their arms and bellies 
elevated scars, representing plants, flowers, stars, and various 
other figures. They are made by first cutting the skin with 
a sharp bamboo reed, and then applying a certain plant to 
the woimd which raises the scar above the rest of the skin. 
The inhabitants of Tazavan, or Formosa, by a very painM 
operation impress on their naked skins various figures of 
trees, flowers, and aninuds. The great men in Ghiinea have 
their skin flowered like damask ; and in Decan the women 
likewise have flowers cut into their flesh on the forehead, the 
arms, and the breast, and the elevated scars are painted in 
colors, and exhibit the appearance of flowered damask."t 
The native women in New South "Wales used to tie a string 
tightly round the little finger and wear it until the finger 
rotted off. Few of these escaped the painful experience. J 
The North American Indians also inflicted the most horrible 
tortures upon themselves. These, and many other curious 
practices, are none the less painful because they are 

If we turn to the bright side of the question, the whole 
analogy of nature justifies us in concluding that the pleasures 
of civilised man are greater than those of the savage. As 
we descend in the scale of organisation, we find that animals 
become more and more vegetative in their characteristics ; 
with less susceptibility to pain, and consequently less capacity 
for happiness. It may, indeed, well be doubted whether 
some of those beings, which from their anatomy we are com- 
pelled to class as animals, have much more consciousness of 
enjoyment, or even of existence, than a tree or a seaweed. 
But even to animals which possess a clearly defined nervous 
system, we must ascribe very different degrees of sensibUity. 

* Frejoinet, yoI. ii., p. 705. f Fonter, U, p. 688. % D'TJryille, yol. i., p. 406. 


The study of the sensory organs in the lower animals o£fer8 
great difficulties; but at least we know that they are, in 
many cases, few in number, and capable of conveying only 
general impressions. Every one will admit that the posses- 
sion of a new sense, or the improvement of an old one, is a 
fresh source of possible happiness ; but how, it may be asked, 
does this affect the present question? There are no just 
grounds for expecting man to be ever endued with a sixth 
sense ; so far from being able to improve the organisation of 
the eye or the ear, we cannot make one hair black or white, 
nor add one cubit to our stature. The invention of the tele- 
scope and microscope is, however, equivalent in its results to 
an immense improvement of the eye, and opens up to us new 
worlds; fresh sources of interest and happiness. Again, 
we cannot alter the physical structure of the ear, but we can 
train it, we can invent new musical instruments, compose 
new melodies. The music of savages is rude and melancholy ; 
and thus, though the ear of man may not have appreciably 
altered, the pleasure which we may derive from it has been 
immensely increased. Moreover, the savage is like a child 
who sees and hears only that which is brought directly before 
him, but the civilised man questions nature, and by the 
various processes of chemistry, by electricity, and magnetism, 
by a thousand ingenious contrivances, he forces nature to 
throw light upon herself, discovers hidden uses and unsus- 
pected beauties, almost as if he were endowed with some 
entirely new organ of sense. 

The love of travel is deeply implanted in the human 
breast; it is an immense pleasure to visit other countries, 
and see new races of men. Again, the discovery of printing 
brings all who choose into communion with the greatest 
minds. The thoughts of a Shakespeare or a Tennyson, the 
discoveries of a Newton or a Darwin, become at once the 
common property of mankind. Already the results of this 


all-important, though simple, process have been eqaivalent 
to an immense improvement of our mental faculties, and day 
by day as books become cheaper, schools are established, and 
education is improved, a greater and greater eflfect will be 

The well-known proverb against looking a gift horse in 
the mouth does not apply to the gifts of nature ; they will 
bear the closest inspection, and the more we examine, the 
more we shall find to admire. Nor are these new sources of 
happiness accompanied by any new liability to suffering ; on 
the contrary, while our pleasures are increased, our pains are 
lessened ; iu a thousand ways we can avoid or diminish evils 
which to our ancestors were great and inevitable. How 
much misery, for instance, has been spared to the human 
race by the single discovery of chloroform ? The capacity 
for pain, so far as it can serve as a warning, remains in fall 
force, but the necessity for endurance has been greatly 
diminished. With increased knowledge of, and attention 
to, the laws of health, disease will become less and less fre- 
quent. Those tendencies thereto which we have derived 
from our ancestors, will gradually die out; and if fresh 
seeds are not sown, our race may one day realise the 
advantages of health. 

Thus, then, with the increasing influence of science, we 
may confidently look to a great improvement in the condition 
of man. But it may be said that our present sufferings and 
sorrows arise principally from sin, and that any moral im- 
provement must be due to religion, not to science. This 
separation of the two mighty agents of improvement is the 
great misfortune of humanity, and has done more than any- 
thing else to retard the progress of civilisation. But even if 
for the moment we admit that science will not render us 
more virtuous, it must certainly make us more izmocent. 
Out of 129,000 persons committed to prison in England and 


Wales during the year 1863, only 4829 could read and 
write well. In fact, our criminal population are mere 
savages, and most of their crimes are but injudicious and 
desperate attempts to act as savages in the midst, and at the 
expense, of a civilised community. 

Men do not sin for the sake of siiming; they yield to 
temptation. Most of our unhappiness arises from a mis- 
taken pursuit of pleasure ; from a misapprehension of that 
which constitutes true happiness. Men do wrong, either 
from ignorance, or in the unexpressed hope that they may 
enjoy the pleasure, and yet avoid the penalty of sin. In 
this respect there can be no doubt that religious teaching 
is widely mistaken. Repentance is too often regarded as a 
substitute for punishment. Sin it is thought is followed 
either by the one or the other. So far, however, as our 
world is concerned, this is not the case; repentance may 
enable a man to avoid punishment in future, but has no 
effect on the consequences of the past. The laws of nature 
are just, and they are salutary, but they are also inexorable. 
All men admit that "the wages of sin is death," but they 
seem to think that this is a general rule to which there 
may be many exceptions, that some sins may possibly tend 
to happiness; as if there could be any thorns that would 
grow grapes, any thistles which could produce figs. That 
.suffering is the inevitable consequence of sin, as surely as 
night follows day, is, however, the stem yet salutary teach- 
ing of Science. And surely if this lesson were thoroughly 
impressed upon our minds, if we really believed in the cer- 
tainty of punishment; that sin could not conduce to hap- 
piness, temptation, which is at the very root of crime, would 
be cut away, and mankind must necessarily become more 

May we not, however, go even farther than this, and say 
that science wiU also render man more virtuous. " To pass 


our time," says Lord Brougham,* "in the study of the 
sciences, in learning what others have discovered, and in 
extending the bounds of human knowledge has, in all ages, 
been reckoned the most dignified and happy of human occu- 
pations No man until he has studied philosophy, 

can have a just idea of the great things for which Providence 
has fitted his understanding; the extraordinary dispropor- 
tion which there is between his natural strength, aad the 
powers of his mind, and the force he derives from them." 
Finally, he concludes that science would not only " make our 
lives more agreeable, but better : and that a rational being is 
boimd by every motive of interest and duty, to direct his 
mind towards pursuits which are found to be the sure path 
of virtue as well as of happiness." 

In reality we are but on the threshold of civilisation. Far 
from showing any indications of having come to an end, the 
tendency to improvement seems latterly to have proceeded 
with augmented impetus and accelerated rapidity. Why, 
then, should we suppose that it must now cease P Man has 
surely not reached the limits of his intellectual development, 
and it is certain that he has not exhausted the infinite capa- 
bilities of nature. There are many things which are not as 
yet dreamt of in our philosophy ; many discoveries which 
will immortalise those who make them, and confer upon the 
human race advantages which as yet, perhaps, we are not in 
a condition to appreciate. We may still say with our great 
coimtryman. Sir Isaac Newton, that we have been but like 
children, playing on the seashore, and picking up here and 
there a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, 
while the great ocean of truth lies aU undiscovered before us. 

Thus, then, the most sanguine hopes for the fature are 
justified by the whole experience of the past. It is surely 
unreasonable to suppose that a process which has been going 
* Objects, Adrantages, and Pleasures of Science, p. 89. 


on for 80 many thousand years, should have now suddenly 
ceased ; and he must be blind indeed who imagines that our 
civilisation is xmsusceptible of improvement, or that we our- 
selves are in the highest state attainable by man. If we 
turn from experience to theory, the same conclusion forces 
itself upon us. 

The great principle of natural selection, which in animals 
affects the body and seems to have little influence on the 
mind; in man affects the mind and has little influence on 
the body. In the first it tends mainly to the preservation of 
life; in the second to the improvement of the mind and 
consequently to the increase of happiness. It ensures, in the 
words of Mr. Herbert Spencer, "a constant progress towards 
a higher degree of skill, intelligence, and self-regulation — a 
better co-ordination of actions — a more complete life."* Even 
those, however, who are dissatisfied with the reasoning of 
Mr. Darwin, who believe that neither our mental and material 
organisation are susceptible of any considerable change, may 
still look forward to the future with hope. The tendency of 
recent improvements and discoveries is less to effect any 
rapid change in man himself, than to bring him into har- 
mony with nature; less to confer upon him new powers, 
than to teach him how to apply the old. 

It will, I think, be admitted that of the evils under which 
we suffer nearly all may be attributed to ignorance or sin. 
That ignorance will be diminished by the progress of science 
is of course self-evident, that the same will be the case with 
sia, seems little less so. Thus, then, both theory and ex- 
perience point to the same conclusion. The future happiness 
of our race, which poets hardly ventured to hope for, science 
boldly predicts. Utopia, which we have long looked upon as 
synonymous with an evident impossibility, which we have 

* Herbert Spencer. A Theory of Population deduced from the General Law 
of Animal Fertility, p. 34. 


ungratefully regarded as "too good to be true/' turns out on 
the contrary to be the necessary consequence of natural 
laws, and once more we find that the simple truth exceeds 
the most brilliant flights of the imagination. 

Even in our own time we may hope to see some improve- 
ment^ but the unselfish mind will find its highest gratifica- 
tion in the belief that, whatever may be the case with 
ourselves, our descendants will understand many things 
which are hidden from us now, will better appreciate the 
beautiful world in which we live, avoid much of that suffer- 
ing to which we are subject, enjoy many blessings of which 
we are not yet worthy, and escape many of those temptations 
which we deplore, but cannot wholly resist. 



Page 38. 

The passage from Ayienus is as follows : — 

Quad Himilco Poenus mensibus vix quataor, 
TJt ipse semet re probasse retulit 
Enavigaiiteni, posse transmitti adserit : 
Sic nidla late flabra propellimt ratem, 
Sic segnis humor eequoris pigri stupet. 
Adjicit et illud, plnrimum inter gurgites 
Extare fiicum, et ssepe virgalti vice 
Betinere puppim dicit hie nihilominus 
l^on in profundum terga demitti maris, 
Parvoqne aquarum vix supertexi solum : 
Obire semper hue et hue ponti feras, 
l^avigia lenta et languide repentia 
Intematare belluas. 

Page 50. 

Staigue Fort, in the County of Kerry, is ** an enclosure, nearly 
circular, 114 feet in diameter from out to out, and in the clear 
88 feet from east to west, and 87 from north to south. The stones 
are put together without any description of mortar or cement ; the 
wall is 13 feet thick at the bottom, and 5 feet 2 inches broad at top 
at the highest part, where some of the old coping stones still remain, 
and which is there 17 feet 6 inches high upon the inside. It has 
one square doorway in the S.S.W. side, 5 feet 9 inches high, with 
sloping sides, 4 feet 2 inches wide at top, and 5 feet at bottom. In 
the substance of this massive wall, and opening inwards, are two 
small chambers; the one on the west side is 12 feet long, 4 feet 


7 inches wide, and 6 feet 6 inches high ; the northern chamber is 
7 feet 4 inches long, 4 feet 9 inches wide, and 7 feet high. They 
formed a part of the original plan, and were not, like other apertures 
in some similar stnictores, filled-up gateways. Around the interior 
of the wall are arranged ten sets of stairs, .... the highest reaching 
yery nearly to the fall height of the wall, and the secondary flights 
being abont half that much; each step is 2 feet wide; and the 
lower flights project within the circle of the higher. They lead to 
narrow platforms, from 8 to 43 feet in length, on which its wardens 
or defenders stood." (Catalogue of the Eoyal Irish Academy, p. 120.) 

Page 489. 

Degree of instruction of persons committed to the different County, 
Borough, and Liberty Prisons in England and Wales. 

JiTDiciAL Statistics — 1863. 

Males. Females. 

Neither read nor write 31,717 ^^'^^^ ) 

Read or write and read imperfectly ... 58,447 20,162/ ' 

Read and write well 4,027 5541 ^ ^^^ 

Superior Instruction 226 22 J 

Instruction not ascertained 623 257 880 

Total 95,040 34,487 129,527 


Aarhvos, ooostfind at, 81. 
Abbeville, marine shellB found at, 310. 
„ PreBtwich on deposits at,286. 
„ researches at, bj Tarions 
anthon, 268. 
Abnrj, 50, 53. 
Acheol, St, burials at, 288. 

,y Tin ^mnritlian remaina found 

at, 289. 
„ mollosca found at, 289. 

„ section at, 303. 

„ strata at, 287. 

Adzes of New Zealanden, 73. 
Africa, pounded bones eaten b j sayage 

tribes o^ 248. 
African elephant, bones of, from caye 

near Maarid, 262. 
Agricnltoral implements of Feegeeans, 

Agriciiltare of North American Indians, 

233, 423. 
Alca impennis, bones of, in shell- 

momids, 181. 
Algeria, stone monuments in, 59. 
Algonquin language, absence of cer- 
tain words in, 417. 
Amber found in lake-habitations, 134. 
American mound builders, 228. 
„ mounds, skulls from, 228. 
„ mounds, etc., classification of, 

„ remains, four periods indi- 
cated by, 234. 
Ancient remains, preservation o^ 66, 

Andaman Islanders, 345. 

„ „ huts of, 345. 

„ „ implements of, 345. 

„ „ x^anners and cus- 

toms of, 345. 
,f „ no idea of Deity, 

Anholt, coastfind at, 80. 
Anima1«| bones of, more abundant than 
those of man, 282. 

Animals, excavations in form o( 224* 
Animal mounds, 222. 

n n authorities on, 222. 

„ n ignoraaoe of Indians 

concerning, 225. 
,, „ no remains m, 2i5. 

Antilo^ Sai'go of Pallas, 256. 
Antiquity of man, 268, 311. 

„ „ Bunsen on, 814. 

„ „ questions at ismid, 

Arbor Low, pottery from, 113. 
ArchseoUthic period, 60. 
Arrow-heads, classification of, 77. 

„ of North American In- 
dians, 419. 
Arreoy, association of in Tahiti, 388. 
Art, Imowledge o^ by North American 

Indians, 424. 
Ass, the, 145. 

Aube valley, geological formation of,290 
AureUus Ambrosius, 50. 
Aurignac, cave at, 262. 

„ mammalianremainsfromcavt 
at, 263. 
Aurochs, distribution of, 150, 242. 
„ mentioned by Pliny and Se- 
neca, 242. 
„ mentionedinNiebelungenLied, 

150, 242. 
„ remains of in Norwich Crag, 242 
„ remains of in Switzerland, 242. 
„ still living in Lithuania, 242. 
„ ,, Western Asia, 242. 

Austen Godwin, on Kent's Hole, 258. 
Australian funeral, 353. 
Australians, food of, 347. 

„ habitations of, 346. 
„ implements of, 849. 
„ ignorance of religion by, 

„ limited knowledge of num- 
bers by, 354, 467. 
„ method of obtaining fire 
by, 358. 







AiittraliiiiiB,not habitoally caDnil)a]8,354 

„ ornaments of, 348. 

»} polygamy, notions of, 353. 

„ pounded bones need by as 
food, 347. 

„ sbell-moands of, 846. 

p xae of boomerang by, 351. 
Ara, intoxicating drink of Tahiti, 381. 
Avienns ** ora maritima," 37, 493. 
Azara, Don Felix de, Indians of Para- 
guay, 425. 
Aztaluiy ruins o^ 211. 

B. ♦ 

Baal worship in Norway, 47. 
Baillon, rhinoceros bones found at 

Menchecourt, 284. 
Bark cloth, manufacture of in Tahiti, 375 
BanowB, desiderata concerning con- 
tents, 116. 
„ of Stone and Bronze age 
distinctions, 99. 
•pfttfynnii^ associatiou of stone and 
bronze implements in tu- 
muli, 62, 100. 
„ desi^ of British tumuli, 91. 
„ drinking cups from British 

tumuli, 113. 
„ pottery, arrangement o^ from 

British tumuli. 111. 
„ primary interments, table of, 

„ rude flint implements in tu- 

muH, 196. 
„ Suttee and infanticide in 
pagan Britain, 115. 
Bear, the, extermination of, 151. 
Belcher, Sir E., flint implements, manu- 
facture of, by Esquimaux, 79. 
Birch, cups found in ancient British 
tumuli, probably used for lamps, 112. 
Birds, remains of, found in Swiss pile- 
dwellings, 144. 
„ „ in shell-mounds, 181. 

Blackwood's Magazine, October, 1860, 

cited, 276, 288. 
"Blancfond," 130, 138. 
Boar, distinct species of, in pile-dwel- 
lings, 145 
Bolas, 404, 426, 430, 451. 
„ use of by Esquimaux, 404. 
„ „ Paraguay Indians,426. 

„ „ Patagonians, 430. 

Bone caves, nature of evidence derived 
from, 244. 
„ implements, 79. 
„ „ in caves of the Dor- 

dogne, 253. 

Bone implements of lake-dwellers, 135. 
„ pits in North America, 216. 
„ sculptured in caves, 254. 
Bones broken and eaten by some savage 
tribes, 248. 
„ of mammalia in river-drift gra- 
vels, 283. 
„ parts of, absent in shell-mounds, 
Boomerang, 351. 

Boucher & Perthes, deposits in valley 
of Somme, 306. 
„ researches at Ab- 

beville, 268. 
„ upper-level gravels, 

Boumeville enclosure, Ohio, 207. 
Boye, M., contents of tumulus on 

Island of Moen, 104. 
Brachycephalic skulls from American 
mounds, 228. 
„ )9 ui Stone age, 

Brass mentioned in Scripture, 44. 
Brazilian tribes, curious funeral cus- 
tom of, 455. 
Bread found in pile-dwellings, 154. 
Brixham Cave, 259. 

„ „ deposits in, 259. 

Brif zes, shell-mound at, 177. 
Bridlington, flint finds at, 82. 
Bronze abundant amongst Eastern na- 
tions, 44. 
Bronze age, 3. 
„ „ architecture of, unknown, 

„ „ burial places, 99. 
„ „ burials of, 100. 
„ „ dress of, 26. 
„ „ Dr. KeUer on, 31. 
„ „ in Denmark, 99. 
„ „ lake-habitations of, 157. 
„ „ linen fabric in English 

tumuli of, 26. 
„ „ methods of sepulture, 30. 
„ „ Nilsson on, 36. 
„ „ „ ornamentation 

of, 48. 
„ „ personal ornaments of, 21. 
„ „ Sir W. R. Wilde on, 31. 
„ „ stone implements used in, 

„ „ theories of, 31. 
„ „ tumulus of Treenhoi, 26. 
„ articles and coins found at Tiefe- 

nau, 7. 
„ „ ornamentation of, 25. 
„ fish-hooks in different museums, 



Bronze implementB, character of in dif- 
ferent countries, 
,1 „ in Dublin Museum, 32 

f, „ lake -habitations, 157. 

„ „• Dr. KeUer's list, 158. 

„ „ ' never associated with 

remains of Irish 
elk, 240. 
„ „ not of Boman origin, 

„ „ various, 17, 19, 23. 

„ knives rare in Ireland, 19. 
„ period, pottery of, 160. 
Brougham, Lord, advantages and plea- 
sures of science cited, 489. 
Buddhist architecture in India, 56. 
Buffalo osed in hunting, 340, 344. 
Bunsen, antiquity of me human race, 

Burchell, travels in Southern Africa, 

cited, 384, note. 
Burial customs of Andaman Islanders, 
„ „ Australians, 353. 

„ „ Esquimaux, 409. 

„ „ Feegeeans, 360. 

„ „ Fuegians, 437. 

„ „ NewZealanders,368 

„ „ North American In- 

dians, 87, 424. 
„ „ Patagonians, 431. 

„ „ Tahitians, 384. . 

„ different methods of, 455. 
„ mounds of Esquimaux, 409. 
Burials at St. ACheul, 287. 
„ difficulty of defining epoch 

from, 100. 
„ in Bronze a^e, 99. 
„ in old tumuli, 110. 
„ near Stonehenge, character of, 

„ regulation of Charlemagne con- 
cerning, 111, note. 
Burning the dc»^, Australian custom 

of, 354. 
Bushmen, 343. 

„ Burchell on mental condition 
of, 465. 
Busk on Neanderthal skull, 332. 
„ on Gibraltar caves, 262. 


Cairn in Kirkcudbrightshire, 69. 
Cannibalism of Australians, 354. 

„ Feegeeans, 362. 

„ Fuegians, 437. 

„ New Zealanders, 370. 

Canoes of Andaman Islanders, 345. 
„ Australians, 348. 
„ Feegeeans, 357. 
„ Fuegians, 487. 
„ New Zealanders, 368. 
„ Tahitians, 378. 
Carthage, foundation of, 43. 
Cave bear, geographical distribution of, 
„ „ remains of in valley of 

Somme, 238. 
„ evidence, value of, 244. 
Caves of the Dordogne, flint implements 
foundin, 248. 
„ „ no pottery in, 

„ „ no remains of 

domestic ani- 
mals, 247. 
Cave hysBua, 238. 
„ mammalia, palseontological chro- 
nology from, 243. 
„ men, 237. 

„ „ change of climate since pe- 
riod of, 265. 
„ „ civilisation of, 255. 
„ „ skulls of, rare, 266. 
„ tiger, 238. 
Caves in Sicily, 260. 
Caesar, reference to elk by, 150. 
„ „ reindeer by, 242. 

„ „ urus by, 150, 243. 

Cereals found in pile dwellings, 153. 
Celts, 68. 
„ forms of, 13, 68, 131. 
„ mode of fixing, 69. 
„ not the earnest colonisers of 

Northern Europe, 116. 
„ weapons of war, 69. 
Ceylon, wild tribes of interior, 343. 
Chambered tumuli, 88. 

„ „ of Great Britain, 90. 

Charlemagne, regulation of with respect 

to burials, 111, note. 
Chillingham, wild cattle of, 243. 
Chisels, flint, 74. 
Christy and Feraud, cromlechs, etc., in 

Algeria, 59. 
Christy and Lartet on oaves in the 

Doraogne, 245. 
Circleville, earthworks near, 211. 
Civilisation, advantages of, 486. 

„ different stages of in Stone 
age, 445. 
Clark's work, Ohio, 2<)8. 
Climate of Europe during period of 
river deposits, 294. 
„ mammalian remains indica- 
tions of, 294. 





Coastfinds, 80. 

yi implements firom, 81. 
Commerce of pile dwellen, evidence of, 

Cook, Captain, habits of Sandwich 

lalandera, 382. 
Copenhagen, stone implements in mu- 

senm of, 60. 
Copper age in North America, 201. 
„ ,, no evidence of in Ireland, 32. 
„ mining operations near Lake 

Superior, 202. 
„ use of by North American In- 
dians, 4, 201, 418. 
Comhills, Indian, 230. 
Corpse, disposal of in Bronze age, 100. 
„ „ Neolithic Stone 

age, 103. 
„ „ Stone age, 100. 

Cornwall, shell-mounds of, 178. 
Cradle-board, use of by North American 

Indians, 414. 
Cranoges of Ireland, 120. 
Crantz, burial customs of Esquimaux, 
„ description of an Esquimaux 

feast, 398. 
„ ignorance of Esquimaux of re- 
li^on, 409. 
Crawfurd, hmited knowledge of num- 
bers amongst Australian tribes, 467. 
Cremation, 100, 103. 
Criminals, ignorance of, 488. 
Crofts, hardening of copper implements, 

Cromlech, 69, 86. 

, , erection of at the present day 
in India, 68. 
Crustacea found in shell-mounds, 180. 
Curious customs, 466. 
Cyrena fluminalis, 306. 


Daggers of flint, 76. 

Dampier, absence of huts amongst 

Australians of north-west coast, 346. 
Dana, use of copper by North American 

Indians, 202. 
Danish Celts, fonhs of, 68. 

„ museums, stone implements in, 

„ shell-mounds, 171. 
D'Ajchiac, deposits -in river-valleys of 

France, 290. 
Darwin, habits and customs of Tierra 

del Fuegians, 189. 
Dawkins, B., peculiar flints from "Wo- 
key Hole, 261. 

Dawkins, B., Wokey Hole explored 

by, 266. 
Defensive enclosures in North America, 

Degradation of human species, no evi- 
dence of, amongst savage tribes, 337. 
Deification of white men by savages, 

Deity, belief in, by Andaman Islanders, 
„ „ Feegeeans, 367. 

„ „ Fuegians, 437. 

„ „ New Zealanders, 

„ „ North American In- 

dians, 416. 
„ „ Tahitians, 386. 

Denmark, numerous tumuli in, 171. 

„ vegetation of, 316. 
Denudation, river-gravels a proof o^ 

Desnoyers, M., on bone-caves, 244. 

„ marks on bones from 

upper pliocene beds, 


Desor, piles of Stone and Bronze age, 


„ pile-buildings as magazines, 1 69. 

Dickeson, bones of man and mastodon 

ohioticus, 236. 
Difficulties of river-action theory, 292. 
Dighton Bock, 226. 
Dille, tumuli in Missouri examined by, 

Diodorus, burial of Semiramis, 86. 
Ditch, position of, *& distinguishing 
■ character of enclosure, 209. 
Dog an article of food, 183, twte. 
„ uses of by savage tribes, 462. 
„ use of in war, Pliny, 463. 
Dogs, bones in Ejokkenmoddings pro- 
bably gnawed by, 183. 
„ of Fuejpans used in fishing, 436. 
„ uses of among the Esquimaux, 
Domestic animals of Tahiti, 379. 
Donnas, northernmost point of voyage 

of Pythias, 42. 
D'Orbigny on quaternary deposits, 300. 
Dordogne, caves in valleys of, 246. 
„ character of strata in the, 
Douler, human remains from New Or- 
leans, 236. 
Dove, Rev. T., moral inferiority of 

Tasmanians, 466. 
Drawing practised by Esquimaux, 408. 
Dress, absence of, amongst Andaman 
Islanders, 346. 



Dress of Australians, 348. 
„ Esquimaiu, 407. 

„ Feegeeaas, 359, 438. 

„ New Zealanders, 366. 

„ North American Indians,413. 

„ Patagonians, 429. 

„ Tahitians, 376. 

„ Yeddahs, 344. 

Dnft-grayels, mammalian remains 
found in, 283. 
„ pecnliarities of imple- 

ments from, 279. 
„ period, ethnology of, 329. 
Dublin Museum, mineralogical cha- 
racter of stone implements in, 63. 
DTTrrille, cremation by Australians, 
„ dress, notions of, by Aus- 
tralians, 348. 
„ cannibalism of Maories, 37 1 

„ method of obtaining fire by 

Australians, 863. 


Earth's axis, alteration of, 298. 
Earthworks in North America, 207. 
' Easter Island, statues in, 444. 
Eeypt, Homer's researches in, 320. 
Mephas antiquus, 289. 
Elk, the, 150. 

Ellis, inhabitants of Tahiti, 390. 
,y Polynesian researches cited, 837, 
Enffelhardt, researches in peat bogs of 

Slesvick, 8. 
Engis skull, cotemporaneous with the 
mammoth, 332. 
,, Huxley on, 330. 

Erskine, Capt., gods of the Feegeeans, 

Esquimaux, 392. 

„ boats of, 405. 

„ burial customs of, 409. 

„ „ of infants with mo- 

ther, 116,409. 
„ belief in a future state by, 

„ character of, 410. 

„ clothing of, 407. 

„ derivation of name, 396. 

„ flint implements of, 71, 

402, 406. 
„ food of, 397. 

„ g^mes of, 408. 

„ geographical distribution 

of, 392. 
„ habitations of, 392. 

„ ignoranceof numbers, 410. 

Esquimaux, implements used b]r, 401. 
„ knowledge of music and 

drawing, 408. 
„ lan^age, 392. 

„ marital customs of, 412. 

„ manufacture of flint im- 

plements by, 79. 
„ meals, description of, 397. 

„ method of catching fish, 

„ „ killing seals, 

„ „ obtaining fire, 

„ no notions of religion,409. 

„ of Baffin's fiay, ignorant 

of boats, 406. 
„ ornaments of, 408. 

„ simple pottery manufac- 

tured by, 394. 
„ sledges used by, 405. 

„ snow huts of, 394. 

„ stone implements used by, 

„ tattooing practised by,408 

Estavayer, bronze implements from, 19. 
Ethnology of Drift period, 329. 
Evans on flint implements from Hoxne, 
„ „ in the drift, 269. 

„ visit to St. Valery, 178. 
Extinct mammalia associated with man 
in Europe, 237. 

Fabrics of Bronze age, 27. 
„ Stone age, 137. 

Falconer, on cave at Brixham, 259. 
„ on Felts of Northern China, 

„ on Stonesfield fossils, 184. 
„ researches by in ^otto of 
Maccagnone, in Sicily, 260. 
Fauna and flora of river-drift eravels an 
indication of the climate of 
the period, 294. 
„ of Swiss Lake-dwellings, 140. 
„ of Swiss Lake-dwellings, general 
character of, 161. 
Feegee Islanders, 355. 

„ „ agricultural imple- 

ments of, 358. 
„ „ belief in a future 

state, 361. 
„ „ burials of, 360. 

„ „ cannibalism of, 362. 

,, „ canoes of, 357. 

„ „ clothing of, 359. 



Feegee lalanden, food of; 356. 

», ,, fortifications of^ 356. 

„ „ fdneral ciutomB ot^ 

„ „ games of, 358. ■ 

^ „ nooses of, 356. 

„ „ human sacrifices by, 

„ „ language of, 355. 

,y „ offerings to their 

gods, 363. 
„ „ parricide custom of, 

„ „ religion ot 357. 

„ „ tattooing practised 

by. 360. 
„ „ temples of; 357. 

„ „ tools used by, 358. 

,, „ treatment of women 

by, 359. 
„ „ weai)onBUBedby,356. 

Feelings and ceremonial customs dif- 
ferently eipressed by different races, 
Felis tigris of Northern China possibly 

a descendant of F. spelsea, 238. 
Fergus8on,on Abury and Stonehenge,53. 
„ on Buddhist architecture in 

India, 56. 
FestiTals of the dead, 216. 
Fire, different methods of obtaining by 
savages, 453. 
„ method of obtaining by Australi- 
ans, 353. 
„ method of obtaining by Esqui- 
maux, 400. 
„ method of obtaining by North 

American Indians, 421. 
,, method of obtaining by Tahitians, 

„ use of by Fuegians, 438. 
Fish -hooks used in Tahiti, 374. 
„ remains of in shell-mounds, 181. 
Flint arrow-heads, 77. 
„ awls, 75. 
„ axes, 72. 

„ „ Steenstrup on, 72. 
„ chisels, 74. 
„ daggers, 75. 
„ finds, 80. 
„ „ in England, 82. 
„ flakes, 65. 

„ „ work of man, 67. 
„ fracture of, 64. 

„ implements cotemporaneous with 
beds in which they 
are found, 278. 
„ „ distinct use for each 

form, 442. 

Flint implements, forged, characters of, 
„ „ from caves in the 

Dordogne, 248. 
„ „ from 6ray*s Inn Lane 

in British Museum, 
„ „ from 6odalming,272. 

„ „ from Heme Bay,274. 

„ „ from Hoxne, 271. 

„ „ from Kent's Hole, 

„ „ from lake-dwellings, 

„ „ frt>m shell -mounds, 

„ „ from various locali- 

ties, 274. 
„ „ manufacture of by 

Esquimaux, 79. 
. „ „ manufacture of by 

Mexicans, 78. 
„ „ of human manufac- 

ture, 276. 
„ „ uses of, 280. 

„ scrapers, 70. 
„ spear -heads, 75. 
Flints from Perigueux, 253. 

„ perforated, 70, 200. 
Flora of Pile-dwellings, 153. 
Food, Esquimaux method of cooking, 
„ method of cooking in Tahiti, 380. 
„ of Australians, 347. 
„ Esquimaux, 397. 
„ Feegeeans, 356. 

„ Fuegians, 434. 

„ New Zealanders, 365. 

„ North American Indians, 423. 

„ Patagonians, 430. 

„ Tahitians, 380. 

„ stored by Esquimaux, 395. 
Forest growths in North America, 232. 
Fox, the, eaten by Esquimaux, 141. 
„ remains of in Pileworks of the 

Stone ag:e, 141. 
Franks, character of jewellery in Etrus- 
can tombs, 98. 
„ supposed Phoenician antiquities 
in America, 46. 
Frere,flintimplement8 from Hoxne, 271. 
Friendly and Sandwich islands, inhabi- 
tants of, 390. 
Froelund, flint finds at, 81. 
Fuegians, the, 189, 432. 

„ absence of religion amongst, 

„ cannibalism of, 437. 
„ canoes of, 437* 



Fnegianfl, do« used in hunting and 
nshing by, 435. 
„ dress of, 438. 
y, food ot 434. 
„ fortified towns of, 366. 
„ iznorance of pottery, 438. 
yt shell-mounds of, 189. 
„ use of fire by, 438. 
Funeral customfl indicated by remains 
in ancient tumuli, 
„ „ of Andaman Islanders, 

„ „ Australians, 354. 

„ „ Esquimaux, 409. 

„ „ Feegeeans, 115,361. 

„ „ Fuegians, 437. 

„ „ New Zealanders, 

„ „ North American In- 

dians, 424. 
„* „ Patag^onians, 431. 

„ „ Tahitians, 385. 

Future, the, 491. 

„ state, belief in by ancient Bri- 
tons, 92, 98. 
„ „ belief in by Esquimaux, 

„ „ belief in by Feegee 

Islanders, 361. 
„ „ belief in by Maories, 370. 

„ „ beliefin by North Ameri- 

can Indians, 416.^ 
„ „ belief in by Tahitians, 



Gades, foundation of, 43. 

Galton, pounded bones eaten by African 
tribes, 248. 

Gtunes of Esquimaux, 408. 
„ „ Feegeeans, 358. 

Ganggraben, 88. 

„ Nilsson on, 89. 

Garcilego de la Vega, History of Flo- 
rida cited, 221. 

Garden beds, ancient North American 
Indian, 230. 
„ „ Lapham on, 230, 233. 

Gauls, dwellings of, 1 25. 

Geminus, voyages of Pytheas, 42. 

Gibraltar, caves at, 262. 

Giraldus Cambrensis on stoneworks in 
Ireland, 50. 

Gilli6ron,depo8it8 atPontdeThiMe, 319. 

Glacial epoch, duration of, 325. 

Glass, holes drilled in with stone tools, 

Godalming, flint implements from, 272. 

Goldhavn, tumulus at, 88. 

Grold ornaments from Ireland, 23. 

Grave Greek mound, 216, 220, 226. 
„ „ „ inscribed stone 

from, 226. 
„ „ „ inscribed stone 

from, doubtful 
character of, 

Gravel of valley of the Somme, 290. 

Grey, Capt., habits of Australians, 347. 

Gulf stream, alteration of course of. 


Habitations of Andaman Ishmders, 345. 
„ Australians, 346. - 

„ Esquimaux, 392. 

„ Feegee Islanders, 356. 

„ Fuegians, 432. 

„ Hottentots, 339. 

„ Maories, 367. 

„ North American Indians, 

„ Patagonians, 428. 

„ Tahitians, 377. 

Happiness in relation to numbers of 

population, 482. 
Hare, prejudice against eating, by 
different races, 143. 
„ scarcity of remains of, in pile- 
dwellings, 143. 
Harpoon used by Esquimaux, 403. 

„ „ Fuegians, 436. 

Harrison on forest growth, 232. 
Hanghton, Rev. S., mineralo^eal eha- 
raeter of stone implements m Dublin 
Museum, 63. 
Haven, North American remains, 199. 
Hazlewood, gods of Feegee Islanders, 

Head- moulding practised by North 

American Indians, 414. 
Herberstein, urus in Germany, 243. 
Heme bay, fiint implements from, 274. 
Herodotus, pile-dwellings of PsBonians, 

120, 129. 
Hesiod, nations on eastern shores of 

Mediterranean, 44. 
Himilco, voyages of, 37. 
Hippopotamus major, bones of, in drift, 

Hoare, Sir E. C., barrows about Stone- 
henge, 62. 
„ burials in Wiltshire, 

92, 101. 
„ incense cups, 112. 



Hog of ancient Europe, Steenstnip on, 

Homer, nations on the eastern shores 

of the Mediterranean, 44. 
Hopkins, climate of riyer-drift period, 
„ on the Gnlf stream, 298. 
Homer, researches in Egypt, 320. 
„ „ deposits of the 

Nile, 321. 
Horse, remains of, in pileworks, 145. 

„ „ tmnuli, 114. 

Hottentots, the, 338. 

„ domestic animals of, 340. 

„ „ special uses 

of, 340. 
„ dress, 339. 

„ ' exposure of sick and aged 

hy, 342. 
„ houses of, 339. 

„ implements and cookery, 

„ metallurgy of, 341. 

„ methods 01 killing game, 340 

„ religion of, 341. 

„ use of oxen hy, to g^uard 

flocks, 340. 
„ use of oxen in war, 340. 

Houses of Mandans, 216. 
Hoxne, flint implements from, 271. 
Human hones aosent in drift-beds, 281. 
„ „ scarcity of, in pileworks, 

„ race, unity of, 476. 
„ „ change of type in, 477. 

„ sacrifices by Feegeeans, 862. 
Hunting buffaloes, 340, 344. 
Huxley on Engis skull, 330. 
„ Neanderthal skull, 330. 

Ibex, 150. 

Ice, action on river-drift gravels, 294. 
Implements found at Wauwyl, 133. 
„ from drift, peculiarities of, 

„ „ and later Stone 

age, compa- 
rison of, 280. 
„ of North American In- 

dians, 200, 419. 
„ Lake-dwellers, 131. 

„ stone, Australian, 350. 

„ wood in North Ame- 

rican copper mines, 
„ similarity of those used by 

savage tribes, 451. 
„ used by Esquimaux, 401. 

Implements used by modem savages, 

comparison of, 447. 
Incense cups, 112. 

Indians of the Amazons, burial custom 
of, 89. 
„ festivals of the dead, 216. 
,, of southern America, 214. 
Indian tribes, none since 16th century 
able to constmct extensive earth- 
works, 229. 
Infants, burial of with mother, 116. 
„ burial of with mother by Es- 
quimaux tribes, 116, 409. 
Infanticide practised by Feegeans, 362. 
„ „ Hottentots, 342. 

„ „ North American 

Indians, 418. 
„ „ Paraguay In- 

dians, 427. 
„ „ Tahitians, 389. 

Inscriptions, North American, 226. 
Interments, distinction between {hose 
of Stone and Bronze age, 
„ pre-historic, 90. 

„ primary, Bateman's table 

of, 94. 
„ secondary, 93. 

„ statistical tables, 101. 

Ireland, crannoges of, 120. 
Irish elk, 239. 

„ contemporary with man, 240. 
„ no mention of by Geesar or 

Tacitus, 240. 
„ no remains of, associated with 

bronze implements, 240. 
„ no remains of in Neolithic 
age, 240. 
Iron age, 3. 

„ decline of pile-habitations in, 

„ pile-habitations of, 168. 
Iron and bronze, knowledge of by 
ancients, 6. 
„ implements found at Tiefenau, 

„ „ from peat-bogs of 

Slesvick, 8. 
„ introduction of, into Europe, 7. 
„ method of smelting, by Hotten- 
tots, 341. 
„ unknown in America at the time 
of its discovery, 201. 
Iroquois, remains of, in state of New 
Tork, 199. 

Jamieson, T. F., flint-finds on the 
banks of the Tthan, 82. 



Jeffreys, J. G., mollusca in drift at St. 

Acheiil, 289. 
Joinville, section at, 293. 
Judicial statistics, 1863, cited, 488, 494. 


Eajak, 405. 

Keller, Dr., bronze implements in lake- 
dwellings, table of, 158. 
„ inhabitants of pile-dwel- 

lings, 162. 
„ on lake-dwelling, 123,127. 

„ on moon worship, 168. 

„ researches at Meilen, 119. 

Kent's Hole, 258. 

King, decorations of Australians, 348. 
Kirkcudbrightshire, cairn in, 69. 
Kissing unknown to some savages, 457. 
Kivik, ornamented monument at, 47. 
Kjokkenmoddings, 171. 

„ flint implements 

found in, 185. 
„ high antiquity of, 

„ missing bones in, 

„ mutilated bones in, 

I, no trace of grain in, 

„ relation of to tu- 

muli, 191. 
„ works of art from, 

Koch, mastodon found in Missouri, 

killed by man, 234. 
Kolben, Hottentots, 338, 342. 
Korsoer, coast-flnd at, 80. 
Kumbecephalic skulls, 90, 116. 
Kystfonden, 80. 

Ladrone islanders, houses of, 444. 
Lake-habitations, abandonment of, 168. 

„ „ at Wauwyl, 129. 

„ „ comparison of bones 

belon^ng to wild 
and domestic ani- 
mals, 146. 

„ „ construction of, 128. 

„ „ erected by existing 

savage tribes, 122. 

„ „ fauna of, 140, 144. 

„ „ fauna of, general cha- 

racter of, 161. 

„ „ flora of, 153. 

„ „ found in Switzerland, 

119, 123. 

Lake-habitations found in Switzerland, 
authorities, 122. 
„ „ indications of pro- 

cess, 162. 
„ „ objects found in diffe- 

rent dwellings, 1 63, 
„ „ objects found in diffe- 

rent dwellings, ta- 
ble of, 164. 
„ „ of Bronze age, 157. 

,, „ of Bronze and Stone 

ace, comparison of 
objects from, 163. 
„ , , remams of boar in, 1 45. 

„ „ remains of horse in, 

„ „ remains of sus scrofa 

palustris in, 145. 
„ „ mutilated bones in, 

„ „ scarcity of human 

bones in, 156. 
„ „ weapons and imple- 

ments from, 131. 
Lake worship, 159. 
Lakes, sacred, 159. 

„ „ classic authorities, 160. 

Lake Superior, copper mining near, by 

aborigines, 202. 
Land, elevation of on coasts of England 

and France, 310. 
Language a test of mental condition,465. 
„ of savage tribes, 417, 427, 

457, 465. 
„ of savage tribes, absence of 
terms of endearment, 417, 
„ of savage tribes, absence of 

wordS; 387. 
•„ of Feegee Islanders, 355. 
Lapham on animal mounds, 222. 
„ early cultivation, 230. 

,, forests of Wisconsin, 229. 

„ gardenbeds in America, 233. 

„ ruins of Aztalan, 211. 

Lartet and Christy, caves in the Dor- 
doffne, 245. 
„ „ peciuiarity of flints 

fromLe Monstier, 
„ „ four divisions of the 

primitive human 
period, 243. 
„ „ mammoth in Sibe- 

ria, 239. 
„ „ sketches and sculp- 

ture on bone and 
stone from eaves, 



Lartet, bone implements from caves of 
the Dordogne, 263. 
„ bones of rhinoceros marked hj 

flint implements, 284. 
,y cave at Aurignac, 262. 
„ caTC-bear near Abbeyille, 238. 
Lastio, M., sculpture from caye at Bru- 

niquel, 264. 
Laugerie, scnlptures from, 264. 
Law, absence of in Tahiti, 387. 
Lead, used by North American Indians, 

L'Echelle, bones of reindeer from care 

at, 241. 
Le Monstier, peculiar character of flint 

from, 261. 
Lewis, Sir G. C, Phoenician sources of 
tin, 36. 
„ voyages of Himilco, 37. 

„ voyages of Pytheas, 39. 

Lidge, oaves near, 267. 
Lions of Thessaly, 238. 
Lipari islands, 39, 40. 
Loess and gravel, relations of, 309. 
Lohle, on pile-habitations at Wangen, 

LyeU, Sir C, age of delta of the Missis- 
sippi, 324. 
„ association of bones of 
man and mastodon, 236. 
„ duration of glacial epoch, 

„ indications of ice action in 

river dejMMits, 294. 
„ NQe deposits, 322. 
„ on long periods of time, 

, , remains of man in pliocene 
„ strata, possible, 333. 

Lyon^ Capt., fox eaten by Esquimaux, 

„ on young ice, 41. 


Maccagnone, grotto of, 260. 
MammaUa, causes of extinction, 328. 
„ domesticated during Stone 

age, 114. 
„ extinct since the advent of 

man, 237. 
„ remains of, found at St. 

Acheul, 289. 
„ remains of, found in cave at 

Brixham, 269. 
„ remains of, found in cave at 

Aurignac, 263. 
„ remains of, found in caves 

of the Dordogne, 246. 

Mammalia, remains of, found in sheU- 
mounds, 180. 
„ remains of, from Kent's 

Hole, 268. 
„ remains of, from lower-level 

gpravels, 306. 
„ remains of, from river-drift 

gravels, 283. 
„ of river-drift gravels co- 
temjporaneous with de- 
posits, 284. 
Mammoth, geographical range of, 239. 
„ no remains of, in Ejokken- 

mdddings, 239. 
„ no traditions of, in Europe, 
Man and reindeer, relative proportion 
of, in Laj^land, 282. 
„ bones of, absent in drift strata, 

„ „ associated with mas- 

todon, 236. 
„ „ rare in pile-dwellings, 

„ migration of, 476. 
„ power of controlling force of na- 
tural selection, 481. 
„ primitive arts of, 473. 
„ probably representatives of, in 

miocene strata, 334. 
„ scarcity of bones of, reasons why, 

„ works of, associated with bones 
of mastodon, 234. 
Manatee, figures of, on North American 

pottery, 206. 
Mandans, huts o( 216. 
Maories, 366. 

„ burial customs of, 368. 
„ cannibalism of, 370. 
„. canoes of, 368. 
„ character of, 369. 
„ dress of, 366. 
„ food of, 366. 
„ fortified villages of, 367. 
„ houses of, 367. 
„ musical instruments of, 369. 
„ superstitions of, 369. 
„ treatment of women by, 369. 
„ weapons of, 368. 
" Mare di Sargasso," 38. 
Marine shells at Abbeville, 310. 
Marseilles, foundation of, 43. 
Mastodon ohioticus, 236. 
Mather, W. W., implements from 
ancient copper mines of North Ame- 
rica, 204. 
Mauls, or stone hammers, 203. 
Maurice, stone monuments in India, 66 



Meals, solitary in Tahiti, S83. 
Measurement, standard of, known to 
earthwork-builders of North Ame- 
rica, 210. 
Megaceros hibemicus, geographical 

range of, 239. 
Meilgaard, shcU-mound at, 175. 
Menchecourt, ^yel pits at, 304. 
Mental condition, language a test of, 
„ „ of sayage tribes, 

462, 476. 
Merry on the use of the boomerang, 

Metal, knowledge of in Europe, Asia, 

and Airica, 338. 
Mexican paintings, 201. 

„ simultaneous use of metal and 
stone implements by, 62. 
Migration of man, 476. 
Minatarees, huts of, 216. 
Mincopies, 345. 

MisHJBsippi yaUey, date of monuments 
in, 231. 
„ „ delta of, 324. 

Missouri, mastodon found killed by 

human agency in, 234. 
Mistletoe, reference by Pliny to, 168. 
Moa, egg of, in Maori graye, 369. 
Modem sayages, 335. 

„ „ comparatiye table of 
implements, etc., 
used by, 447. 
„ „ different degrees of 

ciyilisation amongst, 
MoUusca found at St. Acheul, 289. 
„ of drift grayels, 305. 
„ „ „ eyidence of 

Arctic cli- 
mate, 294. 
Moon worship, 168. 
Moral or bunal place in Tahiti, 385. 
Moral inferiority of sayages, 465. 
Merges, bronze implements from, 19. 
Morlot, chronolodcal indications of the 
<^one of the Tiniere, 318. 
„ cone de la Tinidre, 316, 323. 
„ Phoenicians, traces of in Ame- 
rica, 46. 
„ on chronolo^cal calculations 
from deposits, 328. 
Mouatt, Andaman Islanders, 345. 
Mound-builders of America, 228. 

„ of America, .standard 

of measurement 
known to, 210. 
Mound burial, 86. 

„ ,, historical references, 86. 

Mound burial. Scripture references, 86. 

Music of Esquimaux, 408. 

Musical instruments of Maories, 369. 

,, „ Tahitians, 378. 

Mutilated bones in pile-dwellings, 140. 
„ „ shell-mounds, 183. 

Myodes torquatus, 305. 


Natchez Indians, dwellings of, 221. 
Natural selection, applied to the human 
race, 478. 
„ „ force of, influenced 

by man, 481. 
Neanderthal skull, 330. 
Negrito, 355. 
Neolithic period, 3, GO. ^ 
Nephrite, implements in lake-habita- 
tions formed of, 134. 
Newark, North America, earthworks 

near, 210. 
New York, State of, ancient monu- 
ments in, 199. 
New Zealand, quadrupeds in, 366. 
New Zealanders. See Maories. 
Nidau, bronze implements from, 19. 

„ metal objects from, 4. 
Niebelungen Lied, aurochs mentioned 
in, 150, 242. 
„ supposed allusion 

to Irish elk, 240. 
„ urns mentioned in, 

Nigaard glacier, the, 815. 
Nile yalley, 320. 

„ Homer's researches, 321. 

„ probable age of deposits, 

„ Sir C. Lyell on, 322. 

Nilsson, on Baal worship in Norway, 47. 
„ Bronze age, 36. 

„ ornamentation of Bronze 

age, 48. 

passage grayes, 89. 
Ph • * * " 

Phoenicians in Norway, 46. 
Semitic character of Bronze 
age omamentation, 48. 
„ yoyages of Pytheas, 43. 

„ young ice, 41. 

North America, ancient pottery of, 204. 
„ American archaeology, 198. 
„ „ „ authorities, 

„ „ Indians, 412. 

„ „ „ agriculture of, 

„ „ „ belief in a future 

state by, 416. 



North American Indians, boats of, 420. 
it ,y y, burial customs 

of, 424. 
» „ „ character o{^4 17. 

„ „ „ community of 

character of 
different tribes 
ft t, „ dress of, 413. 

„ „ „ dwellings of, 

H „ „ food of, 423. 

„ „ „ geo^phical 

of, 412. 
,t 1, y, head - moulding 

practised by, 
„ „ „ implements of, 

)» }, „ ornaments of, 

„ „ „ rapid disappear- 

ance of, 418. 
), y, „ scalpingfUnirer- 

sail custom of, 
tt ,t J, treatment of 

„ „ „ use of cradle- 

board by, 414. 
,) „ riyer valleys, popula-. 

tion 0^ 228. 
Norway, Phcenicians in, 46. 

„ reindeer in, 241. 
Norwich Crag,remainsof aurochsin,242. 
„ remains of Irish elk in, 

Numbers, limited knowledge of by Aus- 
tralians, 354. 
„ limited knowledge of by Es- 

Sttimaux, 410. 
, efective power of amongst 
savage tribes, 466. 

Objects buried with the dead, 92. 
Oise, valley of, geological formation,290. 
Oldfield, "Aborigines of Australia," 
cited, 348. 
„ on the use of boomerang, 352. 
Ooloos, a flint implement of Esqui- 
maux, 74. 
" Ora maritima," 37. 
Orkney stone circles, modem uses of, 56. 
Ornaments found in North American 
mounds, 206. 
„ of Australians, 348. 

Ornaments of Esquimaux, 408. 
„ New Zealanders, 367. 

„ North American Indians, 

„ Paraguay Indians, 426. 

„ Tahitians, 377. 

,, perforated, 444. 

Outrigger, use of by Andaman islanders, 
„ „ Australians, 349. 

„ „ Fee^eeans, 357. 

„ „ Tahitians, 878. 

Owen, Andaman Islanders, 345. 
„ cave-bear in pliocene deposits of 

Norfolk, 238. 
„ reported remains of Irish elk in 
peat bogs, 240. 
Ox, uses of by savage tribes, 453. 
Oxen, races of, in pile-dwellings, 148. 
„ teeth of, in tumuli, 115. 


Packwerkbauten, 127. 
Palsdolithic period, 2. 

„ „ no known interment 

of, 98. 
Pallas, geographical distribution of rein- 
deer, 240. 
Paraguay Indians, 425. 

„ food of, 425. 

„ habits of, 426. 

„ houses of, 126. 

„ infanticide, practice 

of, 427. 
„ language of, 427. 

„ no agriculture 

amoDgst, 426. 
„ no domestic ani- 

mals, 426. 
„ religious notions o^ 

Parricide, custom of amongst Feegeeans, 

Parry, habits of Esquimaux, 392, 395, 

404, 407, 410. 
Passage graves, 88. 
Patagonians, 427. 

„ bolas used by, 430. 

„ burial customs of, 431. 

„ dress of, 429. 

„ food of, 430. 

„ ffigantic size of, 428. 

„ huts of, 428. 

„ ignorance of pottery, 429. 

„ religious notions o^ 431. 

„ we^ons of, 430. 

Peat deposits of Somme valley, remains 
from, 306. 



Peck, Capt., North American antiqui- 
ties, age of, 232. 
Periguenx, stone implements from, 253. 
Pfahlbauten, 127. 

„ flora of, 153. 

„ reference to aathon, 123. 

Phoenicians, commerce in tin, 36, 46. 
„ in America,8apposed traces 

of, 46. 
„ in Norway, 46, 48. 
Picts' houses, 91. 
Pile baildings, as magazines, 159. 
„ dwellers, commerce of, 158. 
„ „ diet of, 155. 

>, „ lake-worship by, 159. 

„ dwellings, bread found in, 154. 
„ „ cereals found in, 153. 

„ „ character of fauna of, 152 

„ „ construction of, 128. 

„ „ &una of, 140. 

„ „ flora of, 153, 155. 

„ ;, implements of nephrite 

from, 134. 
„ „ list of remains of birds 

from, 144. 
„ „ population of, 281. 

„ „ scarcity of human bones 

in, 156, 281. 
„ „ table of animal remains 

from, 143] 
„ „ weapons and imple- 

ments found in, 131. 
Piles of Stone and Bronze age, com- 
parison of, 138. 
Pileworks, remains of horse found in, 

Pipes in North American tumuli, 206. 
Plants found in pileworks, list of, 155. 
Pliny, the mistletoe mentioned by, 168. 

„ dogs used in war, 453. 
Pffionians, habitations of, 120. 
Polybius, voyage of Pytheas, 39. 
Poljmesians, 355. 

Pont de ThiMe, lake-habitation of, 319. 
Population, increase of with civilisation, 
„ of North American river 

valleys, 228. 
„ of pile-habitations, 126. 

Pottery found in ancient tumuli, Bate- 
man's arrangement of, HI. 
„ from tumulus at Mden, 106. 
„ „ West Kennet, 

„ North American, 204. 
„ of Bronze period, 160. 
„ of Stone age, 135. 
„ of Stone and Bronze age com- 
paris<a of, 166. 

Pottery, ornamentation of, 113, 136, 
„ simple form of, used by Esqui- 
maux, 394. 
Potter's wheel, no evidence of use of 
in Stone age, 135. 
„ no evidence of use of in 

ancient American pot- 
tery, 205. 
Prehistoric archsology, epochs of, 2. 
„ „ method of en- 

quiry, 336. 
„ remains, 83. 
„ „ wide distribution 

of, 86. 
Prestwich, analogous conditions of river 
valleys in France and 
England, 291. 
„ condition of bones found in 

river drift, 284. 
„ deposits at Abbeville, 286. 
„ difference of level of upper 

gravel and loess, 309. 
„ flint implements, 277. 
„ ice action on river gravels,295 
„ probable ^ temperature of 

river drift period, 295. 
„ river deposits, 286. 
„ table of mammalian remains 
from lower level gravels, 
Prichard, insufficiency of popular chro- 
nology, 313. 
Primary interments, Bateman's table of 

contents of 102, 94. 
Primitive condition of man, 473. 
Pytheas, voyages of, 39, 42. 

„ „ Geminus on, 42. 


Bae, Dr., character of Esquimaux, 410. 
Reindeer, 240. 

„ Caesar's mention of, 242. 
„ horns of, with marks of hu- 
man implements, 247. 
„ horns of, in caves of the 

Dordogne, 247, 254. 
„ first appearance of in Eu- 
rope, 241. 
„ in Europe at the present 
time, 240, 241. 
Beligious notions of Andaman Islanders, 
„ „ Australians, 353. 

„ „ Esquimaux, 409. 

„ „ Feegeeans, 357. 

„ „ Fuegians, 437. 

„ „ Hottentots, 341. 



Beligioiu notions of Maoriefl, 369. 

ft )} North American In- 

dians, 416. 
n I, Parafuaj Indians, 

„ „ Patagonians, 431. 

I, „ Savage tribes, 467. 

. „ „ Tahitians, 386. 

„ „ Yeddahs, 345. 

Bhinooeros, bones of, marked by flint 
implements, 284. 
„ remains of, found near Ab- 

beville, 284. 
„ tichorinus, 239. 

„ tichorinus, or elephas pri- 

migenios, not found in 
shell-mounds, 239. 
„ tichorinus, or elephas pri- 

mi^enius, no traditions 
of in Europe, 239. 
„ tichorinus in caves near 

liftge, 267. 
Ribe, tumnli near, 26. 
Richardson on young ice, 41. 
River gravels, proof of denudation, 301 . 
„ ,, Prestwich on, 286. 
„ „ sandstone blocks in, 292. 
Roman period, battle field of Tiefenau, 

Ross, Esquimaux of Baffin's Bay, 406. 
Royal Irish Academy, flint implements 

in museum of, 61. 
Rude flint implements in tumuli and 

shell-mounds, 191, 19&. 
Riitimeyer, comparison of animal re- 
mains in different lake- 
dwellings by, 166, 167. 
„ fauna of Swiss lake-dwell- 

ings, 140. 
„ races of oxen in Swiss lake- 

dwellings, 148. 
„ remains of an early species 

of boar in pile-dwellings, 
„ Sus scrofa palustris, 145, 

„ table of animal remains 

from lake-dwellings, 143. 


Sacred enclosures, 209. 
Sacrificial mounds, 217. 

„ „ contents of, 218. 

„ „ position of altar in, 

„ „ possibly sepulchral, 

Salt, use of by Sandwich Islanders, 381. 

Sanchee, stone circle at, 57. 
Sandstone, blocks of in river gravels, 

Sandwich Islands, inhabitants of, 390. 
Savages compared ¥dth children, 462. 
yf deification of white men by, 

„ methods of obtaining flre, 453. 
„ mental inferiority of, 465. 
„ moral inferiority of, 465. 
„ self-inflicted sunerings of, 485. 
„ skilfulness of, 440. 
„ sufferings of, 484. 
„ works of art by, 444. 
Savage tribes, absence of religion 
amongst, 467. 
„ „ belief in witchcraft by, 

„ „ deficient in power of 

numeration, 466. 
„ „ different methods of 

burial, 455. 
„ „ different habits of, 452. 

„ „ different ideas of virtue, 

„ „ difference in weapons, 

„ „ erection of lake-habita- 

tions by, 122. 
„ „ habits of, due to external 

tonditions, 446. 
„ „ independent inventions 

by, 451. 
„ „ isolation of, 450. 

„ „ mental condition of, 

„ „ no evidence of degrada- 

tion, 337. 
„ ' „ social position of women 

in, 460. 
„ „ sounds used by, 457. 

„ „ religious conceptions of, 

„ „ use of the dog by, 452. 

„ „ various articles used by, 

Scandinavia, tumuli in, 88. 
Scandinavian tumuli, skulls from, 90. 
Schmerling, contemporaneity of man 
and extinct animals, 
„ researches in caves near 

Liftge, 257. 
Schoolcraft, history of Indian tribes 
cited, 335, 412. 
„ inscribed stone from Grave 

Creek, 226. 
„ North American Indians, 




Schoolcraft, North American Indians, 
burial customs of, 87. 
„ traces of fire in North 

American tumnli, 202. 
Schwab, Colonel, earthenware crescents 
discovered by, 167. 
„ lake-dwellings, 159. 

„ implements from pile- 

awellings, 165. 
Scioto yalley, mounds in, 210, 218. 
Scotland, shell-moimds in, 177. 
Scrapers, flint, 71. 

„ „ used by Esquimaux, 71. 

Sculptured bones, horns, stones, etc., 

Seals, Esquimaux method of killing, 

Section of Somme valley, at Abbeville, 

Segovia, remains of cave-bear in cave 

near, 238. 
Seine, flint implements found in valley 

of, 271. 
Semitic character of Bronze age orna- 
mentation, 48. 
Sepulchral mounds, 215. 
„ pottery. 111. 
Sewing by savages, 443. 
Shell-mounds, 171. 

„ absence of human bones 

in, 188. 
„ at Brigzes, 177. 

„ at MeUgaard, 177. 

„ bones of alca impennis 

in, 181. 
„ builders not mere sum- 

mer visitors, 184. 
„ character of the inhabi- 

tants of the period, 188 
„ distribution of in Den- 

mark, 174. 
„ in Australia, 178. 

„ in Cornwall and Devon- 

shire, 178. 
,, in Malay peninsula, 1 78. 

„ in Scotland, 177. 

„ in Tierra del Fuego, 1 78. 

„ remains of birds in, 181. 

„ „ fish in, 181. 

„ „ mammalia in, 

„ ,* moUusca in, 

„ rhinoceros tichorinus and 

elephas primigenius, 
remains of, not found 
in, 239. 
„ Steenstrup on skulls in, 


Shell-mounds, zostera marina in, 179. 
Shelley, Mr., flint-finds near Reigate, 82 
Shells found in shell-mounds, 179. 
Shirley on crannoges in Ireland, 120. 
Sicilian caves, 260. 

„ „ animal remains in, 260. 
Silbury Hill, 53. 

Silver in ancient American tumuli, 201. 
Sin, 489. 

Skeletons, position of, in tumulus on 
the island of Moen, 106. 
„ position of, in tumulus at 

West Kennet, 108. 
Skull, distortion of, by North American 
Indians, 414. 
„ „ Tahitians, 384. 

Skulls, American forms of, 414. 
„ from American mounds, 228. 
„ from chambered tumuli of Great 

Britain, 90. 
„ from chambered tumuli of Scan- 
dinavia, 90. 
Sledges used by Esquimaux, 405. 
Slesvick, iron implemeuts foimd in peat 

bogs of, 8. 
Slingstones, 76. 

SmiSi, Dr., on tin in Spain, 45. 
Solitary meals, 382, 458. 
Somme, alteration of course of, 310. 
„ vaUey, geological formation of, 

„ „ section of at Abbeville, 

Sounds, used by savage tribea in lan- 
guage, 457. 
Spear-heads, flint, 75. 
Spear, use of by Australians, 350. 
Spiennes, flint-finds at, 82. 
Spindle- whorls, 133. 
Squier and Davis, contents of tumuli of 
the Mississippi val- 
ley, 134. 
„ contents of sacrificial 

mounds, 217. 
„ date of ancient monu- 

ments in valley of 
„ defensive enclosures 

in Ohio, 207. 
„ inability of modem 

Indian tribes to 
erect earthworks, 
„ pipes in North Ame- 

rican tumuli, 206. 
„ on Boumeville en- 

closure, Ohio, 207. 
f, on North American 

pottery, 204. 





Squier and Davis on sacred enclosnres, 
„ on sacrificial monndB 

in North America, 
, use of lead by North 

American tribes, 
Squier, bnildings of Floridians and the 
southern tribes of North America, 
Stag, bones of in pile-dwellings, and 

quaternary deposits, 282, note. 
Staigue fort, Kerry, 60, 493. 
Steenstmp, animal remains in Danish 
shell-mounds, 180. 
„ contemporaneity of Kjok- 
kenmoddings and Stone 
age tumuli, 193. 
„ domestic hog of ancient 

Europe, 182. 
„ flint axes, probable use of, 

„ flint implements from Ejok- 
kenmoddings and tumuli, 
„ fracture of skulls of rumi- 
nant found in ancient 
deposits, 333. 
„ mammalian remains in 

shell-mounds, 181. 
„ mutilated bones in shell- 
mounds, 183. 
„ shell-mounds, 172. 
Stone age, 60. 

„ brachycephalic forms of 

skulls of, 116. 
„ different stages of civiliza- 
tion in, 60, 445. 
domestic animals of, 114. 
fabrics of, 137. 
interments, 99. 
pottery of, 135. 
„ ornamentation of, 
„ sources of our knowledge 

of, 63. 
„ subdivisions of by "Worsaae, 

„ Wright on, 61. 
Stone circles, 85. 

„ glass drilled by, 253. 

„ hammers, use of by Australians, 

„ implements in Danish museums, 

60, 61. 
,, „ in Dublin, mineral- 

ogical character 
of, 63. 



Stone implements in museum of Royal 
Irish Academy, 
,, „ Wright on localities 

wnere found, 35. 
„ „ use of by Esqui- 

maux, 406. 
„ monuments, Scripture reference 
to, 68. 
Stonehenge, 50. 

„ character of tumuli near, 

Strabo, voyages of Pytheas, 39. 
Stukely, Aoury and Stonehenge, 53, 56. 
Sufferings incident to savage life, 484. 
Sus scrofa palustris, 145, 147. 
Swiss lake-dwellings, fauna of, 140. 

„ „ flora of, 155. 

Switzerland, lake-habitations of, 119. 
„ lake -habitations of, au- 

thoritiesy 124. 


Tahiti, 372. 
„ character of inhabitants, 387. 
„ tumulus in, 110, 385. 
TflLhitians, burial customs of, 384. 

„ canoes of, 378. 

„ clothing of, 376. 

„ distortion of skull by, 384. 

„ domestic animals of, 379. 

„ fish-hooks of, 374. 

„ food of, 380. 

„ houses of, 377. 

„ - ignorance of pottery, 378. 

„ manufacture of bark cloth, 

„ musical instruments of, 378. 

„ peculiar custom of, 388. 

„ practice of infanticide by, 389 

„ religious notions of, 386. 

„ social customs of, 387< 

„ tattooing by, 377. ^ 

„ tools of, 372. ^ 

„ weapons of, 379. 
Tasmanians, 354. 

, , manners and customs of, 354 

„ Eev. T. Dove on moral con- 

dition of, 465. 
Tattooing practised by Andaman Island- 
ers, 345. 

„ „ Esquimaux, 408. 

„ „ Feegeeans, 360. 

„ „ Maories, 367. 

„ „ Tahitians, 377. 

Taylor on animal mounds, 222. 
Teeth used as amulets, 80. 
Temple mounds, 220. 




Temples of Feegeeans, 357. 
Thonbjerg, metal implements and coins 

from, 10. 
Thole, island of, 41. 
Thunberg, customs of Hottentots, 339. 
Thnmam, long barrow in Wiltshire, 107 
Tiefenau, metol instruments from, 4, 7, 

Tierra del Fuego, Darwin on inhabitants 
of; 189. 
„ inhabitants of, 432. 

„ manners and customs 

of, 432, 434. 

„ women of, 433. 

"Tilhug^ersteens," 76. 

Tini^re, deposits of, 316. 

„ „ antiquities 


Tin, in Spain, 45. 
„ Phoenician commerce in, 36, 46. 
„ where found, 36, 45. 
Toumal and Christol, association of 

man and extinct animals, 257. 
Torquemada, manufacture of flint im- 
plements in Mexico, 78. 
Tradition, small yalue of, 335. 
Traffic, ignorance of, by Australians,353 
Trogontherium palseospalax, remains of, 

associated with eaye-bear, 238. 

Troyon, M., incineration of dead in 

Switzerland during 

Bronze age, 161. 

„ inhabitants of Switzerltm^ ' 

in Bronze age, 16^»^ 

„ manufacture of stopeaxes, 

132. ^^y^^ 

„ ornamentati(m of pottery 

in Bronze age, 160. 
„ on piles of Stone and 

Bronze age, 138. 
„ population of pile-dwell- 

W 125, 281. 
Tschutsld, winter nabitations o^ 88. 
Tmnuli, 83. 
4i^„ association of implements of 
bronze and stone in, 62. 
„ abundant in Denmark, 171. 
„ Bateman, scripture reference 

to, 86. 
„ „ on British, 91. 

„ chambered,rarity of in "Western 

Europe, 91. 
„ classical references to, 86. 
„ in Otaheite, 110, 385. 
„ in Southern States of America, 

contents of, 215. 
„ models of implements in, 98. 
„ remains of horse in, 114. 
„ rude flint implements in, 195. 

Tumuli, teeth of oxen in, 115. 
Tumulus at Goldhayn, 88. 

„ in the island of Mden, 104. 
„ „ pottery in, 

„ „ skeletons in, 

,, ,, yarious im- 

in, 104. 
Turanian race in Europe, 116. 
Tylor, Anahuac cited, 78. 

„ Early History of Mankind cited, 
Tyndall on Glaciers, 297. 


Umiak, 405. 

Unity of human race, 476. 
Upper-level gravels, Boucher de Per- 
thes on, 300. 
„ „ M. 0. D'Orbigny 

on, 300. 
Upper pliocene beds, marked bones 

from, 332. 
Ursus spelaeus, 237. 
Urus, 242. 
„ geographical distribution of, 242. 
„ mentioned by Csssar, 243. 
„ mentioned in Niebelungen Lied, 
Utica, foundation o^ 43. 

Valand, myth of, 39. 
Yeddahs, 40, 343. 

„ absence of religion amongst, 

„ domestic customs of, 344. 

„ houses of, 343. 

„ hunting buffalos o^ 340, 344. 

„ weapons of, 343. 
Virtue, ideas of different, 458. 


Wace, cited, 51. 

Wallace, burial customs of some Bra- 
zilian tribes, 455. 
„ the theory of natural selection 
applied to man, 478. 
Wampum, 227. 

Wangen, flint implements from, 131. 
„ ornamented pottery from, 136, 
„ pile-dweUing at, 125, 129, 

„ rude fabrics from, 137. 




Wang^n, yarions articles from, 163. 
Water, transporting power of, 302. 
Wanwyl, lake-habitations at, 127, 129, 
„ lake-habitations, animal re- 
mains from, 141, 143, 166. 
ff lake-habitations, implements 
found at, 131, 133, 135,163. 
Wayland Smith, myth of, 39. 
Weald, denudation of, 328. 
Weapons of Andaman Islanders, 345. 
„ Australians, 350. 

„ Esquimaux, 402. 

„ Feegeeans, 356. 

„ Fuegians, 432. 

„ Hottentots, 340. 

„ Haories, 368. 

,, North American IndianSi 

„ Patagonians, 430. 

„ Paraguay Indians, 426. 

„ Tahitians, 379. 

„ Yeddahs, 343. 

"Weissgrund," 130. 
West Kennet, tumulus near, 107. 
Wheat found in pile-dwellings, 153. 
Whitburn, on flint implements from 

Godalming, 272. 
Wilde, Sir W. R., classification of 
arrow-heads, 77. 
„ scarcity of copper 

implements in 
Ireland, 32. 
„ stone implements 

in museum of 
Royal Irish 
Academy, 63. 
Wilkes, Capt., account of an Australian 
funeral, 353. 
„ practices of the Fee- 

geeans, 361. 
Wiltshire, ancient burials in, Sir R. C. 
Hoare on, 92, 101. 
„ tumulus in, described by 
Thumam, 107. 
WiUiams, agriculture of Feegeeans, 358. 
„ on - Feegee Islanders, 356, 
357, 359, 361, 363. 
Wilson, antiqui^ of Mississippi valley 
remains, 231. 
„ belief in a future state by an- 
cient Britons, 92. 

Wilson on chambered tumuli, 90. 
„ on Dighton rock, 226. 
„ on Eumbecephalic skulls, 90. 
„ on Modem use of Orkney cir- 
cles, 56. 
„ on Ornamentation of North 

American pottery, 205. 
„ position of ditch a distinguish- 
ing characteristic of enclo- 
sures, 209. 
„ sacrificial mounds in North 
America, 217. 
Wisconsin, Lapham on ancient remains 
in, 198. 
„ „ forests in, 229. 

Witchcraft, belief in by savages, 470. 
Wokey Hole, 265. 

„ „ remains found in, 265. 

Women of Tierra del Fuego, 433. 
„ social position or in savage 
tribes, 460. 
Worsaae, characters of Bronze and 
Stone age tumuli, 99. 
„ early inhabitants of Den- 

mark, 117. 
„ flint implements in shell- 

mounds, 193. 
„ limited use of early imple- 

ments, 442. 
„ subdivisions of Stone age, 

Wright on localities in which stone and 
bronze implements have been 
found, as evidence of their 
antiquity, 35. 
„ on Roman and Saxon remains, 

„ on Stone age, 61. 
„ similarity of bronze implements 
from different countries, 
33. * 
Wummera, use of by Australians, 351. 

Young ice, 41. 
Yurt, Siberian, 88. 


Zostera marina in shell-moimds, 179. 


/«^, ISM. 






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